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The design in establishing this Periodical, was expressed in the Pros- 
pectus to the work, viz : " to promote the interests of Education, Liter-' 
ature and Religion. Its articles will relate to Education in Common 
Schools, Academies, Colleges, and Professional Institutions, especially 
Theological Seminaries; to Biography, statistics of Churches, Ministers, 
Lawyers and Physicians ; to religion generally — biblical literature, the- 
ology, the Church, the Christian Ministry, benevolent enterprises of the 
day, personal piety, and the spiritual improvement of the rising genera- 
tion." t. #t * • 

This design we have endeavored to accomplishes odr ability and time 
would allow. How far we have succeeded in our efforts, the public can 
judge. , ,f. 

Though the first three numbers ywere published in the name of the 
Faculty of Gilmanton Theological Seminary, yet the labor of preparing 
them devolved, principally, on the present Editor, on whom, it has been 
thought best, that the pecuniary and editorial responsibilities should 
wholly rest. It will, therefore, go forth only in his name. The other 
Gentlemen, with whom he has been associated, will still afford the assis- 
tance they may be able to render. 

In the second volume, we propose to devote more space than we did 
in the first volume, to the statistics of Ministers and churches, the offi- 
cers of Courts, Attorneys, Physicians, and Graduates of Dartmouth Col- 
lege, and to statistics generally. We have now on hand abundance of 
materials of this nature. The periodical will be peculiarly a New Hamp- 
shire work, and a store-house of facts of an authentic character, care- 
fully and properly arranged. We commend it to the public for their 
patronage, and especially to the Great Head of the church for his 

Gibnanton, June, 1846. 

VT ■ 



Page 42. Under the head of general remarks, opposite the name of Jo- 
seph Badger, add Counsellor two years. 

" 47. Against the name of George Y. Sawyer, read 1826, instead of 

" 71. Line 15, read sister, instead of daughter of Dr. Caleb Morse. 

" 132. Opposite Herman Foster, read Andover, Ms., instead of Hudson. 

" 137. At the close of the notice of Dr. Cogswell, odd, See Memoir 
of him in the Collections of the New Hampshire Historical 
Society, Vol. 5, p. 211. 

" 137 In the 13th line, speaking of Dr. Green, read 100th, instead of 
99th. . 

" 186. At the close of note on Antrim, add, Rev. Mr. Whiton is au- 
thor of a valuable History of New Hampshire, and various 
sermons and pamphlets. 




Abbott, Dr. James B.; Notice of, 270 

Address to Governor Wentworth, 207 
American Education Society. History of, 78,142 

Appropriate Inscriptions, 168 

Atkinson, Pyaieians of, 134 

Attorneys at Law in the County of Belknap, 44 

Attorneys, who have practised In Hillsborough County, 125 

Hard, Dr. Simeon J , Notice of, 216 

Bartlett, Dr. Peter, Notice of, 274 

Batcheller, Dr. James, Notice of, 218 

Bell, Gov. Samuel, Sketch of, 204 

Bell, Samuel D., on Juridical Statistics of Hillsborough County, 12*2 

Biographical Notices of Physicians in Gilmanion, 65 

Biographical Notices of Physicians in Mouhouburough, 72 

Biographical Notices of Physicians in Stoddard, 134 

Biographical Notices of Physicians in Atkinson, 134 

Biographical Notices of Physicians in Plaistow, 138 

Biographical Notices of Physicians in Hillsborough, 215 

Biographical Notices of Physicians in Marlborough, 217 

Biographical Notices of Physicians in Sanborn ton, 271 

Biographical Notices of Physicians in Nelson, 277 

Biographical Notice of the Earl of Dartmouth, ]04 

Bird, Prof., on Sacred Literature, 24 

Breed, Dr. N., Notice of, 277 

Brief View of German Universities, 222 

Burn ham, Dr. A. C„ Notice of, 217 

Burnham, Rev. Abraham, on Sovereignty of God, 230 

Burton, Rev. Dr. Asa's Outline of a Course of Theological Study, 141 
Butterfield, William, Esq., on Juridical and other Statistics of 

Belknap County., 30 

Carr, Dr. John, Notice of, 274 

Carter, Dr. David, Notice of, 217 

Characteristics of a good Minister, 44 

Chickering, Dr., Notice of, 272 

Chase, lion. Dudley, Sketch of, 213 
Claims of the Gospel upon Young Men, 73, 114 

Clark, Dr. A. T., Notice of, 273 

Clerks of the Courts for Belknap County, 41 

Clerks of the Superior Court for Hillsborough County, 124 

Clerks of the Court of Common Pleas in Hillsborough County, 124 

Clerksof the Courts of Sesssions for Hillsborough County, 124 

Cogswell, Dr. William, Notice of, 136 

Colby, Dr., Notice of, 273 

Collegiate Education in New England, 79 
Congregational Ministers in the County of Belknap, by Rev. D. Lancaster, 55 

County Treasurers for Belknap County, 43 

Course of Study in Gilmanton Theological Seminary, 77 

Crain, Dr. Joshua, Notice of, 215 

Crockett, Dr. E., Notice of, 273 

Crosby, Dr. Asa, Notice of, 68 

Crosby, Dr. Dixi, Notice of, 70 



Dana, Rev. Dr. Daniel, Thoughts on Pulpit Eloquence, 

Dissenting Academies of Great Britain flu the education of young Ministers, 

Dunbar, Dr*. G. 1\, Notice of, 

Durgin, Dr. O. E., Notice of, 

Earl of Dartmouth, Biographical Notice of, 

Early Histories of American Geographies, 

Eddy, Dr. Ward, Notice of, 

Facts respecting University Education in England, 

Fisher, Dr. Hervey's Notices of Physicians in Stoddard, 

Fisher, Dr. Hervey, Notice of, 

Fleman, Dr. Josiah, Nutice of, 

Foster, Dr. Nahurn P., Notice of, 

Foster, Dr. S >5 Notice of, 

Foster, Hon. Abiel, Memoir of, 

Freeman, Rev. Charles' Sketch of Presbyter ianisni, 

French, Dr. Otis, Notice of, 

Frisbie, Rev. Levi, Sketch of, 

Frisbie, Rev. Levi's Address to Governor Wentworth, 

Frost, Dr. E. K., Notice of, 

Geographies. History of, 

Gerrish, Dr. Samuel, Notice of, 

Gilbert, Hun. Sylvester, Sketch of, 

Gilmanton Theological Seminary, Anniversar> ot\ 


Goodell, Dr. Simon, Notice of, 

Gould, Dr. Joseph, Notice of, 

Gray, Samuel, Sketch of, 

Hale, Sir Matthew's Resolutions, 

Hale, Dr., Notice of, 

Harper, Dr. Joseph IY1., Notice of, 

Harris, Dr. Mark, Notice of, 

Hatch, Dr. Reuben, Notice oi\ 

Hatch, Dr. Mason, Notice of, 

Hatch, Dr. Elisha, Notice of, 

Hidden, Rev. Ephrairh N., on Holiness of heart, &c, 

Hill, Dr. Jonathan, Notice of, 

Hill, Dr. Thomas P., Notice of, 

Historical Sketch of Presbyterianism in Maine and New England, 

by Rev. Charles Freeman, 
History of the American Education Society, 78, 

History of School Books in New England, 
Holiness of heart, essential to a right understanding of the Bible, 

by Rev. E. N. Hidden, 
Hovey, Dr. Isaac Burnham, Notice of, 
Hubbard, Dr. Calvin, Notice of, 
Inquiry into the Meaning of Romans vii : 14 — 25, by Rev. Isaac 

Robinson, ' 153, 

Jacobs, Dr. Daniel, Notice of, l>7 

Judges of Probate for Belknap County, 

Judges of the Inferior Court of Common Pleas of Hillsborough County, 
Judges of Probate for Hillsborough County, 

Juridical and other Statistics of Belknap County, by Wm. Butterfield, Esq. 
Juridical and other Statistics of Hillsborough County, by S. D. Bell, Esq., 
Justices of the Court for Belknap County, 
Justices of the Court of Sessions for Hillsborough County, 



2/ •> 





21 G 









, 36 




Kelly, Dr. Nathaniel Knight, Notice of 138 

KeUy, Dr. Benjamin, Notice of, 67 

Knight, Dr. Jonathan, Notice of, 134 

Ladd, Dr. N. G., Notice of, 276 

Lancaster, Rev.D., List of Ministers in Belknap County, 55 

Little, Dr. William, Notice of, 215 

Loveland, Dr. Asher, Notice of, 134 

Mann, Rev. Cyrus, his Claims of the Gospel upon Young Men, 73, J 14 

March, Dr. Hugh, Notice of, 271 

Marlborough, Physicians of, 134 

Marshall, Dr. Silas, Notice of, 278 

McQueston, Dr. Calvin, Notice of, ' 276 

Meditative Spirit, by Rev. Charles Tenney> 94 

Memoir of Rev. Dr. Wheelock, 9 

Memoir of the Hon. Abiel Foster, 205 

Merrill, Dr. T. H., Notice of, 68 

Meteorological Journal of Gov. Plumer, 221 
Ministers, Congregational, of the County of Belknap, Notice by 

Rev. Daniel Lancaster, 55 

Ministers in Hillsborough County, Notice of, by Rev. J. M. Whiton, 170 

Ministers, Want of, 146 

Modern Non-Resistance, by Rev. J. M. Whiton, 242 

Morrill, Dr. E. G., Notice of, 72 

Mowe, Dr. Daniel, Notice of, 275 

Munroe, Dr. Joseph, Notice of, 215 

Newell, Dr. Oliver P., Notice of, 279 

Newell, Dr. O. P., Genealogy of, 280 

Now England Historic-Genealogical Society, 287 

Notes on Congregational Ministers and Churches in Belknap County, 56 
Notes on the Churches and Ministers of Hillsborough County, by 

Rev. J. M. Whiton, 184 
Notices of the Courts and of the Bar of the County of Hillsborough, 

by Samuel D. Bell, Esq., 122 

Notices of New Publications, 80, 151, 223, 290 

Number of Graduates at Colleges for the years 1844 and 1845, 290 

Oloott, Hon. Mills, Sketch of, 270 

Osgood, Dr. Kendall , Notice of, 1 35 

Outline of Course of Theological Study, by Rev. Dr. Burton, 141 

Page, Dr. J. C, Notice of, 71 

Parrish, Dr Obadiah, Sketch of, 6* 

Peabody, Dr. Nathaniel, Notice of, 134 

Perry, Dr. Justus, Notice of, • 217 

Phillips, Dr. B. H., Notice of, 217 

Plaistow, Physicians of, 138 

Plea forJCommon School Education, by Prof. Sanborn, 139, 169 

Plumer, Gov. William, Meteorological Journal of, 221 

Preparations for Hearing the Gospel, 252 

Prescott, Dr. William, Sketch of, 69 

Preston, Dr. Thomas, Notice of, 216 

Pride, 204 

Publications, Notices of New, SO, 151 , 223, 290 

Rand, Dr. Nehemiah, Notice of, , ' 279 

Recorders of Deeds for Belknap County, 43 

Registers of Probate for Belknap County, 43 

Registers of Probate for Hillsborough Cotmty, 123 


Registers of Deeds for Hillsborough County, 104 

Reminiscences of War, \o\ 

Ripley, Sylvanus, Rev. Prof., Sketch of, j 1 1 

Robinson, Rev. Isaac's Inquiry into the Meaning of R o>ji. \ii : 11 25 153 226 

Robinson, Dr. Abraham H., Notice of, '-JI7 

Rules of Living, , 54 

Sacred Literature, by Prof. Isaac Bird, 24 

Sanborn, Dr. Bonaiah, Notice of, 272 
Sanborn, Prof. E. D.'s Plea for Common School Education, 139, 1(5'.) 

Sawyer, Dr. Symmes, Notice of, 074 

Self-Examination in Doctrinal Piety, 49 

Sheriffs for Belknap County, 40 

Sheriffs, Deputy, for Belknap County, 41 

Sheriffs of Hillsborough County, 124 

Sherman, Dr. A., Notice of, . (,7 

Silver, Dr. James, Notice of, {j\ t 

Sir Matthew Hale's Resolutions. 263 
Sketches of Alumni of Dartmouth College r 103, 210, 264 

Skinner, Dr. Samuel, Notice of, 276 

Smith, Rev. Dr. John, Sketch of, 210 

Smith, Dr. William, Notice of, 65 

Smith, Dr. Luther, Notice of, 215 

Solicitors for Belknap County, 4 1 

Solicitors for the County of Hillsborough, 124 

Sovereignty of God, by Rev. A. Burnham, 236 

Statistics, 24.S 

Statistics of the Senate of New Hampshire, for the year 1845 — 6; 4;? 
Statistical Account of the Congregational and Presbyterian Ministers 

in Hillsborough County, by Rev. John M. Whiton, 179 

Stearns, Dr. Benjamin, Notice of, 215 

Sweatt, Dr., Notice of, 274 

Tebbetts, Dr. Nathan C, Sketch of, 71 

Tenney,Rev. Charles, on the Meditative Spirit, 04 

Thoughts on Pulpit Eloquence, by Rev. Daniel Dana, D. D., 249 

Thoughts on Mental and Moral Science, 281 

Three Methods of Divine Teaching, by Rev. Leonard Woods, D. D., 81 

Tibbetts, Dr. C . C, Notice of, 277 

Treasurers for the County of Belknap, 49 

Treasurers for the County of Hillsborough, 124f 

Upham, Hon. Nathaniel, Account of his Ancestors, 223 

Vose, Hon. John, Sketch of, 208 

Wallace, Dr. Thomas, Notice of, 137 

Want of Ministers, 146 

Webster, Dr. Thomas, Notice of, 274 

Wentworth, Governor, Address to, 207 

Wheelock, Rev. Dr. Eleazar, Memoir of, 9 

Wheelock, Hon. John, Sketch of, 112 

Whitcomb, Mr. W. C.'s Notices of Physicians in Marlborough. 172 
Whiton, Rev. John M.'s Account of Ministers in Hillsborough County, 172 

" " Modern Non- Resistance, 207 

Wight, Dr. Nahum, Notice of, 71 

Williams, Dr. J. F., Notice of, 0t> 

Williams, Dr. Jacob, Notice of, 70 

Wilson, Dr. E. F., Notice of, 277 

Woods, Rev. Dr., Three Methods of Divine'Teaching by 81 

Worcester, Dr. Nathaniel, Notice of, 134 



Vol. I. OCTOBER, 1845. No. 1. 



Rev. Dr. Eleazar Wheelock was born in Windham, Ct. 
May, 1711. His greatgrandfather, the Rev. Ralph Wheelock 
was born in Shrophshire, England, in the year 1600, and was ed- 
ucated at Clare Hall in Cambridge University. He entered the 
Christian Ministry and became an eminent preacher of the gospel, 
and, for non-conformity to the established religion, he with thou- 
sands of pious people suffered persecution. To enjoy liberty of 
conscience, he came to* New England, in 1637. He settled in 
the town of Dedham, Ms. and was one of the original members of 
the First Chinch in that place, which was the fourteenth embod- 
ied in this country, and was formed, Nov. 8th, 1638, consisting 
of eight persons. He removed to Medfield which was taken 
from Dedham, and became one of its principal proprietors. In 
this place and also in the adjoining settlements, he occasionally 
preached, but declined taking charge of any particular church. 
He represented the town in the legislature for several years, and 
at the age of 83, he died universally respected and beloved. 

Captain Eleazar Wheelock, the grandfather of the Doctor, 
born in 1654, removed from Medfield to Mendon. He sustained 
the character of a soldier as well as of a" Christian. During 
the war with the Indians, he commanded successfully a company 


Memoir of 

of cavalry, and his house was converted into a garrison, to which 
the white inhabitants in the vicinity resorted for safety. In times 
of peace, he treated the Indians with friendship and humanity, 
and was highly respected by them. He died, March 24th, 
1731, aged 77 years. 

The father of Dr. Wheelock wasDea. Ralph Wheelock, who 
was born in 1683, and settled in Windham, Ct. where he pur- 
sued the occupation of a farmer, and died, Oct. 15th, 1748, aged 
66 years. His mother was Ruth Huntington, daughter of Mr. 
Christopher Huntington of Norwich. He was an only son. X)f 
his five sisters, one married the Rev. Dr. Pomeroy of Hebron ; 
his half-sister Mary, whose mother was Mercy Standish of Pres- 
ton, married Jabez Bingham of Salisbury, and was the grand- 
mother of the Rev. Dr. Kirkland, president of Harvard College. 
Exhibiting in early life an amiable disposition, a lively genius, 
and a taste for learning, Dr. Wheelock was placed by his father 
under the best instructors, that could then be obtained. His 
grandfather, for whom he was named, left a legacy, for defraying 
the expenses of his public education. At the age of 16 or 17, 
while qualifying himself for College, it pleased God by the in- 
fluences of his'Spirit to impress his mind with a concern for his 
salvation, and to cause him to rejoice in the hope of having ex- 
perienced the religion of Christ. This event proved the anima- 
ting spring of his exertions to qualify himself for usefulness, and 
of his abundant labors to promote the best interests of mankind. 
He entered upon his collegiate course, with a determination to 
^devote himself to the work of the Christian ministry. He was 
educated at Yale College under the direction of Rector Wil- 
liams, (the President being then styled Rector,) who was a gen- 
tleman of eminent wisdom, learning and piety. His proficiency 
in study and his exemplary deportment, secured the notice and 
esteem of his Instructors and the love of his fellow students. 
The premium, instituted by Dean Berkeley, to be awarded to the 
best classical scholars of the senior class, was given to him and 

President Wheelock. • 11 

to . Mr. Pomeroy, (afterwards his brother-in-law,) the late Rev. 
Dr. Pomeroy bf Hebron. He graduated in 1733, and in March, 
1735 was ordained as a minister of the Second or North society 
in Lebanon, called Lebanon Crank, now the town of Columbia, 
where he labored faithfully in the vineyard of his Lord about 35 

In furnishing some account of Dr. Wheelock as a minister of 
Christ, we shall make large extracts from a memoir of him, pre- 
pared by the Rev. Dr. Allen, late President of Bowdoin College. 
and published in the American Quarterly Register. In 1735, 
soon after his settlement, by his faithful and earnest labors great ef- 
fects were produced among his people at Lebanon. It pleased 
God to send down his Spirit to bring the gospel to the hearts of 
sinners j and the same work of divine mercy and love was accom- 
plished, which, about the same time, was experienced at North- 
ampton under the ministry of Jonathan Edwards, and in other 
towns of Hampshire county, Massachusetts, as well as at Cov- 
entry, Durham, Mansfield, East Windsor, Tolland, Bolton, He- 
bron, Norwich, Groton and other towns in Connecticut. In 
some of these towns, there was an impression of deep seriousness 
made upon the minds- of almost all the people, and in some places 
it was supposed, that as many as twenty or thirty persons were 
converted in one week. In 1740, and in subsequent years, in 
consequence of the labors of Mr. Whitefield and others, this re- 
vival of religion became more general. 

Dr. Wheelock was at this time incessant in his labors to pro- 
mote the salvation of his fellow men. Of his character as a 
preacher, it may be interesting to read the account given by the 
Rev. Dr. Trumbull, the Historian of Connecticut, who was per- 
sonally acquainted with him : " The most zealous and laborious 
in the cause, who took the most pains and spent the most prop- 
erty in the service of their Master, were the Rev. Messrs. Jede- 
diah Mills, Benjamin Pomeroy, Eleazar Wheelock, and Joseph 
Bellamy. They were not only abundant in labors among their 

12 Memoir of 

• own people, and in neighboring towns and societies, but they 
preached m all parts of the colony, where their brethren would 
admit them, and in many places in Massachusetts, and the other 
colonies. — Mr., afterwards Doctor and President Wheelock was 
a gentleman of a comely figure, of a mild and winning aspect ; 
his voice smooth and harmonious, the best, by far that I ever 
heard. He had the entire command of it. His gesture was 
natural, but not redundant. His preaching and address were 
close and pungent, and yet winning, beyond almost all compar- 
ison, so that his audience would be melted even to tears before 
they were aware of it." 

This is high commendation of Dr. Wheelock's eloquence, 
coming from one who speaks of Whitefield, Tennent and Bella- 
my, whom probably he had often heard ; and who thus repre- 
sented Dr. Wheelock's voice as the best by far, he had ever heard, 
and his manner of preaching the most winning beyond almost all 

So interesting and acceptable was the preaching of Dr. 
Wheelock and so fervent was his zeal, that in one year "he 
preached a hundred more sermons than there are days in the 
year." The following letter will show the estimation, in which 
he was held, at the age of twenty-nine, by that great man Jona- 
than Edwards, who was eight or ten years older. It is dated 
Northampton, Oct. 9th, 1740. 

"Rev. and dear Sir, — I congratulate you, and would bless 
God for the success, which he has lately given to your labors, 
which you mention, and for the many joyful things, we have 
lately heard concerning the city of our God. I think that those, 
that make mention of the Lord should be awakened, and en- 
couraged to call upon God, and not keep silence, nor give him 
any rest, till he establish, and till he make Jerusalem a praise 
in the earth ; and particularly should be earnest with God, that 
he would still uphold and succeed the Rev. Mr. Whitefield, the 
instrument that it has pleased him to improve to do such great 

President WheelocTc. 13 

things for the honor of his name, and at all times so to guide and 
direct him untler his extraordinary circumstances, that Satan may 
not get any advantage. 

" I thank you for your concern for my aged father under his 
troubles, and the pains you have occasionally taken with some 
of his people in his behalf, and also for your kind wishes for me 
and for the success of my ministry. We need the prayers of 
all that are favored with God's presence and the lively influen- 
ces of his Spirit. It is a sorrowfully dull and dead time with 
us. The temporal affairs of this town are and have been for 
some years most unhappily situated to be a snare to us, and I 
know not where to look for help but to God. O, dear Sir ! earn- 
estly pray for us. And I desire, that now, while God smiles up- 
on you, and it is a day of his special favor towards you, that you 
would pray earnestly for me, that I may be filled with the divine 
Spirit, and that God would improve me, though utterly unwor- 
thy, as an instrument of glory to his name, and of good to the 
souls of men, and particularly, that he would bless Mr. White- 
field's coming here for good to my soul, and the souls of my peo- 
ple. That God would more and more bless and succeed you, 
and make you more and more a burning and shining light, is the 
sincere desire and prayer of your unworthy brother and fellow 
laborer, Jonathan Edwards." 

In another letter to Dr. Wheelock, dated June 9th, 1741, Mr. 
Edwards requests him to go and preach at Scantic or East Wind- 
sor, to his father's society, of whom he says, "they are wholly 
dead in this extraordinary day of God's gracious visitation." He 
then adds, "Another thing that I desire of you, is, that you would 
come up hither and help us, both you and Mr. Pomeroy. There 
has been a revival of religion amongst us of late ; but your la- 
bors have been much more remarkably blessed than mine ; other 
ministers as I have heard, have shut their pulpits against you ; 
but here, I engage, you shall find one open. May God send 
you here with a like blessing, as he lias sent you to other places ; 

14 Memoir of 

and may your coming be a means of humbling me for my bar- 
renness and unprofitableness, and a means of my instruction and 
enlivening. I want an opportunity to concert measures with 
you for the advancement of the kingdom and glory of our Re- 

A short extract from a letter of Mr. Edwards's father to Dr. 
Wheelock, dated Aug. 26th, 1741, will tend still further to illus- 
trate Dr. Wheelock's character and labors : " Religion hath been 
very much revived and has greatly flourished among us, since 
you were here. I have propounded sixty-four persons to full 
communion, many of whom have already been taken in ; and 
with them that I expect will be propounded the next Sabbath, 
with others that have been with me, and some that have not yet 
been with me, there are about seventy, that very lately, viz. in 
about five or six weeks' time, have been savingly converted in 
this society, and still there is a great stir among us respecting 
men's eternal concerns. We have all great reason to bless God 
for your repeated labors of love of late as a minister of Christ 

Your affectionate and obliged brother and servant in 

Jesus Christ, Timothy Edwards." 

"These letters, addressed to a young minister, who had been 
but four or five years in the ministry, by President Edwards, the 
most profound of theologians, and the most pious and faithful of 
ministers, and by his aged and venerable father, prove, that Dr. 
Wheelock was regarded by those who knew him, as very emi- 
nent for piety and for power as a preacher of the gospel, and 
show how greatly a sovereign God was pleased to bless his labors 
even in an unpromising field." 

The following extract from a private journal of Dr. Whee- 
lock will illustrate in some degree the state of religion at that 
period, and his popularity as a preacher. It is dated about a 
year after Mr. Whitefield's first visit to New England, which was 
in September, 1740. 

President Wheelock. '* 15 

• "Nov. 5. Came to Mr. Niles's of Braintree. Preached with 
gceat freedom, 2 Cor. xiii. 5. Present Messrs. Eells and Han- 
cock ; Mr. Worcester in the evening. 

"Nov. 6. Set out for Boston. Met by dear Mr. Prince and 
Mr. Bromfield, about eight miles from Boston. Came in to Mr. 
Bromfield's ; received in a most kind and Christian manner by 
him, madam and his family — a dear christian family, full of 
kindness, love and goodness; the names of his family, Edward 
and Abigail ; their children, Edward, Abigail, Henry, Sarah, 
Thomas, Mary, Eliza, Samuel. His eldest son is now in his 
last year at Cambridge College ; I believe a really converted 
person. Soon after my arrival, came the Hon. Joseph Willard, 
Secretary, Rev. Mr. Webb and Mr. Cooper, and Major Sewall, 
to bid me welcome to Boston. At six o'clock, rode with Mr. 
Bromfield in his chaise to the north end of the town, and preach- 
ed for Mr. Webb to a great assembly, 2 Cor. xiii. 5. After 
sermon returned to dear Mr. Webb's ; pleased with the conver- 
sation of dear Mr. Gee. 

"Nov. 7. Rose and prayed with Mr. Rogers. At 10 rode 
with Mr. Bromfield to Mr. Webb's, preached, Hosea xiii. 13, to 
a full assembly. Returned and was invited by Dr. Coleman and 
Mr. Cooper to preach for Dr. Coleman in the forenoon of the 
next day, being the Sabbath, and by Mr. Prince and Dr. Sewall 
in the afternoon. Preached at the workhouse, Ez. xxii. 14. 

"Nov. 8. Went to Dr. Coleman's meeting, preached with 
considerable freedom, Job xxvii. 8. Dined with the Dr. Went 
with Mr. Rogers to Mr. Prince's. Preached Mark xvi. 16, to a 
full assembly. After meeting, was followed by a throng of chil- 
dren, who importunately desired me to give them a word of ex- 
hortation in a private house, which I consented to do, though 1 
designed to go and hear Mr. Prince, who, being by, desired that 
I would have it public, which I consented to after 6. We met 
again. Preached, Matt. vi. 33, to a very full assembly. Rode 
with Mr. Bromfield in a close chaise ; followed to his house after 


Memoir of 

me a great many children to receive a word of exhortation at 
the gate^which I could not stand long to do, being very wet. 

"Nov. 9. Visited this morning by a great number of persons 
under soul trouble. Refused to preach, because I designed to 
go out of town. Discoursed with Mr. Brornfield's dear children; 
took my leave by prayer, recommending them and one another 
to the Lord. Just as I was going, came Mr. Webb, and told me 
the people were meeting together to hear another sermon. I 
consented to preach again. A scholar from Cambridge, hast- 
ened to Cambridge, and by a little after 6 a great part of the 
scholars had got to Boston, Preached to a very thronged as- 
sembly ; many more than could get into the house, Ps. xxxiv. 
8, with very great freedom and enlargement. I believe the 
children of God were very much refreshed. They told me af- 
terwards, they believed, that Mather Byles was never so lashed 
in his life. This morning Mr. Cooper came to me in the name 
of the Hon. Jacob Wendell, Esq. and earnestly desired a copy 
of my sermon, preached in the forenoon of the Lord's day, for 
the press. O that God would make and keep me humble. Ap- 
pointed to preach to-morrow for Mr. Balch of Dedham, at his 

"Nov. 10. Madam Bromfield gave me this morning a shirt, 
and pair of gold buttons, two cambric handkerchiefs, and half a 
loaf of sugar, and he a preaching Bible, in two vols. he. 

"About eight miles from Boston, met Mr. Cotton of Provi- 
dence, who came by the desire of his church to get me to come 
back that way, and informed me of some very good beginnings 
ami very hopeful appearances among his people, and the people 
of other persuasions there ; but I thought it my duty to go di- 
rectly home. He accompanied me to Mr. Batch's at Dedham. 
Preached, Mark xvi. 16. Went toMedfield. 

"Nov. 12. Being thanksgiving, preached Ps. xxxiv. 8, and in 
the evening at Medway for Mr. Bucknam. He seemed dis- 

President Wheelock. • 17 

pleased, that 1 told his people, that Christians generally knew 
the time of ttfeir conversion. 

"Nov. 14. Came to Thompson. Nov. 15. Preached three 
sermons for Mr. Cabot, one to the young people at night ; many 

"Nov. 16. Came to the Consociation at Windham, and after- 
wards went home about 1 o'clock. What shall I render to the 
Lord for all his benefits?" 

From his journal of a short preaching tour, of which the above 
are extracts, it appears that in about twenty -five days he preach- 
ed more than forty sermons, besides attending various conferen- 
ces, and giving exhortations, counsel, &c. A similar journal of 
a tour in the month of June, 1742, gives an account of his 
preaching in different towns between Lebanon and New Haven, 
and as far west as Stratford. In one week he preached ten times. 
The following is an extract : 

"June 9, 1742. Came to New Haven. 

"June 10. Went to morning prayers at College. Afterwards 
was invited to breakfast with the Rector (Mr. Clap). I went 
over ; he seemed to be very much set against the separate meet- 
ing, charged them witb great disorder ; insisted upon it, tfiat we 
ought to proceed against those we think not converted, according 
to the rule, Matt, xviii. Preached at 6 o'clock, Ps. xxxiv. 8, 
with freedom. June 12, Sabbath day. Preached three ser- 
mons, John v. 40, with two uses according to Matt. xv. 21, and 
Matt.xxii. 12. The third from Rom. ix. 22, with great power." 

With all the fervency of his zeal, Dr. Wheelock was yet dis- 
creet and wise, and set himself against the fanaticism of the 
separatists and of the lay-exhorters, who were disturbing the or- 
der of the churches. ''The doctrines which he preached, were 
those, which humble man and exalt the grace of God — the doc- 
trines of original sin, regeneration by the supernatural influences 
of the divine Spirit, justification by faith in Jesus Christ, the 
perdition of the unbelieving, and the perseverance of the right- 

18 Memoir of 

eous." Knowing the relation of a pure church to the progress of 
religion, one great object of his preaching was to expose the 
hypocrisy of false professors and bring them to repentance and 
to awaken the slumbering disciples from their torpor. Aware 
that the neglecters of the great salvation must perish, his heart 
bled for them, and with unequalled pathos and tenderness, with 
the eloquence of an inflamed heart, he urged them to accept the 
mercy, which was most freely offered them in the gospel. Under 
his preaching there were repeated revivals in his parish in 1735, 
the first year of his settlement, and down to 1769, when he re- 
moved to a new field of labor. 

After the period of revivals of religion was passed, Dr. Whee- 
lock commenced his labors as a teacher of youth, by taking a 
few scholars into his own house. He found his salary as a par- 
ish minister inadequate to the support of his family, and proba- 
bly the small profits of a school, as well as the hope of being 
useful to youth, furnished a reason for this additional labor. In 
December, 1743, he was induced to receive among the youth of 
his school Samson Occom, a Mohegan Indian, aged about 19, 
and kept him four or five years. This Indian became a preach- 
er of distinction. * Dr. Wheelock soon formed the plan of an 
Indian Missionary school. He conceived, that educated Indians 
would be more successful than white men as missionaries among 
red men, though he proposed also to educate a few English 
youth as missionaries. The project was new, for the labors of 
Sergeant and the Brainerds, as well as those of Eliot and the 
Mayhews, were the labors oC missionaries among the Indians, 
and not labors designed to form a band of Indian missionaries. 
Two Indian boys of the Delaware tribe entered the school in 
December, 1754, and others soon joined them. In 1762, he 
had more than twenty youth under his care chiefly Indians. For 
their maintenance, funds were obtained by subscription of benev- 
olent individuals, from the legislatures of Connecticut and of 
Massachusetts and from the Commissioners in Boston of the 

President TVheelock. 19 

Scotch Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge. Joshua 
Moor, a farmer in Mansfield, having, about the year 1754, made 
a donation of a house and two acres of land in Lebanon, con- 
tiguous to Dr. Wheelock's house, the institution received the 
name of "Moor's Indian Charity School." Of this school sev- 
eral gentleman were associated with Dr. Wheelock as trustees ; 
but in 1764 the Scotch Society appointed a board of correspond- 
ents in Connecticut, who in 1765, sent out white missionaries and 
Indian schoolmasters to the Indians on the Mohawk river , in 
New York. 

In 1766, Dr. Wheelock sent Mr. Occom and Rev. Nathaniel 
Whitaker to Great Britain to solicit benefactions to the school, 
that its operations might be enlarged. The success of this 
mission was great, and was owing chiefly to the labors of Mr. 
Occom. He was the first Indian preacher from America, that 
ever visited Great Britain. He preached several hundred sermons 
with great acceptance to numerous assemblies in England and 
Scotland. The king subscribed £200, and lord Dartmouth 50 
guineas. The amount of monies collected was about seven 
thousand pounds sterling in England, which was deposited with a 
board of trustees m London, of which lord Dartmouth was 
president and John Thornton,Esq. treasurer, and between two and 
three thousand pounds in Scotland, which was deposited with the 
Scotch Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge. 

As the school increased, Dr. Wheelock determined to remove 
it to a more favorable location, nearer to the Indians, and to 
establish in connection with it a college for instruction in all the 
branches of science. Efforts were made to induce Dr. Whee- 
lock to establish the college at Pittsfield, Stockbridge, and Al- 
bany ; but larger tracts of land being offered in New Hampshire, 
he concluded to transplant his school to Hanover, and there to 
establish the college, of which a royal charter, dated December 
13th, 1769, was obtained through Governor John Wentworth. 
The school was not merged iu the College, as has sometimes been 

20 Memoir of 

supposed* but it ever has been, and still is, distinct, now having a 
separate act of incorporation, obtained from the legislature of 
New Hampshire in 1807. 

In August, 1770, Dr. Wheelock took leave of his church and 
people at Lebanon, and proceeded to Hanover in order to make 
preparation in the wilderness, for the immediate reception of his 
family and his pupils. The pine trees on a few acres had been 
cut down. Without nails or glass, he built him a log cabin, 
eighteen feet square, and directed the operations of forty or fifty 
laborers, who were employed in digging a well, and in building a 
house for his family of one story, and another of two stories, 
eighty feet long, for his scholars. As his family arrived before 
these habitations were prepared, his wife and daughters lived for 
about a month in his hut, and his sons and students made them 
booths and beds of hemlock boughs. October 29th, he removed 
into his house ; and the rooms in the college were soon made 
comfortable. A school-house was also constructed. The schol- 
ars engaged with zeal in their studies, in their new abode, finding 
"the pleasure and profit of such a solitude." "But that which 
crowns all," says Dr. Wheelock in his Narrative, "is the mani- 
fest tokens of the gracious presence of God by a spirit of con- 
viction and consolation. For no sooner were outward troubles 
removed, but there were evident impressions upon the minds of 
a number of my family and school, which soon became univer- 
sal, insomuch, that scarcely one remained, who did not feel a 
greater or less degree of it, till the whole lump seemed to be 
leavened by it, and love, peace, joy, satisfaction and content- 
ment reigned through the whole. The 23rd of January, 1771, 
was kept as a day of solemn fasting and prayer, on which I 
gathered a church in this college and school, which consisted of 
twenty-seven members, on which occasion they solemnly re- 
newed their oath of allegiance to Christ, and entire devotedness 
of body and soul, and all endowments of both, without reserve, 
to God for time and eternitv." 

President Wheeloclc. 21 

, The first commencement at the college was in August, 1771, 
when four /oung men graduated. Dr. Wheelock lived to preside 
at seven succeeding commencements, and conferred the hon- 
ors of college upon seventy-two young men, of whom thirty- 
nine became ministers of the gospel. Among these were the 
Rev. Mr. Frisbie of Ipswich, Ms. the Rev. Mr. Ripley, first 
professor of theology in the college, Hon. John Wheelock, LL. 
D. the second president, the Rev. Dr. John Smith, professor 
of the ancient languages in the college, the Rev. Dr. M'Keen, 
the first president of Bowdoin College, the Rev. Samuel Tag- 
gart of Coleraine, Ms. member of Congress, Judge Gilbert of 
Hebron, Ct. member of Congress, Rev. Dr. Kellogg of Fra- 
mingham, Ms. Gen. Mattoon of Amherst, Ms. member of Con- 
gress, Judge Sherburne of Portsmouth, member of Congress, the 
Rev. Dr. Burton of Thetford, Vt. and Hon. Elijah Brigham, 
member of Congress from Massachusetts. Of these only Judge 
Gilbert survives. 

In establishing and sustaining the school and college, Dr. 
Wheelock's labors were very great. In both he was a teacher ; 
of both he was chief governor. He had houses to build, mills to 
erect, and lands (o clear and cultivate. He was also the 
preacher of the college and the village. He felt the full bur- 
den of his multiplied cares, and, in his private journal of 1777, 
he writes, that, being " on the verge of the grave, he was op- 
pressed with a weight of cares of many kinds, enough for an 
angel." Under these he gradually declined till January 1779, 
when he was seized with the epilepsy. From this he never re- 
covered. He died on Saturday, April 24', 1779, in the 68th 
year of his age, in the triumphs of faith. His immortal spirit 
then fled, leaving impressed on the countenance of him who 
slept in Jesus, a smile of peace. His last act was an act of 
prayer, before uttering his final words, " Oh, my family, be faith- 
ful unto death." 

Dr. Wheelock was "of a middle stature and size, well pro- 


Memoir of 

portioned, erect and dignified. His features were prominent J 
his eyes,* light blue and animated. His complexion was fair, 
and the general expression of his countenance, pleasing and 
handsome. His voice was remarkably full, harmonious, and 
commanding." His temper was pleasant and cheerful, and he 
manifested much urbanity in his deportment. He used to say, 
that he abhorred that religious profession, '-which was not mark- 
ed with good manners." For enlarged views, untiring ener- 
gy, persevering and arduous toils, and great results of labors in 
the cause of religion and learning, perhaps no man in America 
is more worthy of being held in honor than he. 

Dr. Wheelock was twice married. His first wife was Mrs. 
Sarah Maltby, widow of Captain William Maltby of New Ha- 
ven, and daughter of the Rev. John Davenport of Stamford, 
Ct. She died at Lebanon, Nov. 13, 1746, aged 43. One of 
her daughters, Ruth, married the Rev. William Patten of Hart- 
ford. His second wife was Miss Mary Brinsmead of Milford, 
Ct. By her he had five children — Mary, who married Bezaleel 
Woodward, first professor of mathematics in Dartmouth College; 
Abigail, who married Sylvanus Ripley, first professor of theolo- 
gy in Dartmouth. College ; John Wheelock, LL. D. the suc- 
cessor of his father, and president thirty six years ; Col. 
Eleazar Wheelock, and James Wheelock, Esq. His descend- 
ants have lived in different States of the Union from Maine to 
Louisiana. His grandson, Gen. Eleazar Wheelock Ripley, dis- 
tinguished in the war of 1812, was elected a member of Con- 
gress from Louisiana ; another grandson was the Rev. William 
Patten, D. D. late of Newport, R. I. One of his grand daugh- 
ters married Hon. Judah Dana, late Senator of the United States 
from Maine; another married Rev. William Allen, D. D. late 
president of Bowdoin College ; and another married the late 
Rev. James Marsh, D. D. president of Vermont University. 

Dr. Wheelock published a Narrative of the Indian Charity 
School at Lebanon, in 1762 ; A Sermon at the ordination of 

President Wheelock. 23 

Rev. Charles J. Smith in 1763 ; Narratives in several numbers 
from 1763to*1771; Continuation of Narratives from 1773 to 
1775, to which is added an abstract of a mission to the Dela- 
ware Indians west of the Ohio, by Messrs. M'Clure and Fris- 
bie ; A Sermon on Liberty of Conscience ; or no King but 
Christ in his Church, in 1775. — A memoir of Dr. Wheelock, 
by Drs. M'Clure and Parish with extracts from his correspon- 
dence, and also a Memoir of him by President Allen, have been 
published. To the above publications we are indebted for the 
facts, and much of the language, used in this Biographical Notice. 
In the College Burial Ground, under a plain white slab of 
marble, resting on an elevated base of brick masonry, repose the 
mortal remains of Dr. Wheelock. The inscription on the slab 
is as follows : 

Hie quiescit corpus 


S. T. D. 

Academiae Moorensis, et Collegii Dartmuthensis, 

Fundatoris, et primi Praesidis. 

Evangelio barbaros indomuit ; 

Et excultis nova scientiae patefecit. 


I, et imitare, 

Si poteris, 

Tanta meritorum premia laturus. 

MDCCX natus ; MDCCLXXIX obiit. 

Here rests the body 



Founder and first President 


Dartmouth College 

Moor's Charity School. 

24 Sacred 

By^the gospel, be subdued the ferocity of the savage ; 

And to the civilized, be opened new paths of science. 


Go, if you can, and deserve 

The sublime rewards of such merit. 

He was born in the year 1710; and died 1779. 

Pietate filii Jobannis Wbeelock, 

Hoc monumentum constitutum, inscriptumque fuit 


By rrof. Isaac Bird. 

Sacred or Biblical Literature, considered as a science, directs 
inquiry first and chief of all, to the original language of the 
Scriptures, and secondly and subordinately to those other wri- 
tings and branches of knowledge bij which the scriptures may be 
illustrated. Its object is to put the inquirer in undoubted pos- 
session of the mind of the Spirit, so far as the divine writings, 
fully understood, can convey it — to make the Christian student 
" mighty in the scriptures" — to bring the pure light of " the 
word" to bear upon the human soul unadulterated by foreign ad- 
mixtures, and unobscured by the mists of wrong or doubtful 

In regard to the use of the Original Languages of the Bible, 
the questions are very often and very naturally suggested, Have 
we not lived long and happily with our present copies of the 

*This Article is an Abstract of the Address of Prof. Bird, delivered at his in- 
auguration asTiofcasor of Sacred Literature in Gilmanton Theological Semi- 


Scriptures ? Have not some of our ministers, who have used no 
other than their mother tongue, been among the most honored 
and successful of their profession ? Do not the whole company 
of Biblical critics bear testimony to our English Bible as a re- 
markably faithful and literal representation of the original ? And 
have not our various sects and denominations, in spite of the late 
increase of Greek and Hebrew knowledge, not only continued, 
but increased in number? All these things may be true. We 
have, indeed, lived happily, compared with heathens and papists, 
who have no Bible. But have we lived as happily as we care 
for ? Is there no room for improvement ? Whatever may be 
our attainments in Christian grace and knowledge, we have no 
reason and no right, to sit down contented with them. The 
true Christian aspires to perfection. Nothing short of this will 
satisfy him. That is his goal, and until he arrives there he counts 
himself not to have apprehended, but forgetting the things that 
are behind, he presses onward toward the mark for the prize of 
God's high calling. True it is, that ministers, reverend and 
highly honored, have labored successfully, with no other lan- 
guage than that in which they were born. Ministers of this 
class still live and labo'r, — the blessing of the Holy Trinity be on 
them — but is there no room for improvement in such ministers? 
Has their success been full and perfect? Has their knowledge 
of their great text-book been complete ? Might they not, with 
another language, have understood a little more and preached 
a little more, of truth, and seen among their people a little more of 
its power? Critics, it is true, acknowledge our English Bible, 
to be a masterly production — a noble monument of the learning 
and integrity of those who made it. But it is a translation, and 
no translation can, in every case, convey the pure and precise 
idea of the original. No one language has a term exactly cor- 
responding to every term in another. True it is, that our various 
denominations continue in their separate establishments, and that 
their number has increased rather than diminished. But has 



there beeri no improvement in the spirit of these Christian de- 
nominations? Do we, among Protestants hear any thing more 
of deadly persecutions ? Do the fires of Smithfield any longer 
blaze ? Are there any Bunyans suffering and dreaming tales of 
truth in British prisons ? Are there any Puritans, now a days, 
driven from their homes to seek an asylum in a land of savages ? 
Controversies indeed, about doctrines, there still are — about bap- 
tism, about episcopacy, depravity, and free will ; but can any one 
say that these controversies, with a less knowledge of the Scrip- 
tures, would not have been more fruitless, more continual, and 
more bitter? Do not those who believe and those who deny the 
divinity of the Savior, now meet each other with better feelings 
than they did, and with better feelings than they could have done 
without a thorough controversy ? And what could have brought 
the controversy which lately raged between them, to its happy 
issue, had not the defenders of truth been " mighty in the scrip- 
tures," and had they not been able to vindicate the laws which 
regulate Greek and Hebrew interpretations? Controversy con- 
tinues in spite of knowledge ; but knowledge regulates it, gives 
itlawand dignity, furnishes a store of argument, and, instead of 
wounded feeling, sets up sober reason as the umpire to decide 
the question. 

The influence of Sacred Literature in regulating controversy, 
is not more happy, than in repressing the nameless novelties 
which, in our free land, are continually liable to spring up among 
the churches. To what lengths might not the late apostle of 
the second advent have gone, had not Greek and Hebrew, and a 
vexatious host of competent critics all stood, like so many stumb- 
ling blocks in his way. What if the prophet of the West were 
left in quiet possession o( his claims to inspiration, — to the gift of 
prophecy and of tongues ! If with all his ignorance he has been 
cunning enough to collect together a military legion of thousands, 
might he not have assembled as many tens of thousands, had 


Literature. • 27 

he not been surrounded by those who could detect his miserable 
attempts to speak and write in Hebrew, Chaldee, and Greek? 

Discourage the use of the original languages of scripture, and 
you depart from the sentiments of the Reformers and of our 
Puritan ancestors. Luther, though but moderately skilled in the 
Hebrew, yet speaks of the study of it in the highest commenda-, 

Of the Puritans, John Cotton, the first minister of Boston 
was able to converse in Hebrew. Of Samuel Whiting, of 
Lynn, it was said, that he was especially accurate in Hebrew, in 
which primitive and expressive language he took great delight. 
The appointed course of study in Harvard College, at its origin, 
embraced Hebrew, Chaldee, and Syriac. With these languages 
the first president was understood to have been well acquainted. 
Mr. Chauncy, his successor, was admirably skilled in the learn- 
ed languages, particularly the Oriental. He had been Professor 
of Greek and Hebrew in the University of Cambridge, in Eng- 
land. When he attended prayers in the hall at Harvard Col- 
lege, in the morning, he usually expounded a chapter of the 
Old Testament, which was first read from Hebrew by one of his 
pupils; and in the' evening, a chapter of the New Testament, 
read in like manner from the Greek. Thomas Thatcher, first 
minister of the Old South Church in Boston, became well skill- 
ed in Arabic, Syriac, and Hebrew, under the tuition of President 
Chauncy, while the President was yet a parish minister at Scitu- 
ate. The dissertation of Cotton Mather, when he received his 
second degree, was on the divine origin of the Hebrew points. 
During seven years after his graduation, he fitted young men for 
college, hearing them every day in the Greek or Hebrew scrip- 
tures, and paying particular attention to the latter. A Profes- 
sorship of Hebrew and other Oriental languages, was established 
at Harvard College in 1764, by Thomas Hancock. The first 
Professor on this foundation taught Samaritan, Syriac, and Ara- 
bic. He pushed his studies also into Ethiopic and Persian. 

28 Sacred 

President Stiles speaks of Dr. Cutler, the second Rector of Yale 
College, as a great Hebrician and orientalist. Dr. Stiles him- 
self had, among some, the reputation of being the best Hebrew 
scholar of his day. His progress in it was almost incredible. 
He commenced it 1767 [ten years before his accession to the 
Presidency] and the next year went on to Arabic, Syriac, Chal- 
dee, and Rabbinic. The year after, he took an Arabic volume 
copied it in the same language, and then translated it. Before 
he had done with languages, he "dipped," as he termed it, u in- 
to Persian, and Coptic." About the same time [1778] Dr. John 
Smith, Prof, in Dartmouth College, gave instruction, and pub- 
lished a grammar in the Hebrew language. He was also well 
acquainted with the Arabic, Samaritan, and Chaldee languages. 
Of the last mentioned language, he prepared a grammar as early 
as 1774. In regard to the estimation in which the Hebrew was 
held by the Puritan fathers, it is further asserted, by one* who 
lias good reason to know, that more attention comparatively, was 
bestowed upon this language during the first fifty years after the 
settlement of New England, than has been given to it at any 
subsequent period, not excepting even the present century. 

In discussing the comparative advantages of understanding 
the mind of God from his chosen language and from our own, 
we need not, as has already been intimated, say any thing in 
dispraise of the translation which his good providence has 
furnished us. But neither are we called upon to allow, to that 
translation, excellences to which it makes no claim. The rea- 
son j has already been adverted to why our language can never be 
the exact copy of another. The difficulty is inherent in the 
very nature of things. Be our translation, therefore, as perfect 
as English words can make it, yet it will not pretend, in all re- 
spects, to be an exact antitype of the original. The necessary 
terms are not to be found in our language. The scriptures 
speak of innumerable things relating to the laws, manners, and 

* Prof. Ed wauls. 


Literature. 29 

customs of Eastern nations, their dress, houses, furniture, and the 
like, which never entered the mind of a European, which of 
course he can have no words to designate, and the idea of which 
he can convey to others only by approximation. Beside the 
want of simple terms, how many are the modes of expression, the 
grammatical forms, the laws of verbal connexion and arrange- 
ment, in which the original languages are peculiar. How many 
are their quotations, their brief sententious maxims, their para- 
bles, and obscure allusions, some of which have never yet been 
understood, and if understood, could not be transferred, in their 
full force and beauty, into any other tongue. 

To illustrate this difference in the laws and usages of lan- 
guage, and how, for want of due attention to it, obscurities and 
perversions may find their way into translations, take an example. 
Moses, in pronouncing his blessing upon Reuben, uses the follow- 
ing words, " Let Reuben live, and not die, and let his men be 
few." In English here is a plain contradiction. " Let Reuben 
live and not die," means, let his posterity continue forever. 
" Let his men be few," evidently means the reverse — let his 
family soon become extinct. In Hebrew there is no contradic- 
tion. The sense is 'perfectly plain, and consistent. And this 
difference arises not from the words, which are literally the same 
in number and sense, but from a peculiar law of the Hebrew 
language — a law which requires us to understand a negative in 
a subsequent sentence, when it is expressed only in the one pre- 
ceding. According to this law, " Let not Reuben die, and let 
his men be few," means " let him not die, and let not his men 
be few." So the Psalmist says, " I said to the wicked, " lift 
not up your horn on high, speak with a stiff neck." Had he 
been addressing the wicked in English* he would have said no 
such thing. He would have known that we should understand 
him as telling us in one breath to be humble, and in the next to 
be haughty. But he knew under what laws of language he 
was speaking, and he knew that all the wicked Hebrews would 



understand him right. This is but one of many laws, in which 
the two languages differ. Our translators have, indeed, in 
most cases, been aware of these laws, and have made the due 
allowance, but in many cases, it must be conceded that they 
have not. " A multitude of obscurities," says Prof. Stuart, " in 
the English translation of the Old Testament, might be removed 
by the aid of these principles, and much light diffused over the 
sacred writings. " 

If it be an acknowledged fact that all the truth which God 
has revealed is precious, and that more of this truth may be 
known in its original form of communication, than by any other 
medium, then it would be well for every man of leisure, for every 
man of education, to " add to his virtue " this important " knowl- 
edge." It would be well, in all our Colleges, to revive the old 
Puritan custom of making Hebrew a branch of study to all our 
rising race of educated youth. If those institutions are already 
too much crowded with studies to admit of this, then let some of 
the earlier branches be thrown back upon our Academies, and 
make a part of the student's preparation. 

But if Greek and Hebrew might be made of spiritual bene- 
fit to all classes, -what shall be said of them in relation to the 
minister of the gospel ? To comment and enlarge on the book 
of God, is the great business of his life. Now what would be 
said of the man, who should, after a long preparation of study, 
give himself out as a commentator on Plato or Cicero, and it 
should come to be discovered that, after all his study, he had no 
acquaintance with those authors except through a translation. 
Would a professed critic ever think of taking up Pope's Homer, 
with a view, from such a text book, to instruct the world in re- 
gard to the peculiar beauties of the great Father of Grecian 
Poetry ? A late respectable judge of our own state, made 
himself master of the Italian language, almost solely that he 
might relish the beauties of one of the old Italian poets, and 
compare them with those of Paradise Lost. To attempt, in any 

Literature. ' 31 

other way than this, to discern the full merits of his author, he 
knew was out of the question. The judge, in this case, receiv- 
ed, from his circle of friends, an unqualified commendation, not 
only for his literary taste, but tor the judiciousness of the course 
he adopted to attain his object. He would learn a language to 
gratify his taste. And shall the Christian minister be content, in 
ordinary circumstances, to take a mere translation, not for his 
/as/e-book, but for his text-hook} — the book from which, while 
life lasts, he is to draw, day by day, his daily bread ? — that food 
on which he is to live himself, and with which he is to feed his 
hungry flock? In point of profit as adding to his stock of pro- 
fessional knowledge, what could Dante or Milton afford to a man 
on the judicial bench, compared with the professional profit of- 
fered to the minister by the poems and histories of inspiration ? 
And as to the gratification to the mental taste, where, in any 
other books can be found sources of so high and refined intel- 
lectual enjoyment ? In bold originality of thought, in beauty 
and vigor of expression, in richness of imagery, and in high- 
minded moral and religious sentiment, where, among profane au- 
thors, shall we find one to compare with the writers of the Holy 

The access of the minister to the whole of God's communi- 
cation in his word, ought to be as direct and unobstructed as pos- 
sible. Whether the volume be contemplated in respect to mat- 
ter or manner, whether as addressed to the conscience, or the 
understanding, or the taste, whether as an authoritative book of 
laws, -or as a composition of inimitable genius, he that would en- 
joy it or use it for the public benefit should be master of it in the 
original. He should take the waters from the fountain and not 
from the stream. The divine statutes, coming to him in their 
native costume, in a fashion venerable both for its antiquity and 
for the peculiar people to whom it was, in its time, adapted, com- 
ing in the very tones and accents uttered by the voice of the Most 
High, and by the voice of his holy prophets, cannot but come 



with a peculiar emphasis and power, while the histories, parables, 
and poetic paintings, will reach his heart with a charm which no 
copy could ever possess. 

But the simple knowledge of language is only a small part of 
what is taught by the science of Sacred Literature. To put the 
inquirer into full possession of the meaning of an author some- 
thing more is necessary than the mere helps of Lexicon and 
Grammar. Especially must this be true in respect to authors, 
who, like those of scripture, lived at a great distance, both of 
time and place, from ourselves, and who differed so widely from 
us in almost all the circumstances of life. In order to under- 
stand the books of a nation " we must transform ourselves into 
citizens of that nation. We must live in their time, and in their 
own country — must adopt their modes of thinking and feeling — 
must see how they lived, how they were educated, what scenes 
they looked upon, what were the objects of their affections and 
passions, the character of their atmosphere, their clouds and skies, 
the structure of their implements, their dances, their music."* 
For want of this kind of preparation in the reader, the scriptures 
lose much of their entertainment and utility. An allusion or an 
illustration loses its force, not from ignorance of words, but from 
ignorance of circumstances. In order to give full interest to a 
book, the persons, things, and places of which it speaks, should 
be, to some extent, known beforehand. How many have passed 
through the description of the tabernacle in the wilderness, with 
scarcely the acquisition of a new idea. While they read of the 
tenons, and the taches, the sockets, the fillets, the cubits, and the 
remnant of the curtain for the gate, their attention is lost in the 
obscurity; they hurry over the account with impatience and fail 
to understand even those parts which are perfectly intelligible. 
With how much greater attention and pleasure would they read 
the account, could they, as they passed along, compare the de- 

* Herder. 

Literature. 33 

scription with a previously known reality — could they have had the 
previous opportunity to walk about the tabernacle, and go round 
about it, tell the boards thereof, mark well its pillars, and consid- 
er its coverings, proportions, and arrangements ? — Had we ever 
seen the vain and giddy daughters of Jerusalem in their gaudy 
attire, walking and mincing as they went, and making a tinkling 
with their feet, the prophet's description of them would make on 
us a far deeper impression than it does. But as the case now is, 
what other than a vague and general idea can we gather from 
the mention of those articles of apparel now happily so much 
out of fashion — the cauls and the round tires, the mufflers and 
the tablets, the mantles, the wimples, and the crisping pins 1 
Obscurities of a far more serious nature than these, are to be 
found in the sacred books, and especially in the prophets, with 
which the memory of every attentive reader will readily supply 
him. Now it is the object of sacred Literature to make, so far as 
may be, every strange name, and every strange allusion familiar, 
so that the reader's attention, instead of being lost, may be far 
more intently fixed upon the subject. This science takes care to 
collect, and lay open to the inquirer, all the stores of informa- 
tion within reach, that tend to this desirable object. 

Let a man, under the guidance of a Robinson or a Smith, be 
taken through Egypt, and Edom,and Judah, where the landscapes 
and the fashions of life, from age to age, remain alike unchang- 
ed, and he cannot fail to be made acquainted with scenes and 
facts which will at once deepen his interest in the scriptures, and 
increase their power over his life. Let him be led, for example, 
into the valley of Lebanon, the entering in of Hamath, on a fiery 
hot day in harvest. Let him survey that little army of busy, 
bustling, half-naked men, racing in every direction around twenty 
neighboring threshing floors, some gathering sheaves from the sur- 
rounding fields, some, with goad in hand, driving about the muz- 
zled ox that treadeth out the corn — others tossing into the air, 
with their fans and shovels, the trodden mass, that the driving 



wind may Rurge it, others again leading their mules, loaded with 
bags of grain, or enormous bales of straw, to the garners of the 
neighboring villages. Let him listen to the merry songs, the 
shouts, and the vociferating talk of the multitude. And let him 
perchance, as he approaches or as he is receding beyond them, 
behold a furious whirlwind sweeping over, and bearing up on 
high an immense cloud of straw, and chaff, and dust. Let him 
on that day, as he passes, look on every side of him, and see all 
nature clothed in the dingy mantle of death, — the plain below 
as thoroughly scorched and barren as the rocky mountain top 
above — not a tuft of grass, or shrub, or tree, to relieve the eye, 
or offer shelter, save a few dark clumps on yonder little stream. 
These stand forth, fair and rich, waving in their strength, and 
smiling at the general desolation. Now let him open his Bible, 
and read once more those allusions to the "joy of harvest," the 
" shouting for the summer fruits," " the muzzling of the mouth 
of the ox," " the sleeping upon the threshing floors," the win- 
nower, " whose fan is in his hand, and he will thoroughly purge 
his floor, and gather the wheat into his garner." Let him turn 
to the Book of Psalms, and commence reading " Blessed is the 
man that walketh not in the counsel of the ungodly — he shall 
be like a tree planted by the rivers of water, which bringeth 
forth his fruit in his season, his leaf also shall not wither. The un- 
godly are not so, but are like the chaff which the wind driveth 
away." Will not these allusions, read with such a preparation, 
come with a new energy to the reader's heart ? 

Let a man go to the grape gathering, at the time of vintage, 
and see companies of men, women, and children, plucking off 
the clusters, and bearing them in baskets to the broad even sur- 
face of a neighboring rock. And when the heap is sufficiently 
large, while the others are standing as spectators, let him see the 
men, rolling up their lower garments, and with naked feet and 
legs, and animated step, mount the pile, jumping, and treading, 
and trampling, and crushing, with songs and shouts of triumph 



:•*«', •-' 



Literature. 35 

as if trampling down an enemy. The purple liquid spirts in 
every direction, sprinkling and staining their garments, covering 
their legs with gore, and flowing in streams along the declining 
rock into a vat below. He shall now open the book of Isaiah, 
and love that prophet more than ever, while he reads, " O 
Heshbon — gladness is taken away, and joy out of the plentiful 
field. And in the vineyards there shall be no singing, neither 
shall there be shouting. The treaders shall tread out no wine 
in their presses. I have made their vintage shouting to cease." 
"Who is this that cometh from Edom, with dyed garments from 
Bozrah ? Wherefore art thou red in thine apparel, and thy gar- 
ments like him that treadeth the wine fat ? I have trodden the. 
wine press alone, and of the people there was none with me, 
for I will tread them in mine anger, and trample them in my 
fury, and their blood shall be sprinkled upon my garments, and I 
will stain all my raiment, for the day of vengeance is in my 

It would be easy to adduce a multitude of other examples of 
the manner in which the divine word might be illustrated, by a 
literature which properly is not Bible literature, but only Bibli- 
cal — a literature, which, though uninspired, and in this sense pro- 
fane, may yet be termed sacred from the sacred use to which it 
may be applied. It is easy to see how all knowledge of cir- 
cumstances, gathered from books of Eastern history and travel 
may be available to the profit of the Christian student. The 
houses, the garments, the eating and drinking, the sleeping and 
rising of the people of the East, may no less than the threshing 
floor and the winepress, be made to increase the light and life 
which beam forth from the pages of the sacred volume. This 
knowledge is sacred because it puts new instruments into the 
hands of the blessed Spirit, by which he may sanctify our hearts, 
and conform them more rapidly and thoroughly to his perfect 
and holy image. 

What minister of the gospel would choose to remain destitute 


Juridical Statistics of 

of this knowledge? What young minister would not choose to 
have it made a separate department for his particular study and 
investigation ? 


By William Butterfield, Esq. 

At the time of the Revolution, the Judiciary system of the Province 
of New Hampshire was composed of the following tribunals of origi- 
nal jurisdiction : 

First. Justices of the Peace within their County were authorized to 
hear and determine all actions of debt and trespass, where the title to 
real estate Avas not involved, to the amount of forty shillings, or six dol- 
lars and sixty six cents in our currency. By the Act of Feb. 21st, 1794, 
their jurisdiction was extended to $13,33, the Constitutional limit. 

Second. The General Sessions of the Peace was composed of the 
Justices of the Peace in the County. It was held four times a year, and 
hence called the Quarterly Court. Its jurisdiction included all matters 
and things "relating to the conservation of the peace and punishment of 
offenders." Each session was to continue " two days and no longer." 

Third. The Inferior Court of Common Pleas in each County was 
composed of four Justices, and had jurisdiction of all civil actions, above 
the jurisdiction of justices of the peace, in which the demand did not 
exceed twenty pounds, where title to real estate was not involved. This 
Court was held quarterly, immediately at the close of the Court of Ses- 

Fourth. There was a Superior Court of Judicature, whose jurisdic- 
tion extended over the whole Province. This court was composed of a 
Chief Justice and three Associate Justices, who held one or more terms 
in each county annually. It had cognizance of all civil and criminal 
cases, over the value of twenty pounds. Appeals were allowed from 
this court to the Governor and Council where the sum in controversy 
was less than three hundred pounds, and to the King where the sum 
was more than that. 

In consequence of the Revolution, a new form of government and an 
alteration of the Judiciary System became necessary. A State Consti- 
tution was accordingly adopted by the people of New Hampshire, Janu- 
ary 5th, 177G, before the Declaration of Independence by Congress, and 
before any other Colony, and the Judiciary System was altered so far as 

Belknap County. • 37 

the circumstances required, July 5th, of that year. The alterations were 
not material.* This system remained in force, substantially, till October 
1st, 1794, when the Court of Sessions was abolished and its jurisdiction 
transferred to the Court of Common Pleas. In 1804, an act was passed 
providing that when a vacancy should occur in the Superior Court or 
the Court of Common Pleas, each of said Courts should thereafter con- 
sist of a Chief Justice and two other Justices. June 24th, 1813, the Ju- 
diciary was remodeled. The Superior Court of Judicature and the 
Courts of Common Pleas were abolished; and in place of the former the 
Supreme Judicial Court was established, consisting of a Chief Justice 
and two Associate Justices, with all the jurisdiction and powers previ- 
ously vested in the Superior Court of Judicature. The State was divid- 
ed into two Circuits — the Eastern and Western ; and a court establish- 
v ed in each, consisting of a Chief Justice and two Associate Justices, 
called the Circuit Court of Common Pleas, having all the jurisdiction of 
the former Courts of Common Pleas. June 27th, 181(1, this system was 
abolished, the Superior Court of Judicature was revived, the State was 
divided into the First and Second Districts, in each of which was to be 
appointed a Chief Justice "skilled in the law," and in each County two 
associate Justices of the Court of Common Pleas. The Chief Justice 
and the Associate Justices of each County were invested with all the 
jurisdiction of the Courts of Common Pleas previous to the 24th of 
June, 1813. December 15th, 1820, all the jurisdiction of the Courts of 
Common Pleas, except what is termed Sessions business, such as laying 
out roads, &c, was transferred to the Superior Court of Judicature, and 
the Court of Common* Pleas was changed to a Court of Sessions in each 
County, which was composed of five Justices. Under this System all 
trials by jury were had before the Superior Court of Judicature. Feb- 
ruary 1st, 1825, an Act went into operation establishing a Court of Com- 
mon Pleas for the State, having jurisdiction of all civil matters above 
justices of the peace, and final jurisdiction where the sum demanded in 
damages did not exceed fifty dollars. It had no Grand Jury, and no 
criminal business ; this belonged to the Superior Court, which also had 
jurisdiction, concurrent with the Court of Common Pleas, of real ac- 
tions, and of all personal actions in which the sum demanded in dam- 
ages exceeded one hundred dollars. By this act, the Court of Sessions 
was abolished, and its jurisdiction vested in the Court of Common Pleas. 
By an Act passed December 29th, 1832, this System was abolished, and 
1 a system was established varying but little from that now in operation, 
except that the Superior Court consisted of four Justices, and there were 
no Circuit Justices of the Court of Common Pleas. 



Juridical Statistics of 

The County of Belknap was a part of Strafford County, until Jan- 
uary 1st, 1^41, when the latter County was divided into three. It 
contains eight towns, viz : Alton, Barnstead, Gilmanton, Gilford, Mere- 
dith, Sanbornton, New Hampton, and Centre Harbor. These towns had, 
in 1840, a population of about 18,000. It is the smallest County in the 

The Judiciary System of this State is composed, at the present time, 
of the following tribunals. 

1. Justices of the Peace. " Every justice of the peace within his Coun- 
ty may hear, try, and determine all pleas and actions in which the title 
to real estate shall not be drawn in question, when the damages de- 
manded do not exceed thirteen dollars and thirty three cents." " Every 
justice is authorized to hear and determine prosecutions and actions of 
a criminal nature, arising within his County, where the punishment is by 
fine not exceeding ten dollars ;" and in cases of assault and battery, and 
breaches of the peace, he may sentence offenders to imprisonment in 
the County jail not exceeding thirty days, and order them to recognize, 
with sufficient sureties, to keep the peace and be of good behavior, until 
the next term of the Court of Common Pleas for the County. 

2. The Court of Common Pleas. This Court is composed of the Jus- 
tices of the Superior Court, two Circuit Justices of the Court of Com- 
mon Pleas, and two Justices of the Court of Common Pleas for each 
County. The two County Justices, with one of the Superior, or Circuit 
Justices, constitute the Court of Common Pleas for each County. The 
Justice of the Superior Court or the Circuit Justice present, presides in 
all trials, unless he should happen to be disqualified, when the action 
may be tried by the County Justices ; while the sessions business, and 
whatever relates to the affairs of the County, is transacted by the latter. 
This Court has original jurisdiction of all civil and criminal cases, ex- 
cept where justices of the peace have jurisdiction; and jurisdiction of 
all appeals from justices of the peace in civil and criminal cases, and of 
petitions for laying out and discontinuing highways. This is the only 
tribunal in the State for trial by jury, as no jurors, either grand or petit, 
attend any other. All issues of fact arising in the Superior Court, 
are transmitted to this Court for trial. Any person dissatisfied with 
any opinion, direction, or judgment of this court, may allege excep- 
tions thereto, and the questions arising upon such exceptions or upon 
a special verdict, or any issue of law, motion for a new trial or state- 
ment of facts agreed upon by the parties, may be reserved and trans- 
ferred to the Superior Court for determination. Two terms of the 

Belknap County, * 39 

Court of Common Pleas are holden in each County every year — in 
Rockingham three, and in Grafton four. 

3. The Superior Court of Judicature. This Court is composed of a 
Chief Justice and two Associate Justices. It has " exclusive authority 
to issue writs of error, certiorari, mandamus, prohibition and quo war- 
ranto, and may issue writs of habeas corpus and all other writs and pro- 
cesses to courts of inferior jurisdiction, to corporations and individuals, 
ibr the furtherance of justice and the due administration of the laws ;" 
and has the general superintendence of all other courts. It has jurisdic- 
tion of all questions of divorce and alimony, appeals from the Probate 
Courts, applications for review or new trial, and of all actions and ques- 
tions transferred from the Courts of Common Pleas. It also has exten- 
sive power as a Court of Equity, in cases " where there is not a plain, 
adequate and sufficient remedy at common law ;" and may grant writs 
of injunction in proper cases. No jurors attend this Court, and no is- 
sues of fact are tried before it ; but when it becomes necessary in any 
case to ascertain any fact by a jury, an issue is made up and sent to the 
Court of Common Pleas for trial, and the verdict thereon is certified to 
this Court and judgment rendered thereon. 

For the business of the Superior Court, the State is divided into five 
judicial districts, each composed of two Coimties ; and in each of these 
districts this court is held twice a year, once in each County. But so 
far as concerns the business of this Court, each district is but one Coun- 
ty. The Counties of Belknap and Carroll compose the fourth judicial 

The Superior Court is* holden at Ossipce, on the fourth Tuesday of 
July, and at Gilford, on the fourth Tuesday of December, annually, for 
the Counties of Belknap and Carroll. 

The Court of Common Pleas for the County of Belknap, is holden at 
Gilford, on the fourth Tuesday of February and the third Tuesday of 
September, annually. 

The length of the terms of the Court of Common Pleas, since the or- 
ganization of this County, has been as follows : — February Term, 1841, 
12 days; August, 1841, 1G; February, 1842, 7; Aug. 1842, 18; Februa- 
ry, 1843, 12; Aug. 1843, 11 ; Feb. 1844, 11 ; Aug. 1844, 10; Feb. 1845, 
10; Sept. 1845, 5. 

In the following list of Judges and County Officers arc included those 
who resided within what is now Belknap County, and it is intended to 
state the residence while in office, the place of their birth, the time of 
entering upon the duties of their offices, mid when they ceased to act; 
and some general remarks are added. 


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44 Juridical Statistics of 


A meeting of the Attorneys in this State, was held at Concord, on the 
third Wednesday of June, 1788. At this meeting was formed a Society 
called "An Association of the Bar throughout the State of New Hamp- 
shire." This Association was organized, and established certain gener- 
al rules; among which were, that gentlemen of the Bar in their respec- 
tive Counties should form themselves into a Society, choose a President 
and Secretary annually, and that the Secretary should keep a record of 
the proceedings of the Society. It was also 

Voted, " That it be considered an indispensable requisite, for the ad- 
mission of any candidate for the Bar, who has received a degree at any 
College, that he has regularly studied three years, after having received 
such degree, in the office of some Attorney of a Superior Court ; and 
that no candidate not having received such degree, be recommended for 
admission, without having studied five years as aforesaid." 

And no person was to be admitted to study as a candidate, without 
the previous consent of the Bar in the County. These regulations have 
remained in force ever since. Societies were formed in the several 
Counties, (there were only five Counties then,) and when new Counties 
were formed, the members of the Bar within then' limits have formed 
themselves into new Associations; and all these Societies adopted 
rules to " promote and establish the dignity and respectability of the 
profession," which are now generally in force throughout the State, so 
far as the Bar can enforce them. And if the profession is degenerating 
in point of ability, dignity, and respectability, it is believed that the Leg- 
islature is more in fault than the Bar. 

At the first term of the Court of Common Pleas for the County of 
Belknap, February Term, 1841, the Attorneys residing in the County 
met and formed themselves into a Society by the name of the " Bar As- 
sociation for the County of Belknap," chose officers and adopted rules. 

In the following list the names of the Attorneys are given under the 
towns where they last resided within the County, their native place, 
where and when they graduated, and the time they commenced prac- 
tice in the Comity ; and a few brief general remarks are added. 

Belknap County. 
























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Self-Examination in Doctrinal Piety, 49 


Self-examination, in a religious view, has ever been deemed by the 
best of Christians and Christian ministers of vital importance. It seems 
to be almost essential to the possession of religion, to growth in grace, 
to preparation for the right discharge of religious duties, and to prepara- 
tion for communion with God on earth, and for the enjoyment of him in 
heaven. Impressed with the high estimation of this duty from his own 
personal experience, David often exhorts to its observance; and Paul, 
viewing its effects on the faith which would be possessed by the people 
of God, enjoins upon them the duty: Examine yourselves whether ye be in 
the faith ; prove your oion selves. Know ye not your own selves, how tliat Jesus 
Christ is in you except ye be reprobates? 

The discussion of this topic would lead to a consideration of what 
may be termed doctrinal, experimental and practical piety. This ex- 
tended view would fully canvass the subject of self-examination. 
It will be our object at this time, to treat the subject of Self-exami- 
nation in respect to Doctrinal Piety. By this, we mean that piety 
which naturally flows from the religious creed embraced, or is attendant 
upon it. Religious feelings will be greatly modified by the faith which 
is possessed. Without knowledge on divine subjects, feelings will be of 
little avail. They will be merely animal passions, and will soon pass 
away. A Methodist minister once said, 'While I desire the con- 
version of sinners, I desire it in the Methodist way.' By this he meant, 
that he desired their conversion accompanied with the views, feelings 
and practices of Methodists. He wished to have their piety character- 
ized by Methodism or the peculiarities of Methodists. And he was no 
doubt altogether sincere and honest in his expression, for he would nat- 
urally prefer such Christians to others. What in this respect was true 
in regard to him, is true in reference to all Christians, who are consei- 
entipus in their belief. They desire the conversion of sinners after their 
own sect. Now, though Christians of the different evangelical denomi- 
nations may be good, yet their goodness, other things being equal, will 
be proportionate to the correctness of their faith. So far as sanctified, 
they are sanctified by the truths, and not by the errors, which they may 
have embraced. 

In assisting Christians to examine themselves in regard to Doctrinal Pi- 
ety, we shall present for their consideration the first principles of the re- 
ligion of the Bible in the form of question and remark. 

50 Self -Examination in 

Question 1. Do you believe in the existence of God ? and is your 
faith strong, unwavering and abiding ? 

Remarks. A belief in God is the first fundamental doctrine of true 
religion. A person who is an Atheist cannot be truly religious. And a 
person's religion will partake of the nature of his faith in the Supreme 

Q. 2. Do you believe the Bible to be the word of God, or to have been 
given by Divine inspiration, that is, all its thoughts and language to have 
been recorded under the special dictation and guidance of the Holy 
Ghost ; — to be a perfect and sufficient revelation from God to man ; — and 
to be a complete and infallible rule of faith and duty? Such a belief in 
the Sacred Scriptures is important to the Christian character, and from it 
proceeds all hope of future existence and future happiness, as these are 
revealed only in the Bible. 

R. The desirableness and necessity of a revelation from God must be 
obvious to every reflecting mind. Without some communication from 
his Maker, man would know neither what to believe, nor how to con- 
duct? Deism, which rejects Divine revelation, deprives man of a sure 
guide on earth, and of the knowledge of a future state. It destroys all 
hope, and casts him. upon a world " unknowing and unknown." The 
revelation, too, which God has given us we must suppose is such as he 
sees we need, and all we need, and is free from error. Perfection is 
stamped on this, as well as on all his other works. 

Q. 3. Do you believe, that God possesses every natural and moral 
perfection which an infinite being can possess, and that he is, conse- 
quently, worthy of your adoration, love, service, and confidence ? 

R. This faith is necessary to a due exaltation of God in our minds. 
Without it, we cannot place in him full confidence, nor exercise to wards 
him suitable affections. That God may be thus perfect in natural and 
moral character, he must be self-existent and all-sufficient, eternal, im- 
mutable, omnipresent, omniscient, omnipotent, good, wise, holy, just, 
merciful and true. These perfections are considered essentially requi- 
site to the character of God. And in his natural perfections, consists 
his greatness or the infinitude of his being, and in his moral perfections, 
consists his glory. The real glory of his natural perfections arises from 
their exercise, under the influence of his moral perfections. 

Q. 4. Do you believe, that God, though one in essence, has a three- 
fold subsistence or distinction, or exists in three persons, the Father, the 
Son, and the Holy Ghost, each possessing the same essence, and the 
same perfections ? 

R. By God's existing a Trinity in unity is not meant, that he is one 



Doctrinal Piety. 51 

and three in the same sense. He is three in person and one in essence. 
The three persons in the Godhead do not constitute one person, neither 
does the one Divine essence constitute three Divine essences. God is 
three in one respect and one in another — not three, however, in any 
such sense as to be inconsistent with his being one in essence. The 
three persons in the Godhead, though distinct, are not separate. This 
doctrine, while it is mysterious and above reason, is not contrary to rea- 
son, nor absurd, nor any more mysterious than the being, nature, and 
perfections of God. Nor does the mystery exist in the fact, that there 
are three Divine persons in the Godhead, ibr this is plainly revealed; but 
in the manner in which the persons subsist in the Divine essence, or in 
the Godhead. This doctrine is all important, as presenting that mode of 
God's existence, in which his essential and peculiar glory consists, and 
in which he differs from all other beings, and claims a superiority to 
them, and in w hick is laid the foundation of the grand economy of man's 
salvation as published in the gospel. 

Q. 5. Do you believe in the purposes of God, by which is meant his 
eternal and immutable pleasure, will or choice concerning all creatures, 
things and events, or whatsoever comes to pass in time and in eter- 
nity ? 

R. The doctrine of Divine purposes, which is clearly taught by rea- 
son and revelation, demands the full assent and consent of every intel- 
ligent and moral creature in the universe ; because it is most holy in na- 
ture, design and operation ; and because it is a subject of admiration, 
support and thanksgiving. The people of God rejoice in this doctrine, 
as being the only foundation of the sinner's hope of eternal life; for had 
not God purposed salvation in Jesus Christ, none would have been sav- 
ed. The purposes of God are not to be regarded as arbitrary, despotic 
and capricious, but as reasonable and proper, and according to infinite 
wisdom and goodness. Neither should they be regarded as militating 
against, interrupting or destroying, the free moral agency of man, but as 
securing it, for this is embraced within the purposes of God. Nor 
should they be regarded as the rule of duty for man, (the Divine com- 
mands are this rule,) but only as the rule of conduct for God himself. 
His purposes and agency are altogether consistent with the moral free- 
dom and agency of man, though we may not be able to see this consis- 

Q. G. Do you believe in the entire native depravity of all mankind, or 
that they all arc by nature entirely destitute of holiness or moral good- 
ness, and are sinful so far as their affections and actions partake of mor- 
al character; and that, consequently, they are in a lost state, and ex- 


Self-Examination in 

posed to the penalty of God's violated law, which is eternal misery in 
hell ? 

R. Entire depravity, according to this view of it, does not mean that 
mankind are as bad as they can be, for they are greatly restrained ; nor 
that they are all equally wicked, for some are worse than others ; nor 
that they are destitute of every thing useful and lovely in society, for 
many possess very amiable and useful natural qualities ; nor that their 
intellectual faculties are destroyed, for these remain ; nor that they are 
destitute of the natural affections of gratitude, sympathy, pity, humanity, 
and the like, for all mankind whether holy or unholy, possess these in 

The doctrine of man's entire depravity, which is taught most fully and 
explicitly in the word of God, and is confirmed by his own conscious- 
ness, lies at the foundation of the religion of the Bible, and should be 
properly understood, and firmly believed. It shouldmlso, in connection 
with man's exposure to endless misery, be a subject of frequent, solemn 
and affecting meditation. 

Q. 7. Do you believe that Christ has made an atonement for the sins 
of the human race, or a provision for their salvation by dying in their 
stead — suffering as a substitute substantially, and thereby satisfying Di- 
vine justice, and making known the righteousness of God, so that he can 
be just while he grants pardon and salvation to all who believe ? 

/?. The doctrine of atonement, which is derived wholly from the sa- 
cred Scriptures, and which so peculiarly distinguishes Christianity from 
Deism, Mohammedanism, Paganism and all other religions, should be re- 
reived as the fundamental doctrine of the gospel. A belief in Christ as 
u propitiatory sacrifice for sin, is indispensable to salvation. None who 
reject the atonement, can be considered as embracing the religion of 

Q. 8. Do you believe in the indispensable necessity of regeneration 
and sanctification, or in a radical holy change of the affections of the 
heart, as preparatory to salvation, and that this change is necessary for 
all of the human race; and that it is effected by the agency of the Holy 
Ghost, and, ordinarily, through the instrumentality of religious means? 

R. The new birth, which is not a physical but a moral change, docs 
not render its subject completely holy. Jt is merely the coinniencernent 
of holiness in the soul. The increase of holiness is sanctification, and 
tins is not perfected till at death. As' heaven is a holy place, so, in order 
to be happy, its inhabitants must be holy too. Without holiness, they 
would be disqualified for the occupations and enjoyments of the heaven- 
ly world. « 

Doctrinal Piety. 53 

Q. 9. Do you believe in the necessity of repentance towards God 
and faith towards our Lord Jesus Christ, as me condition of salvation ? 
— repentance, which implies hatred to sin because of its evil nature, be- 
ing a violation of the divine law, which is holy, just and good, and turn- 
ing from it unto holy obedience ? — faith, which implies love to Christ, 
and trusting in him for eternal life ? 

R. Repentance and faith are the fruits of the Holy Spirit, and the 
free, voluntary exercises of the Christian. They are reasonable as du- 

Ities, and lovely as graces. It is altogether proper, that we should hate 
sin, and turn from it unto God, from whom we have so ungratefully re- 
Ivolted, and love Christ and confide in him, by whom we are to be saved. 
The natural fruits, and best evidence of repentance and faith, are obedi- 
ence to God, and benevolent actions towards men. 

Q. 10. Do you believe in the doctrine of justification by grace through 
faith, or that God by an act of grace absolves the sinner who believes in 
Christ, from punishment in a future state, and treats him as though he 
had never sinned. 

R. Evangelical justification is acceptance with God, not on account 
of personal inherent righteousness ; but on account of the imputed 
righteousness of Christ, or of his righteousness reckoned to the sinner's 
account. The grace of God is the source, the atonement of Christ is 
the ground, and faith is the recipient, of justification. This doctrine is 
vital to that system of religion which was once delivered to the saints. 
It affects more or less, all the doctrines, experience and practices of 

Q. 11. Do you believe in a future state, and in eternal retributions 
according to the deeds done in the body ? or that the penitent and be- 
lieving of the human race will be rewarded with endless happiness in 
heaven, and the impenitent and unbelieving will be punished with end- 
less misery in hell ? 

R. Our future existence gives importance to our present existence ; 
because on the manner in which this is spent, depends the nature of our 
condition hereafter. A belief in this doctrine will impress our minds 
with the vast responsibleness of our probationary state, and tend to ex- 
cite to holiness of heart and holiness of life. A serious contemplation 
of the happiness of heaven and the misery of hell, must lead to efforts 
to obtain the one and to escape the other. 

Thus we have brought to view the most important doctrines of the 
Christian religion, and instituted questions of self-examination, by which 
Christians may try their religious sentiments, and learn whether they are 
in the faith. We have been induced to !o this from a consideration, that 

54 Rules of Living. 

there seems to be a great want of definiteness, distinctness and exact- 
ness in tne faith cf many Christians. This is deeply to be lamented. As 
all true religion is founded on doctrinal knowledge, as every duty flows 
from some doctrine, and is only its practical result, as without a knowledge 
of doctrines, we shall be ignorant of duties, and as all motives to obedi- 
ence are derived from the doctrines of the Bible, and these, too, are the 
means used by the Holy Ghost, in the conversion and sanctification of sin- 
ners; therefore this subject demands the candid and prayerful consider- 
ation of all. 


[From the Rev. Hugh Peters' Legacy to his daughter. London A. D. 1660.] 

Whosoever would live long and blessedly, let him observe these fol- 
lowing rules, by which he shall attain to that which he desireth. 

Let thy thoughts be divine, awful, godly ; talk be little, honest, true ; 
works be profitable, holy, charitable ; manners be grave, courteous, cheer- 
fid ; diet be temperate, convenient, frugal ; apparel be sober, neat, come- 
ly ; urill be confiant, obedient, ready; sleep be moderate, quiet, seasona- 
ble ; prayers be short, devout, often, fervent ; recreation be lawful, brief; 
seldom ; memory be of death, punishment, glory. 


It has been as truly as quaintly said, that 

God's ministers these graces should possess; 
Of an ambassador the high address. 
A Father's tenderness, a shepherd's care ; 
t A leader's courage which the cross can bear; 
A ruler's awe, a watchman's wakeful eye, 
A pilot's skill, the helm in storm to ply; 
A fisher's patience, and a workman's toil, 
A guide's dexterity to disembroil, 
A prophet's inspiration from above, 
A teacher's knowledge, and a Saviour's love. 

Congregational Ministers in Belknap County. 





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Alton. This town was originally called New Durham Gore. It was 
owned by the Masonian Proprietors, and was settled in 1770, by Jacob 
Chamberlain and others. It was incorporated Jan. 15th, 1796, and named 
by one of the proprietors after Alton a Market town in Southamptonshire, 
Eng. A Freewill Baptist church was formed in 1805. But so far as is 
known no Congregational church was organized until Nov.9th,1827, when 
a small church was gathered under the labors of Rev. James Gouch, a 
Missionary of the New Hampshire Missionary Society, from Minot, 
Maine. This church, consisting at its formation of 8 members 3 males 
and five females, was increased by the addition of 1 in 1828, 3 in 1821), 
2 in 1835 and C in 1836. On the 30th of Dec. 1836, it experienced a se- 
vere loss in the death of Dea. Joseph Chamberlain, its only church offi- 
cer. Since that time, not having been watered by Missionary labors, and 
several times visited by death, it has dwindled until it has become very 
small. The present number is 9. 

Barnstead. This town was granted by Lieut. Gov. Wentworth May 
20th, 1727, to the Rev. Joseph Adams of Newington and others ; but no 
settlements were effected until 1767, forty years afterwards. The Con- 
gregational Church was organized August 5th, 1804, about 37 years from 
the time settlements were first commenced. It does not appear, that 
any church organization was made by other denominations at a period 
much earlier. The neglect of religious institutions for so long a time 
was unfavorable to the morals of the town. But the Rev. Mr. George's 
Ministry of more than forty years has been instrumental of improving 
the state of Society. Several extensive revivals have been enjoyed, and 
the church greatly enlarged, especially in the years, 1831, when 31 were 
added, 1834 when 31 were added, and in 1838, when 77 were added, 
to the church. The present number (1845) is 365. 

Rev. Enos George. The Rev. Enos George was born in South Hamp- 
ton, and was the son of Enos George late of Hopkinton, who died July 
24th, 1828, aged 81, and grandson ofMicah George of Salisbury Ms. His 
mother, who died May 24th, 1 827, aged 76, was Dorothy daughter of Barns 
Jewell an Englishman. Mr. George was brought up in Salisbury on 
the farm of his Grandfather, commenced preaching in the Methodist 
connexion, but becoming orthodox in his religious views received ordin- 
ation by a Council of Congregational churches as Pastor of the church 
in Barnstead where lie still remains. On the 10th of July, 1805, he was 
married to Sophia, daughter of Jonathan Chesley of Durham. Their 
children are Mary Elizabeth, Julia Ann, Dorothy Sophia Jane, George 
Franklin, Charles Smith and Hannah Robinson. George Franklin grad- 
uated at Dartmouth College in 1838, and is now a Physician at Shady 
Dale, Georgia. Charles Smith has recently been admitted to the prac- 
tice of Law by the Court of Belknap County. 

On Saturday, Aug. 9th, 1845, about 12 M., Rev. Mr. George's dwelling 
house and barn took fire and was burnt to the ground. The fire was com- 
municated from an adjacent building which was struck by lightning, and 
progressed with such rapidity that much valuable property was con- 
sumed before it could be removed. 

Belknap County. 57 

Centre Harbor. This town was set off from New Hampton, and in- 
corporated in 1791. The first settlement was made in 1765. The town 
took its name from Col. Joseph Senter, who became a settler in 1767. 
The first Congregational church was founded, Feb. 15th, 1815. The Rev. 
David Smith, the first Minister, was son of Lieut. Emerson Smith late of 
Alstead, and grandson of Nathaniel Smith of Hudson. He was born in 
Augusta, Me. never graduated, but settled as a carpenter in Hollis, N.H. 
Jan. 1st, 1795, he married Hephzibah Worcester, daughter of Noah Wor- 
cester, Esq. of Hollis, and sister of Dr. Samuel Worcester of Salem, Ms. 
They were the parents of 11 children. At the age of 35 with a wife 
and 4 children, he began in 1804, to study Divinity with the Rev. Mr. 
Smith of Hollis, He was licensed by the Hollis Association, June 19th, 
1806, and ordained Pastor of the Congregational church in Temple, Me. 
Feb. 21st, 1810, where he labored nine years, and was dismissed, March, 
1819. During the same month, he was installed as Pastor of the church 
in Centre Harbor and Meredith, third division. His Ministry continued 
here a little more than 4 years, and was instrumental of establishing 
Christians in sound doctrine, lie died Aug. 18th, 1824, aged 55. 

The Rev. Reuben Porter's Ministry continued but little more than 
a year. Up to this time, the meeting on the Sabbath was 
held alternately in Centre Harbor and Meredith. April 20th, 1831, the 
title of the church was changed from the Congregational church of 
Centre Harbor and Meredith 3rd division, to the Congregational church 
of Meredith Village, and the meeting was held constantly at the latter 

May 9th, 1838, a new Congregational church was organized in connec- 
tion with the labors of Mr. Robert W. Fuller of the Gilrnanton Theologi- 
cal Seminary, consisting of 11 members, 4 males and 7 females, and the 
same year ten others were added. The following year, 16 were added 
under the labors of Rev. Samuel H. Merrill, then preaching as a stated 
supply. The whole number added to the church from its organization 
to the present time is 50, 34 by profession and 16 by letter. 

The Rev. Mr. Benson, the present Pastor, was the son of Ebenezer 
Benson, and grandson of Joshua Benson of Cummington, Ms. He was 
horn in Jericho, Vt. June 3rd, 1810. At the age of 21, he began to fit for 
college at the Academy in his native place. After being prepared and 
spending one year in advanced studies at the Academy in Gilrnanton, he 
joined the Theological Seminary in the latter place in 1837, and complet- 
ed his theological course in 1840. He went to Centre Harbor only as a 
supply for 2 or 3 Sabbaths. At the close of the third Sabbath, without his 
knowledge or consent, the church, assembled and unanimously voted to 
give him a call. He accepted this call, and was ordained accordingly. 

Mr. Benson married Julietta Kingsbury of Francestown, May 11th, 
1841. She died Jan. 11th, 1843. His second wife, Rhoda Amanda Roys 
of LaiidafT, he married March 13th, 1845. 

Oilmanton. The town was incorporated in 1727. On account of* 
Indian Hostilities, it was not settled until Dec. 1761. The Proprietors 
employed the Rev. William Parsons of South Hampton to preach to 
the settlers for the first ten years. He moved into town, Aug. 1st, 1763, 
about 1 year and 8 months from the time the first family arrived; and 
from this period, there has been no time when the people of the town 
have been destitute of a minister. 


58 Congregational Churches and Ministers 

Rev. William Parsons was the son of the Rev. Joseph Parsons of Salis- 
bury, Ms. and was born April 21st, 1716*. His father's family was liter- 
ally a ministerial family. Of 4 sons, 3 lived to graduate and enter the 
Ministry, viz. Rev. Joseph Parsons of Bradford, Ms., Rev. Samuel Par- 
sons of Rye, and Rev. William Parsons, the subject of this notice. The 
only daughter, Elizabeth, married Rev. Jeremiah Fogg of Kensington. 
The youngest son, John, died in 1740 while a member of the Sopho- 
more class in Harvard College, then in his 16th year. William gradua- 
ted, II. C. 1735, at the age of 19, and was settled in South Hampton in 
1743. After a ministry of almost 20 years, he was dismissed Oct. 6th, 

On the 16th of May, 1743, he was married to Sarah Burnham a native 
of Durham, by whom he had six children, Sarah, William, Elizabeth, 
John, Joseph and Ebenezer. Having relinquished preaching, he was 
employed as an instructor of the youth in town for many years. So far 
as is known, none of his sermons were published, and none of his pa- 
pers are preserved. Had his Diary, in which he entered a great variety 
of matters as they occurred from day to day, been preserved, it would have 
been a valuable historical document. But this together with his sermons 
have probably been destroyed. He died in Jan. 1796, aged 80 years. 
His widow survived him one year and one month. She died in Feb. 
1797, at the age of 75. They were both buried on their own limn, a lit- 
tle eastward of the spot where they built their camp in 1763. 

The Rev. Isaac Smith was the son of Mr. Lemuel Smith of Sterling, 
Ct., and was born Nov. 30th, 1744, and was the fifth son in a family of 
11 children. His brother John Smith became a minister, and settled at 
DightoiijMs. in 1772, where he continued until December, 1801, when he 
was dismissed. He died in the state of Pennsylvania some years since. 

Rev. Mr. Smith began to fit for college in 1766, entered 2 years in 
advance in 1768, and graduated at Princeton in 1770. Alter leaving 
college, he passed some time with Dr. Hart of Preston, and afterwards 
spent six months with Dr. Bellamy, a celebrated Divine of Bethlem, Ct. 
in the study of Divinity. Having taken license to preach, he supplied 
several destitute places in New Hampshire and Massachusetts, where his 
labors were favorably received, in some of which he received an invita- 
tion to settle, particularly in Ipswich Ms. and South Hampton, N. H. 

The first Congregational church in Gilmanton, was formed, Nov. 30th, 
1774, consisting of five members, and the same day, Rev. Mr. Smith was 
ordained their Pastor. Dr. McClintoek of Greenland preached the ser- 
mon from 1 Cor. ii : 2. " For I determined not to know any thing among 
you save Jesus Christ and him crucified." Rev. Mr. Foster of Canterbury, 
his brother-in-law gave the Right hand of fellowship, and the Rev. Mr. 
Walker of Concord gave the charge. Mr. Smith's ministry continued 
42 years, in which time 114 were added to the church. The number of 
baptisms was 312, of marriages, 396, of Deaths, 1141. 

On the 23rd of Jan., 1777, Mr. Smith married Mary, daughter of Gen. 
Joseph Badger, sen. The ceremony was performed by the Rev. Na- 
thaniel Porter, then of New Durham, afterwards Dr. Porter of Conway. 
Their children were 6, Ebenezer, Isaac Coit' Joseph Badger, Martha, Han- 
nah, and an infant son only a few days old. Mrs. Smith died Aug. 18th, 
1 788, aged about 30 years. His second wife was Sarah, the third daughter 

in Belknap County. 


of De'a. Joseph Eaton of Haverhill, Ms. whom he married, Nov. 10th, 1791, 
and by whom he had three children, Francis Peter, Lemuel, and John. 

The Rev. Mr. Smith fitted several young gentlemen for college, among 
whom were Samuel Hidden, Nath'l Cogswell, Stephen Bean, Aaron 
Bean, Joshua Bean, Samuel Cartland and his son Francis P. He receiv- 
ed the degree of A. M. at Dartmouth College 1785. 

His publications are a Sermon at the Ordination of Rev. Ethan Smith, 
a Sermon at the Ordination of Rev. Josiah Prentice, a Sermon at the 
funeral of Rev. Mr. llazeltine of Epsom, a funeral Sermon of a woman 
killed by lightning, a charge at the ordination of Rev. Enoch Corser, and 
a 4th of July Address. He died, March 25th, 1817, in the 73rd year of his 
age, and 43rd of his ministry. The Sermon at his funeral on the 27th was 
preached by the Rev. Josiah Carpenter of Chichester, the oldest minister 
in the Association. 

A revival was enjoyed by the church soon after Mr. Smith's death, un- 
der the labors of Mr. Jesse Stratton, then recently from the Theological 
Seminary at Andover, and 45 were added to the church in 1818. 

The Rev. Luke Ainsivorth Spqffbrd, the second Pastor, was son ofElea- 
zar Spofford of Jaffrey. He studied Divinity with the Rev. Seth Payson 
D. D. of Rindge ; at which place he was married to Grata Rand, sister 
oi' Rev. Asa Rand, Oct. 5th, 1816. He was licensed by the Monadnock 
Association, and preached as a candidate in Gilmanton early in 1819. 
During his ministry of about 6 years, 30 were added to the church most 
of whom were fruits of a revival in 1823. On leaving Gilmanton, Mr. 
Spofford was installed in Brentwood, Feb. 22nd, 1826, and dismissed from 
that church in 1829. The same year he was settled in Lancaster, and dis- 
missed in 1831. He was settled again in Atkinson, April 18th, 1832, and 
aflerwards in Scituate, Ms. Thence he removed to Amherst, where he 
remained while his sons were connected with the College. On the 2nd 
of Feb. 1842, he was installed in Chilmark, Martha's Vineyard, from which 
place he was dismissed Aug. 5th, 1845, and now resides in Newburgh,N. 
York. His oldest son Richard Cecil, born, Dec. 22nd, 1817, graduated at 
Amherst College in 1839, studied Divinity with Dr. Ide of Medway, 
preached only a few times and died of consumption, May 25th, 1843. His 
second son, Henry Martyn, born, Sept. 8th, 1821, graduated at Amherst 
College, 1840, was Tutor 1842-4, and is now preceptor of an Academy in 
Minden, La. The other children were Mary Susan, Elizabeth Jane, and 
Ainsworth Rand. 

In 1827, about one year after the settlement of the third Pastor, the 
Rev. Daniel Lancaster, another revival was enjoyed, and 40 were added 
to the church, and in 1831, another revival which resulted in the addition 
of 35, to the church. In the six years of the Rev. Mr. Lancaster's Min- 
istry, 85 were received into the church. The Baptisms were 118, and 
the funerals more than a hundred. The whole number which have been 
received into this church from its formation, is 311. Since Mr. 
Lancaster's dismission, the pulpit was supplied one year by Rev. Franris 
P. Smith, son of the first pastor, and one year by Rev. Josiah Carpenter 
of Chichester. For a few past years it has been supplied by students of 
the Theological Seminary in this place. 

Centre Church. This church was embodied, March the 8th, 1826, 
consisting of 25 members, 6 males and 19 females. The Rev. Hainan 
Rood, the first pastor, was a son of Thomas D. Rood of Jericho, Vt. He 


Congregational Churches and Ministers 

• fitted for college partly at Shoreham, Vt and partly at the Academy in 
Middleburf. After graduating, lie was two years Preceptor of the Acad- 
emy at Montpelier, and one year tutor at Middlebury College. He com- 
pleted his Theological course, in the Seminary at Andover in 1825, and 
first preached at Gilmanton, Oct. 22nd of the same year. During his min- 
istry, which continued about three years and a half from his ordination, 
11 were received to the church, 10 by profession, and 1 by letter. Mr. 
Rood was installed in New Milford, Ct. April 21st, 1830, and dismissed 
July 28th, 1835. He was inaugurated Professor in Gilmanton Theological 
Seminary, Sept. 9th, 1835, which office he held a little more than 8 years, 
and resigned in November, 1843. 

Prof. Rood was married to Frances Susan Moody, daughter of Stephen 
Moody, Esq. Nov. 29th, 1827. Their children are Susan Hooper, Mary 
Jane, Stephen Moody, Henry Edward, and Frances Gracia Merwin. 
Prof. Rood has published an ordination sermon, and several articles in 
the Biblical Journal, a periodical which he conducted two years. 

Rev. Daniel Lancaster, the second Pastor, was the son of Ebenezer 
Lancaster of Acworth. He commenced his studies preparatory to en- 
tering college in Aug. 1814, at Chesterfield Academy, then under the in- 
struction of Mr. Otis Hutchins, a graduate at Dartmouth College in 1804. 
Alter leaving College, he taught one term in Boscawen, West Parish, en- 
tered the Theological Seminary at Andover in Nov. of the same year, 
and closed his course of Theological study in the Autumn of 1824. He 
first preached in Gilmanton on the first sabbath in Jan. 1825, and re- 
mained as a supply with the first church 3 months. On the 11th of April, 
he received a call, and returned a negative answer. The call was renew- 
ed with some modifications in July, and on the 21st of Aug. he returned 
an affirmative answer. During his ministry, the church was considera- 
bly enlarged, but the formation of the two adjacent churches, one at the 
Centre, and the other at the Iron Works Village so weakened the Society 
that his support failed, and he was dismissed. For two years previous 
to this, in 1830 and 1831, he had preached to the Centre church one half 
of the time. In 1831, a revival was enjoyed, and 28 were added to the 
church. In Aug. 1832, Mr. Lancaster removed to the Centre Village, 
and continued as stated supply until he was installed. In 1834, there 
was a revival, and 36 were added to the church. In 1836, there was 
another season of refreshing from the Lord, and 40 were gathered into 
the church. In 1838, the Lord again revived his work, ami 52 were ad- 
ded to the church. The whole number received since the church 
was formed is 243. 

Mr. Lancaster married Anne Elizabeth, daughter of John Lemist of 
Dorchester, Ms. Aug. 29th, 1827. She died Aug. 27th, 1829, aged 28 years. 
He married Eliza G., daughter of Daniel Greely, Esq. Foxcroft, Me. Feb. 
14th, 1831. His children are Mary Ellen Grant, who died, Anne Eliza-- 
beth, Frances Jane, and Daniel Greely. 

Iron Works Church. This church was gathered, Oct. 20th, 1830, 
comprising 13 individuals, 4 males and 9 females. The Rev. Mr. Sqf- 

ford, the first pastor, was graduated at the Theological Seminary, Andover, 
in the class of 1830. He married Mary L. Brigham, daughter of Benaiah 
Brigham of Boston. During his ministry of 4 years and 9 months, 
there were two revivals, and 56 were added to the church. He was dis- 
missed on account of ill health, and after studying medicine, and re- 


in Belknap County. 


■ceiving a medical degree at Dartmouth college, he commenced 
practice in So*uthborough, Ms. and now pursues his profession in Rut- 
land, Ms. 

In the spring of 1838, there was an extensive revival under the labors 
of Rev. Jeremiah Blake, which resulted in the addition of 62 to the 
church — 55 in one day. 

The Rev. S. S. AT. Greely, the second Pastor, son of Stephen L. 
Greely, Esq. was graduated at Gilmanton Theological Seminary in the 
class of 1838. He married Sarah B. Curtis, daughter of Rev. Jonathan 
Curtis, Sept. 29th, 1840. At the expiration of about 3 years, having receiv- 
ed an invitation to settle over the church at Lamprey River, Newmarket, 
he was dismissed and installed in that place, Dec. 15th, 1842., He has pub- 
lished some pieces in the Biblical Journal and other periodicals, and a 
sermon at the funeral of Mrs. Helen St. John, wile of Gilbert A. Grant, 

Rev. Rufus Childs, the present pastor, was the son of Dea. Israel Childs 
of Sunderland, Ms. His preparatory studies were pursued while at 
Waitsfield, Vt. He married Pamelia Hobart, daughter of Rev. James 
11 chart, Oct. 1844. The whole number added to this church from its 
formation is 150. 

Meredith. This town was settled in 1766, and incorporated, Dec. 31st, 
1768. The first Congregational church was formed, Aug. 20th, 1792, 
consisting of nine members. Rev. Simon F. Williams, their first Pasior, 
son of Rev. Simon Williams of Windham, was born at Fogg's Manor, 
N.J. 1764, was graduated at D. C. 1785, was ordained at Metbuen, Ms. 
Dec. 13th, 1786, and was dismissed Aug. 16th, 1791. His salary in Mere- 
<lith, was £60, one third in cash, one third in corn and grain at cash price, 
aud one third in good beef and pork. A house, 32 feet by 40 was also 
given him for a settlement. Twenty were added to the church during 
bis ministry. Mr. Williams married Mary, daughter of Dea. David 
Gregg of Windham, by whom he had 5 children, Nancy, Thomas, Sarah, 
Simon and Betsey. 

About five years after his settlement charges were presented to the 
church, affecting his Christian character, and he asked a dismission 
March 2nd, 1797. The church, after due investigation, and several meet- 
iugs for prayer and enquiry as to the path of duty, at length in July, 1798, 
appointed a day of fasting and prayer, and invited several neighboring 
ministers to attend. On the 28th of August, 1798, the following vote 
was unanimously passed by the church. 

"Voted that the Pastoral relation between the Rev. Simon F. Williams 
and this, church be dissolved, agreeably to his request on the 2nd of 
March 1797. The church, however cannot consistently dismiss him in 
regular standing, nor hold him in fellowship as a private brother ; but 
are constrained in faithfulness to God, to themselves and to him, to bear 
testimony against his unchristian conduct, as a forfeiture of his Christian 
and Ministerial character, and to suspend him from all special privilege* 
in the church until he shall testify his repentance and seek forgiveness 
of the church. 

(signed) John Roberts, Moderator. 

John Cate, Clerk. 

Mr. Williams immediately enlisted as Chaplain in the Navy of the 
United States, and in 1801, accompanied Commodore Preble in the frig. 

62 Congregational Churches and Ministers 

ate Esse\ to the East Indies. In June, 1802, they put into port upon the 
Island, Batavia. This island is well known for its unhealthy climate. A pu- 
trid fever is generated from its mud banks and stagnant canals. To this 
fever Mr. Williams had been exposed, when the vessel left the port about 
the last of June. He took it, and died on the 3rd of July. By appoint- 
ment from the Commodore, he was to have delivered an Address to the 
crew on the 4th. But on the 4th of July, 1802, he was decently shroud- 
ed, and the crew were assembled, and committed his body to a watery 
grave in the 38th year of his age. 

It does not appear from the records, that the church at Meredith ever 
had a meeting after Mr. Williams' dismission, but gradually declined un- 
til its visibility was lost. 

Meredith Village. The Congregational church of Meredith 3rd 
Division and Centre Harbor was formed, Feb. 15th, 1815, under the labors 
of Rev. Edward Warren, who spent a few months in the place previous 
to his departure from this country as a foreign missionary. He is still 
remembered there as an efficient, pious, devoted servant of God. The 
church originally consisted of 13 members, 6 males and 7 females. Under 
the labors of the Rev. Mr. Smith, the first pastor, 27 were added to the 
church. He died, Aug. 18th, 1824, aged 55. Eleven members were re- 
ceived to the church in 1829, by Rev. Mr. Porter, the second pastor. Mr. 
Porter had been previously settled at Somersworth , and, subsequently 
preached at Franklin. 

Under the labors of the Rev. Joseph Lane, the third pastor, an extensive 
revival took place in 1831, and 42 were added to the church. 

The Rev. Mr. Lane was the son of Joseph Lane, and grandson of Ma- 
jor John Lane, who moved from Stratham to Saubornton, in the early 
settlement of the town. Mr. Lane's mother was a grand-daughter of 
President Meshech Weare. He received his preparatory education at 
Phillips Academy, Andover, was ordained as a Missionary to the heathen, 
Sept. 20th, 3826, *soon after leaving the Seminary at Bangor, where he 
pursued his Theological course, and was married to Rebecca Philbrook 
of Saubornton the same month. He left Boston, Dec. 25th, 1820, and 
proceeded to the Missionary station among the Tuscarora Indians. 

But in June, 1827, his health failed, and he was obliged to return to his 
friends in Saubornton, where he remained a year and a half. In the 
spring of 1829, his health was so far restored, that he became an agent 
for the distribution of Bibles in Strafford county. For the two subsequent 
years, he preached as a stated supply in Franklin. Alter leaving Mere- 
dith he was an agent for the New Hampshire Bible Society. Subse- 
quently he preached at Westbrook, Me. and was afterwards an agent for 
Home Missions in Kentucky. From this field of labor, he returned a- 
gain to Westbrook where he was installed. After continuing here two 
years, he entered upon an agency of the American Bible Society for 
Maine, New Hampshire and Vermont, which he continued 3 years. He 
is at present preaching as a stated supply in Farmington. 
„ The Rev. Abraham Wheeler supplied the church at Meredith Village 
after Mr. Lane's dismission, for about 3 years, during which time 36 were 
added to the church. Mr. Wheeler was previously settled in Candia, 
where his ministry was very prosperous for many years. On leaving 
Meredith he moved to Cleaveland, Ohio, in the vicinity of which place 
he now resides. 

in Belknap County. 


The Rev. Eli W. Taylor, previously settled in Croydon was the fourth 
Pastor. Under nis labors of about 3 years, 34 were added to the church. 
On leaving Meredith, he took up his residence in Virginia. After his 
dismission, the church was supplied one year by the Rev. LotB. Sullivan, 
who afterwards removed to Massachusetts. 

The Rev. Giles Leach, the present Pastor, was the son of Levi Leach of 
Bridgewater, Ms. He studied Divinity at the Theological Seminary at 
Andover, and was ordained in Sandwich, Feb. 6th, 1833, where his labors 
continued 8 years. He married Elizabeth Thompson, daughter of Ste- 
phen Thompson of Heath, Ms. Feb. 25th, 1833. Their children are Eliza- 
beth Hervey, Lucy Ann, and Clara Amelia. Mr. Leach has published 
some reports, and occasional pieces in different periodicals. The whole 
number admitted to the church is 187 — 47 by letter and 140 by profes- 
sion; 79 have died, and 6 have been excommunicated or excluded, and 15 
have been dropped from the records, having long since gone beyond the 
knowledge of the church. 

Meredith Bridge. This church was organized, June 28th, 1824, 
through the labors of the Rev. Nathan W. Fiske, now Professor at Am- 
herst College. 

The Rev. Francis Norwood, the first pastor, was a native of Gloucester. 
He graduated at the Theological Seminary, Andover in 1821, and married 
Adeline A. Choate of Beverly, Ms. Feb. 1827. He remained with the 
church 5 years, in which time 35 were admitted to the church by pro- 
fession, and 4 by letter. The Baptisms were 12 adults, and 21 infants. 
Mr. Norwood was installed in Wilmington, Ms. May 18th, 1831, where 
he remained about 10 years, and is now preaching at Windsor, Ms. 

The Rev. John Kimball, Young the present Pastor, was son of Nathan- 
iel, and grandson of Timothy Young of Dover. He fitted for college in 
the public school in that place under the instruction ofElisha Glidden, a 
graduate of Dartmouth College, and hopefully experienced religion near 
the close of his college life. He entered the Seminary at Andover im- 
mediately on leaving college, and remained one year, and returned to 
the Seminary again after teaching at Dover one year, and 4 years at 
Mt. Pleasant near Charleston, S.C. He completed his Theological course 
in 1829, and was ordained an evangelist, in Boston on the day following 
the Anniversary. He was a year and a half an agent of the American 
Education Society, after which he was installed at Meredith Bridge, 
where he now remains. 

On the 19th of March, 1833, he was married to Miss Mary Willard 
Smith, daughter of Hon. Ebenezer Smith, Esq. ofDurham, and sister of 
Rev. Henry Smith of Camden, N. Y. Under his labors, the church has 
enjoyed 2 general, and 5 partial revivals, and 140 have been added to the 
church by profession, and 78 by letter. He has published several occa- 
sional pieces in different periodicals. 

New Hampton. This town was granted in 1763 to Gen. Jonathan 
Moulton of Hampton, who, having an ox weighing 1400 pounds fattened 
for the purpose, hoisted a flag upon his horns, and drove him to Ports- 
mouth as a present to Gov. B. Wentworth. Gen. Moulton relusedto re- 
ceive any compensation, but merely as a token of the Governor's friend- 
ship and esteem, he would like to have a charter of a small gore of land 
he had discovered adjoining the town of Moultonborough, of which he 


Congregational Churches and Ministers 

was one of the principal proprietors. It was granted, and he called it 
New Hampton in honor of" his native town. It was settled in 1775, and 
incorporated Nov. 27th, 1777. Centre Harbor was set off from it in 1791. 
There was aBapjtist church formed in 1782, and two Freewill Baptist so- 
cieties a short time alter. But no Congregational church was formed un- 
til June, 1800, when Rev. Salmon Hibbard was ordained, and continued 
his ministry until 1816, when he was dismissed. He died Sept. 1st, 1824. 
From this time little was done to sustain the church, until the first 
Sabbath in May, 1833 ; when Rev. James W. Perkins came to their re- 
lief. He found still living, and unconnected with any other church, 5 
aged members; two of whom had sustained the office of Deacon in that 
church. These came together and renewed their covenant, and adopt- 
ed a new confession of faith. During Mr. Perkins' ministry of about 5 
years, nearly 50 were added to the church. He was not ordained Pastor 
of the church, but received his ordination in Conway, October 8th, 1833, 
from the Strafford Conference in Council. 

The Rev. Mr. Perkins, was son of Joseph, and grandson of Joseph 
Perkins of Amherst, now Mont Vernon, who removed to that place from 
Beverly, Ms. He was born in Mont Vernon, April 17th, 1798, and bears 
the name of his maternal grandfather, James Woodbury. Alter pursu- 
ing his preparatory studies at the academy, he studied medicine and 
surgery with John Ramsey, M. D. and with Daniel Adams, M. D. and 
was licensed to practice, Oct. 9th, 1820. He continued in the profes- 
sion 11 years, nearly 8 of them in Windham, and the remainder in New 
Boston. He experienced religion, while studying medicine in a revival 
in his native town, and united with the church in the Autumn of 1817. 
In the spring of 1832, he changed his profession and entered upon a 
course of Theological study under the instruction of the Rev. Ephraim 
P. Bradford, Pastor of the Presbyterian church in New Boston, and was 
licensed by the Londonderry Presbytery, Oct. 31st, 1832. He left New 
Hampton in 1839, and was installed in Warner, March 4th, 1840 where 
he still remains. This church united with Bristol church in 1842. 

Mr. Perkins was married, Dec. 28th, 1824, to Miss Frances Cochran, 
daughter of John Cochran, Esq. of New Boston, and has had 5 children 
— all sons ; two have died. 

Sanbornton. This town was granted by the Masonian Proprietors 
in 1748, to 12 persons by the name of Sanborn and 48 others, but in 
consequence of the French War, the settlement was delayed until 17G4. 
In 1770, the town was incorporated. Nov. 13th, 1771, a church was 
gathered, consisting of 7 members all of them males. The same day, the 
first pastor, Rev. Joseph Wioodman was ordained over them. He was 
converted while in College, graduated at the age of 18, and studied Di- 
vinity with Rev. Moses Hale of Newbury, Ms. who preached the sermon 
at his ordination, from 1 Cor. i:21. The Rev. Mr. Walker of Concord, 
gave the Charge, and the Rev. Mr. Stearns of Epping, gave the Right 
Hand of Fellowship. In August, 1772, Mr. Woodman married the wid- 
ow Esther Hall of Concord, who was a daughter of the Rev. Aaron 
Whittemore, the first minister of Pembroke, by whom he had 12 child- 
ren. Jeremiah Hall Woodman, Esq. of Rochester, Aaron Woodman, a 
merchant in Boston, the founder of Woodman Sanbornton Academy, 
who died, Oct. 1826, aged 36, and Charles Woodman, Esq. of Dover, 
who died, October 31st, 1822, aged 30, were of the number. 

in Belknap County. 65 

T.he Rev. Mr. Woodman's ministry continued a little more than 30 
years. The number added to the church during this time, is not 
known. His original salary was $200, one hundred and twenty was to 
be paid in cash, and 80 in labor. But during the Revolutionary War, he 
gave in one half the money he was to receive. 

His publications were a sermon before the Freemasons, an Election 
Sermon for the year 1802, a sermon on Baptism at the Immersion of Le- 
vi Robinson, and a Fast Sermon. He died Sept. 28th, 1807, aged 59. 

The Rev. Abraham Bodwell, the present pastor, was the immediate suc- 
cossor of Mr. Woodman, and was ordained on the same day that he 
was dismissed. He was the son of William Bodwell of Methucn, Ms. 
He was fitted for College at Phillips Academy, Andover, under Mr. Mark 
Newman, Instructor, and studied Divinity with the Rev. Jonathan 
French of Andover, Ms. He was licensed to preach in Stoneham, Ms. 
April 30th, 1800, by the Westford Association. He married Nancy, daugh- 
ter of Joseph Conner of Sanbornton, and granddaughter of Samuel Con- 
ner of Epping, Jan. 12th, 1809. Their children are Sarah Jane, Joseph 
Conner, Ruth Conner, Aim, Fanny Conner, Mary, Susan Ordway, Wil- 
liam, and Elizabeth Ltmcaster. 

Joseph Conner graduated at D. C. in 1832, studied Divinity at Highbu- 
ry College, London, married Catharine Sykes of London, and was settled 
in Weymouth, England, 1839. 

In the revival of 1810, one hundred were added to the church, and 
since 1825, there have been several revivals, and 138 have been added 
to the church. The whole number added under his ministry is 288. 
The present number is 108. The publications of the Rev. Mr. Bodwell, 
are a sermon on the Divine Sovereignty, a sermon preached before the 
Female Cent Society of Sanbornton, a sermon on the Abrahamic Cove- 
nant, and some other occasional pieces in different Periodicals. 


(The following notices are taken principally from the History of Gilman- 
ton, by the Rev. Daniel Lancaster.] 

Dr. William Smith was son of William Smith, who was one 
of the first settlers of East-Kingston. He was born in that 
place, Aug. 2nd, L737. He studied medicine with Dr. Benja- 
min Roweof Kensington, N and continued the practice of it more 
or less, until the age of 90 years. He was married, Dec. 2nd, 
1761, to Betsey Bachelder, daughter of Ehenezer Bachelder of 
East-Kingston, with whom he lived about 40 years. He remov- 
ed to Gilmanton, Oct. 15th, 1768, and practiced medicine with 
good success without a rival for many years. He was the first 

66 Biographical Notices of 

Physician t who settled in the town, and for some time there was 
no other nearer than Concord. In the early settlement of 
Alton, New Durham, Wolf borough, Tuftonborough, and the. 
towns adjacent to Lake Winnipissiogee, he was often called to 
visit the sick at the distance of 30 miles, having no other guide 
to conduct him through the wilderness than spotted trees. He 
was 24 years successively chosen town clerk. 

Dr. Smith was a firm friend to education, and religion — a 
bright example of temperance, faith and charity. He died March 
27th, 1830, at the age of 93 years and six months. Nine of 
his eleven children survived him. 

Dr. Jonathan Hill, son of John Hill, was a native of Strat- 
ham, and studied medicine with Dr. Benjamin Weeks of Hamp- 
ton Falls. He commenced practice in Deerfield, where, March 
10th, 1778, he was married to Mary Prescott, and removed to 
Gilmanton in the course of that year. He was for three years a 
Selectman. He had five children, and died, June 7th, 1818. 

Dr. Hale was from Hollis, and came to this place 

before Dr. Parish. He resided in town but a short time. While 
here a young gentleman, whose name was William Cummings, 
studied medicine with him. 

Dr. Obadiah Parish was born in Canterbury, Ct. September 
22nd, 1764. He received his professional education in his na- 
tive State, and commenced the practice of medicine in Gilman- 
ton, in 1790, where his services were extensively sought. He 
was married to Hannah Badger, daughter of Hon. Joseph Bad- 
ger, jun. Dec. 4th, 1793, and died of Typhus Fever, Oct. 16th, 
1794, aged 30 years. They had one child named Cynthia. 

Dr. James Silver came from Loudon to the lower part of Gil- 
manton, in 1790, and continued to practice there and in Loudon 
until 1801, when he left and removed to Vermont, and thence 
to, the State of New York, where he died. 

Dr. JohnF. Williams, son of Rev. Simon Williams of Wind- 
ham, was born at Fogg's Manor, N. J. He came into town from 
Rye, soon after the death of Dr. Parish, and commenced busi- 
ness, but did not long remain. He returned to the vicinity of 
Portsmouth, whence he came. 

Dr. Simon Foster was a native of Andover, Ms. He stud- 
ied medicine with Dr. John Bond of Hampstead, and came to 
Gilmanton, where he pursued his profession more than 30 years. 


Physicians in Gilmanton. 67 

His Wife was Nancy Johnson of Hampstead, by whom he had 
four children. He returned to Andover, in 1824, where he died 
a few years since. 

Dr. Daniel Jacobs, son of Capt. Solomon Jacobs, was born 
in Mansfield, Ct., Aug. 31st, 1764. He graduated at Dartmouth 
College in 1787, studied medicine in Poughkeepsie, N. Y., at- 
tended Medical Lectures in New York city, and entered upon 
the practice of his profession in San born ton in 1790. He re- 
moved to Gilmanton, 1796, where he pursued the practice of 
his profession very extensively, with assiduity and success, until 
his last sickness. For some time he was surgeon of the regi- 
ment. He married Elizabeth Badger, daughter of Hon. Joseph 
Badger, jun., May 20th, 1798, By whom he had seven children. 
Four of them' are living, viz : Eliza Badger, who married Rev. 
Ebenezer C. Ewins, Charles, who has been engaged in merchan- 
dize, Almira, who married B. F. Bugard, M. D. and Laura Ma- 
tilda, who married Rev. A. H. Worthing. 

He died of Typhus Fever, after an illness of 45 days, on the 
14th of November, 1815, aged 51. He was a member of the 
Strafford District Association of Physicians, and a Fellow of the 
N. H. Medical Society. . 

Dr. Benjamin Kelly was born in Salem, April 29th, 1763. 
He studied medicine with Dr. Hazeltine of Haverhill, Ms., with 
whom he practised two years, and then commenced business in 
Northwood in 1780, where he remained 11 years. In 1787, he 
married Mary Gile of Nottingham. Their children were nine, 
six sons and three daughters. He moved to Loudon in 1797, 
and to Gilmanton in 1801, where he spent the remainder of his 
days. He became a Fellow of the N. H. Medical Society in 
1811. After practising in Gilmanton about 15 years, he gradu- 
ally gave up the business. He died March 23rd, 1839, in the 
76th year of his age. His eldest son, Hall J. Kelly, who grad- 
uated at Middlebury College in 1813, has been a teacher of 
youth, has published some elementary school books, and an ex- 
tended description of the Oregon Territory. 

Dr. Anthony Sherman commenced his profession in Loudon, 
where he married the daughter of Thomas Piper, Esq. In 
1807, he came to Gilmanton, and after practising here a short 
time, went into a decline, and returned to Loudon, where he 
died. He left two children, Enoch and Betsey — Enoch, who 


Biographical Notices of 

became a»elerk in the store of Gen. Daniel Hoit of Sandwich, 
and afterwards married his daughter Julia; and Betsey who mar- 
ried Brackett L. Prescott, and now lives in Middlesex, Vt. 

Dr. Asa Crosby, son of Capt. Josiah Crosby, was bom in that 
part of Amherst, which is now Milford, July ]5th, 1765, where 
he received his preparatory education. At the age of 18, he 
commenced the study of medicine with Dr. Ebenezer Rockwood 
of Wilton, and at the age of 21, he commenced practice in 
Marlborough, but did not remain long in that place. He next 
established himself in Moultonborough. Here he married Bet- 
sey, daughter of Judge Nathan Hoit, March 8th, 1789, and soon 
moved to Sandwich, where he had ten children, five sons and 
five daughters. His wife died, April 10th, 1804. He married 
Abigail Russell of Hanover, his second wife, Oct. 2nd, 1806, 
by whom he had seven children. In 1816, he removed to Gil- 
manton, where he remained until 1832, when he closed his bu- 
siness, and for a few years lived in Goffstown, but in 1834, took 
up his residence in Hanover, where he died, April 12ih, 1836, 
aged 70 years. 

Dr. Crosby was rather an uncommon man. He was self- 
taught, and a distinguished member of his profession, both in 
physic and surgery. In the latter branch, he performed some 
very important and difficult operations. For many years, he was 
the principal operator for an extensive district of country. He 
was elected a member of the New Hampshire Medical Society 
in 1810, and was ever after an active and zealous member, as 
well as of his District Society. About 30 young gentlemen re- 
ceived a great part of their medical education under his instruc- 
tion. In 1811, he received the honorary degree of M. D. at 
Dartmouth College. For 11 years in succession, he was chosen 
Representative of Sandwich in General Court. Three of his 
sons are now in the practice of medicine, and two of his daugh- 
ters were married to physicians. One is an Attorney, and one is 
a Professor of the Greek Language and Literature in Dartmouth 
College. Dr. Crosby was a professor of religion, and died in the 
full hope of a blessed immortality. 

Dr. Thomas H. Merrill was a native of Brownfield, Me., 
and received his medical education in his native State. He prac- 
tised medicine in Gilmanton from 1814 to 1822, when he re- 

Physicians in Gilmanton. 


tnoved to Raymond, thence to Boothbay, Me., and is now a res- 
ident in Portland. 

Dr. William Prescott was born in Sanborn ton, Dec. 29th, 
1788, and removed with his parents to Northfield, about 1799. 
His father, whose christian name was William, was born at 
Hampton Falls, in 1762, and was the son of William, born at 
Hampton Falls in 1727, who was a captain in the Revolution, 
and he was the son of Samuel Prescott of Hampton Falls, born 
probably about 1690. 

Dr. Prescott studied medicine with Dr. George Kittredge of 
Epping, attended two full courses of Lectures at Dartmouth 
College, and received the degree of M. D. in 1815. He com- 
menced practice at Gilmanton, (Iron Works,) Jan. 6th, 1815. 
but in a few months, he entered into partnership with Dr. Jacobs, 
and removed to the Academy Village, where he had a very ex- 
tensive business for about 18 years, when, (November, 1832,) he 
removed to Lynn, Ms. where he practised with good success un- 
til September, 1845, at which time he removed to Concord in this 
State, where he now resides. He has, from time to time, had in 
his office medical students, to whom he has imparted instruction. 

While at Gilmanton, he was a Representative of the town in 
General Court four years, and a Senator for 1827. In 1823, he 
was appointed surgeon of the 10th regiment. 

For many years, Dr. Prescott has turned his attention to liter- 
ary and scientific pursuits, especially to the department of Natural 
History. He was elected a Fellow of theN. H. Medical Soci- 
ty in 1818, of which he was a Censor and Counsellor. In 1820, 
be was elected a member of the Strafford Agricultural Society, 
before which, in 1823, he delivered the Annual Address. In 
1827, he was chosen a member of the New Hampshire Histori- 
cal Society, and for four years was a member of its Standing 
Committee. Jn 1833, he was elected a Fellow of the Massa- 
chusetts Medical Society, and for five years was one of its Coun- 
sellors. He was elected an honorary member of the American 
Statistical Association, Boston, in 1840; a corresponding mem- 
ber of the National Institute for the Promotion of Science, 
Washington, D. C, in 1842; an honorary member of the 
Northern Academy of Arts and Sciences, Hanover, N. H. in 
1843 ; a member of the Association of American Geologists 
and Naturalists, in 1843, and he was the prime mover and prin- 



70 Biographical Notices of 

cipai founder of the Lynn Natural History Society, and has 
heen its President until this time. He possesses one oi the 
most valuable private cabinets of shells, minerals, antiquarian 
and other curiosities in New England. 

On the 22nd of June, 1819, Dr. Prescolt was united, by mar- 
riage, to Cynthia, the only child of Dr. Obadiah and Hannah 
Parish, late of Gilmanton. They have had four children, two sons 
and two daughters. One son and one daughter survive ; viz. 
William Chase, who graduated at the Wesleyan University in 
1844, and is now studying medicine, and Laura Matilda. 

Dr. Dixi Crosby, son of Dr. Asa Crosby, was born in Sand- 
wich, Feb. 7th, 1800. He commenced his studies, preparatory 
to reading medicine at Gilmanton Academy in 1816, entered his 
lather's office as a medical student in 1820, attended medical lec- 
tures at Dartmouth College in 1821 and 1822, and received the 
degree ol M. D. in 1824. He commenced practice in Gilman- 
ton in August, 1825, where he remained until Oct. 3rd, 1835, 
when he removed to Gilford. During his residence in Gilman- 
ton and Gilford, he had an extensive practice, and had constant- 
ly, in a course of instruction, several medical students. He was 
also a Lecturer in Gilmanton Theological Seminary. In Au- 
gust, 1838, he was appointed Professor of Surgery and Surgi- 
cal Anatomy in the Medical School at Dartmouth College. 
This appointment he accepted, and October 3rd, he removed to 
Hanover, where he now resides, and discharges the duties of 
Professor and Physician. He was elected a member of the 
^ew Hampshire Medical Society in 1827, and is now President 
of it. He married Mary Jane Moody, daughter of Stephen 
Moody, Esq. of Gilmanton, July 2nd, 1827, by whom he has 
two sons, Albert Harrison, and Alpheus. 

Dr. Jacob Williams, a native of Groton, Ms., came to Gil- 
manton, (Iron Works,) about the year 1816, and was married in 
4une, 1822, to Irene Locke of Epsom. In 1828. he returned 
to his native town, where he was in practice for a time, but is 
now established in Kensington, N. H. He is a member of the 
State Medical Society. 

Dr. Otis French, a native of Sandwich, studied medicine 
with Dr. Asa Crosby, received his medical degree, Dartmouth 
College in 1827, and entered upon the practice of physic at the 
Iron Works Village in this town in 1828, where he still remains. 
July 20th, 1830, he was married to Hannah M. daughter of 

Physicians in Gilmanton. 



Capt. Benjamin Stevens. He was a Representative to General 
Court for this town in 1843 and 1844. 

Dr. Nathan C. Tebbetts, son of Bradbury and grand-son of 
Henry Tibbetts, was born in Northfield, Jan. 28th, 1802, pur- 
sued his preparatory studies at Gilmanton Academy, studied 
medicine with Dr. William Prescott in 1821-23, with Dr. Mus- 
sy at Hanover in 1824, took the degree of M. D. at Dartmouth 
College in 1825, and immediately commenced practice in Gil- 
manton. He was married to Hannah, daughter of Major Rufus 
Parish, Feb. 28th, 1826. They have three children, two sons 
and one daughter. He was in trade a few years, and was a 
Representative of the town in 1841 and 1842. 

Dr. John Cummings Page was born at Sandwich, May 4th, 
1804, and is the son of Capt. Moses Page, who was married to 
a daughter of Dr. Caleb Morse of Moultonborough, and who 
was, too, one of the Life Guard of Gen. Washington in the time 
of the Revolution. Dr. Page commenced the study of medi- 
cine with Dr. Enos Hoyt of Northfield, in 1823, and finished 
his course with Dr. Asa Crosby of Gilmanton, in 1826. Having 
attended medical Lectures at Dartmouth College, he took the 
degree of M. D., and commenced practice in Gilford Village, 
but soon removed to Northwood, where he remained until De- 
cember, 1827, when he established himself at Centre Harbor. 
June 26th, 1828, he was married to Mary Ann, daughter of 
Major Ebenezer Eastman, and moved to Gilmanton, (Academy 
Village,) February, 1832, where he continued to practice until 
1836, when he entered upon a course of theological study at 
the Seminary, graduated in 1839, and was ordained in Raymond, 
Oct. 6th, 1841, where he now resides. 

Dr. Nahum Wight was born in Gilead, Me., Nov. 20th, 1807, 
studied medicine with Dv. John Crover, Bethel, Me., attended 
his first course of Lectures at Bowdoin Medical School in 1830, 
his second course at Dartmouth Medical School in 1831, and 
another course at Bowdoin in 1832, at which time he graduated 
as a Doctor of medicine. In November of the same year, lie 
commenced the practice of his profession in Gilmanton, (Centre 
Village,) where he has had a very extensive business. In 1837, 
Dr. Wicrht commenced collecting anatomical materials, and has 
now in his possession many valuable preparations in both healthy 
and morbid anatomy. He has given instruction in medical 


Biographical Notices of 

studies to twenty different individuals, and he was in 1 844 appoint- 
ed a Lecturer on Anatomy, Physiology, and Health in the The- 
ological Seminary in this place. He is a member of the N. 
H. Medical Society, and has been a Representative of the town 
in General Court for three years. He was married to Mary Ann 
Straw, daughter of Gideon Straw of Ncwfield, Me., Sept. 3rd, 

Dr. Joseph Gould, son of Benjamin Gould, grand-son of 
Dea. Benjamin Gould, and great-grand-son of Adam Gould, one 
of the first settlers in Plymouth, was born in that town Sept. 
29th, 1807. He pursued his preparatory studies at Holmes Ply- 
mouth Academy, and studied medicine with Dr. Jonathan Robins 
of Plymouth and Dr. Job Wilson of Franklin. Having attended 
the medical Lectures at Dartmouth College, he received the de- 
gree of M. D. in 1830, and commenced practice in Danbury, 
but soon removed to Gilmanton, (Factory Village,) where he 
still remains. He was married to Sally Evans, daughter of Capt. 
Josiah Evans of Franklin, May 21st, 1831. 

Dr. Edward Gilman Morrill, son of Benjamin, and grand- 
son of Isaac Morrill, was born in Gilmanton, July 11th, 1809, 
studied medicine with Dr. Dixi Crosby, attended the Lectures at 
Dartmouth Medical School, and received the degree of M. D. 
in 1834, was in Lowell, Ms., as a physician and apothecary, 
subsequently at Gilmanton for a time, afterwards at Cahawba, 
Dallas County, Ala., where he died July 3rd, 1844, aged 35 


[For the principal facts, contained in the following sketches, we are indebted to 
the kindness of Dr. Shannon.] 

Dr. Caleb Morse was born at Chester in 1760. received his 
preparatory education at Dummer Academy, Newbury, Ms., read 
medicine with Dr. Fox of Henniker, was the first Physician ^ in 
Moultonborough, where he practised about sixty years, and died 
in 1843, aged 83 years. He was elected a member of the 
State Medical Society in 1814, and was a very respectable 
practitioner. His influence in respect to education, morals and 
religion was most happy. 

Physicians in Gilmanton. 73 

'Dr. Asa Crosby was, for a short time, a Physician in this 
place. See Gilmanton, page 67. 

Dr. Ichabod Shaw was the son of the Rev. Jeremiah Shaw, 
and was horn in Moultonborough in 1781, prepared for College 
at Phillips Academy at Exeter, entered Dartmouth College two 
years in advance, but, in consequence of ill health, did not com- 
plete his collegiate course. He studied medicine with Dr. Ca- 
leb Morse, commenced practice in the year 1807, became a mem- 
ber of the State Medical Society in 1824, and died 1834 a^ed 

Dr. Thomas Shannon was born in Moultonborough, Dec. 25th, 
1783, received his preparatory education at Phillips Academy 
at Exeter, studied medicine with Richard Cutts Shannon of 
Saco, Me., practised at Pittsfield 19 years, removed to Moulton- 
borough in 1827, and still continues to practise in the place. He 
was elected a member of the N. H. Medical Society in 1816, 
and is a highly respectable Physician, and has an extensive bus- 
iness in his profession. 

Dr. William H. H. Mason was born at Gilford, pursued his 
studies at Wolf borough Academy, read medicine with Dr. An- 
drew McFarland of Sandwich, received his degree of M. D. at 
Dartmouth College in 1843, and commenced the practice of 
medicine in Moultonborough. 

Dr. Simeon D. Buzzell was born at Alton, in 1805, studied 
medicine with Dr. William Graves of Deerfield, has practised in 
Alton and the State of New York, and commenced business in 
this town in 1845. 


By the Rev. Cyrus Mann. 

Every season of life has its duties and responsibilities ; but there are 
jsoine periods in, which are concentrated the influences, which each indi- 
vidual is to exert on the human character and condition. As the little rip- 
ple, put in motion by the falling of a pebble, expands itself to the whole 
compass of the pool ; so there is a central point in our being, which stirs 
a ripple, spreading wider its undulations, and moving onward over the 
whole ocean of our existence. Those in the prime and vigor of their days, 




Claims oj the Gospel 

are standing in the centre of this circle, and have responsibilities resting 
upon them of incalculable amount. The aged have passed this point,, 
their characters are formed, and the account of their stewardship is about 
to be sealed up to the judgment. The child has not reached this period. 
He is amused with the novelties, flitting continually before him, and lias 
scarcely begun to touch those chords of influence, which are to vibrate 
far down through coming ages. 

The Apostle well understood the important part young men were to act 
in this world's affairs, when he penned the passage, " I have written unto 
you, young men, because ye are strong, and the Avord of God abideth in 
you." They were strong in the Lord, and had overcome the temptations 
and allurements, with which they were surrounded. Instead of being 
carried away on the current of earthly pleasures and pursuits, they had 
learned to stem the tide, and resist effectually the influences, which were 
beaiing them away from all good. God intended to employ their agency 
in accomplishing the great work of converting the world, and establish- 
ing his kingdom on earth. It was an honor to them to be strong in this 
high and noble enterprise. 

But are there not those at the present day, who view this subject in a 
very different light? Are there not those, who look upon religion as a 
thing, with which they have no concern; who regard the spirit of the 
Gospel as abject and degrading, and its instructions as beneath their no- 
tice ? Are there not those, who scorn the messages of mercy, and se- 
cretly, if not openly, despise all true, vital piety? Is it not true, that we 
have those in New England, this highly favored portion of the globe, 
who affect to consider the power of godliness, the work of grace in the 
soul, as neither more nor less, than weak superstition, or blind bigotry 
and fanaticism ? Whence have arisen such corrupt views in this home 
of the Pilgrims, in this land more than any other, hallowed by the prayers 
and tears of a pious ancestry ? Surely an enemy hath done this. An 
enemy to our temporal and spiritual welfare, to our institutions of free- 
dom and science as well as religion, has been sowing tares, and they are 
springing up to yield a harvest of ruin and misery. 

Assuredly the Gospel is true, whether believed and obeyed, or not; 
and it will be found true by the joyful, or melancholy experience of every 
individual. It has in by-gone ages, stood the assaults of a world, hostile 
to its Maker. It stands yet like a rock in the ocean, or an ensign on the 
mountains, and it will stand while time endures. Its truths, eternal, im- 
mutable in their nature, will survive the "wreck of worlds," and shine 
out with fresh lustre in the blaze of eternal day. 

It is the design of this Essay to present the Claims of the Gospel upon 

Upon Young Men. 


Young Men, by showing that it is worthy of their reception. It demands 
their immediate and earnest attention, and cannot be neglected without 
putting to hazard their dearest interests. 

1. That the religion of the Gospel is worthy of their reception, is man- 
ifest from the wants of human nature. Young men in the hurry of bu- 
siness, eager in the pleasures and pride of life, and in planning for the 
future, easily forget the wants of their moral and spiritual nature. They 
readily lose sight of God, of his government, and of their own account- 
ability. That they are weak, dependant creatures, that there is a power 
above them, which can frustrate all their plans, and which will appoint 
their measure of success or defeat in whatever course they pursue, are 
considerations with which they are little affected. But these are truths 
which must sooner or later be felt and realized. An almighty hand is 
pressing with mountain weight upon the destinies of every individual, 
and he cannot shake off his responsibility, nor the claims of God upon 
him. He will find a void in the human soul, which the world can never 
fill ; cravings which wealth, honor, popular favor can never satisfy. The 
most gifted in talent, the most successful in enterprise have been com- 
pelled to feel, that there was something to be attained beyond the things 
of time, and without which they must be miserable. 

There is a consciousness in men, that they need the favor of God, and 
that without it they can enjoy no permanent happiness. The unbeliever 
may deny this, but, in doing it, he wrongs his own soul. He is often 
made to contradict himself, and show the weakness of his confidence in 
rejecting the Gospel. An unbeliever in Philadelphia was heard to deny 
in the boldest terms the existence of a God, and to declare he had no 
fear of such a being. In the afternoon of the same day, he received a 
fatal wound, and was heard to exclaim, " O God, have mercy on my 
soul." Thousands who have boasted, that they were above the weak su- 
perstition of the pious believer, as they were pleased to call his reli- 
gion, have realized their spiritual necessities, when danger and death 
were near. Why is it, that all nations must have a religion? Why is it, 
that the heathen are drawn together in mighty masses of hundreds of 
thousands to worship their idol gods? Why is there often so strange a 
union and contrast between the grandeur of their architecture as display- 
ed in then- temples, and the base and utterly disgusting degradation of 
their worship? The reason is, they are conscious of dependance on a 
superior power, and of guilt in their lives, and yet have no true light re- 
specting the proper object of religious homage and veneration. 

You can no more divest yourself of your moral nature, than of your 
existence. It is a part of yourself, and has cravings after a knowledge 


Claims of the Gospel upon Young Men. 

of God and kis favor, which will be found as imperious and tormenting, 
if not satisfied from the infinite fountain, as are the cravings of the bod- 
ily appetite for food, when we are perishing with hunger. But perhaps 
you think your spiritual necessities can be satisfied by inward light, or 
from your own resources, without recurring to the everlasting Gospel. 
You imagine, it may be, that you are competent to teach yourself by a 
kind of inspiration in your own mind. And what is this light, this inspi- 
ration, so much eulogized by modern infidelity ? What has it ever done 
for those who were without a revelation from God ? It has left them in 
perpetual darkness, the worshippers of devils, the slaves of every vile 
passion. What is the boasted light of nature, compared with the Sun of 
righteousness? Justly may we say of the former, compared with the 

" Fly through the earth, O sun, and tell 
How dark thy beams, compared with his." 

A child cries to a parent for food; will it satisfy his wants to be told, 
that the Creator has given him a supply within himself, that he must look 
within for the nourishment he needs. Will the cries of the starving 
child be silenced in this manner ? You know they Avill not. Neither 
will the painful anxieties of the soul, its apprehensions of evil from an 
offended God, and a coming retribution, be quieted by anything the sin- 
ner can find in himself. No, he must go out of himself, he must apply 
to the provisions of the Gospel to find rest. The necessities of a fallen 
nature can never be met, except in the fulness there is in Christ Jesus. 
The Gospel then is worthy of your reception. Without it the world 
had been a moral desert, having not one oasis to cheer the eye, or one 
pool to slake the thirst of the fainting traveller. You may engage in busi- 
ness, you may occupy any station, or possess any amount of earthly trea- 
sure ; but you cannot make these your chief object, the source of your 
highest happiness, without finding yourself wretchedly deceived, and 
miserable in the end. 'Before you undertake your plans and enterprises, 
if you would submit them with the calmness and seriousness of pure 
devotion to your Maker, how many of them would you relinquish, and 
with what moderation would you pursue the rest.' 

The supreme desire of earthly good is the effect of man's apostasy, 
and subjection to satan. It seduces thousands into sin, and keeps them 
in rebellion against God. It inflames the depraved passions, and has fill- 
ed the earth with violence and crime. He, who has made God his chief 
good, finds all his desires satisfied. " He that dwelleth in the secret 
place of the Most High, shall abide under the shadow of the Almighty." 
To be conti?iued. 

Course of Study in Gilmanton Seminary. 




Junior Class. 

Hebrew Grammar, Chrestomathy, and Bible. — Principles of Herme- 
neutics. — Greek of the New Testament, and Exegesis of the four Gos- 
pels. — Biblical Antiquities and Literature, Oriental Learning, and History 
of the Jewish Church. — Lectures preparatory to the Study of Theology. 
— Mental and Moral Science. — Natural Theology. — Evidences of Reve- 
lation. — Inspiration of the Scriptures. — Instruction in Reading, Elocution, 
and Public Speaking. 

Middle Class. 

Instruction on the Perfections of God ; — on the Trinity, Divinity of 
Christ and of the Holy Spirit ; on Decrees, Election, Providence; — on 
Moral Agency, the Primitive State of Man, Apostasy, Depravity; — on 
Atonement, Regeneration, Repentance, Faith, Justification, Perseverance, 
Future State, Resurrection, Judgment-day and its Eternal Consequences. 
— Exegesis of the Hebrew and Greek Scriptures continued. — Instruction 
in Reading, Elocution and Public Speaking. 

' Senior Class. 

Instruction in Reading and Speaking; on proper Management of the 
Voice ; — on appropriate Gesture; — on an easy and graceful Mode of De- 
livery; — on the Principles of Rhetoric; — on Style and Composition of 
Sermons; — on the Matter and Mode of Public Prayer; — on Pulpit Elo- 
quence; — on the Faults of Preachers, and on whatever pertains to Sacred 
Rhetoric and Pulpit Oratory. — Instruction on the Positive Institutions, 
as the Sabbath, Church, Baptism, the Lord's Supper, Church Govern- 
ment and Discipline. — Lectures on the History of the Christian Church ; 
— and on Pastoral Duties. — Listruction on special Topics in Sacred Lit- 

Public Declamation, once a week. — Compositions on the principal 
Topics in Theology, examined in private. Public Lectures by the Pro- 
fessors in the various Departments of Study, and a weekly Conference 
conducted by the Professors, in which Subjects of experimental and 
practical Religion are discussed. 

78 History of the American Education Society. 


The American Education Society owes its origin, to the great and in- 
creasing want of pious and well educated ministers of the gospel. Tin; 
first meeting in relation to it, called by Rev. Jedcdiah Morse, D. D., of 
Charlestown, Ms. and others, and consisting of a respectable number of 
clergymen and laymen, was held at the Vestry of Park Street church in 
Boston, July 20th, 1815. This meeting was principally for consultation, 
and resulted in the conclusion that it was best to establish such a Socie- 
ty, and in the appointment of a committee of ten, six clergymen and 
four laymen, to draft a Constitution, and report at an adjourned meeting. 
According to adjournment, a meeting was held in Boston, August 29th, 
1815, at which time a Constitution was adopted and the Society was 
formed ; though its officers were not elected until December 7th, follow- 
ing. The individuals then chosen were His Honor William Phillips, 
President ; Samuel Salisbury, Esq., William Bartlett, Esq., and Hon. 
William Reed, Vice Presidents; Henry Gray, Esq., Clerk; Rev. John 
Oodman, D. 1)., Corresponding Secretary ; Aaron Porter Cleveland, Esq., 
Treasurer; and Dea. John E. Tyler, Auditor. The Directors were Rev. 
Eliphalet Pearson, LL. D., Rev. Abiel Holmes, D. D., Rev. Daniel Dana, 
D. D., Rev. Ebenezer Porter, D. D., Rev. Joshua Bates, J). I)., Rev. 
Brown Emerson, D. D., and Rev. Asa Eaton, D. D. Dr. Eaton was 
chosen Clerk of the Board of Directors. 

The name of the Society at its formation, was, " The American Soci- 
ety for Educating Pious Youth for the Gospel Ministry ;" and by this 
name it was incorporated and made a body politic, by the General Court 
of Massachusetts, December 4tli, 1816. As this name was found to be 
inconvenient, a petition was preferred to the Legislature for its altera- 
tion ; and, January 31st, 1820, its name was changed to tbat of " The 
American Education Society." The article of the Constitution in re- 
spect to membership, first adopted, was — Any person who shall sub- 
scribe, and annually pay into the Treasury a sum, not less than five dol- 
lars, shall be a member of this Society ; and shall be holden to make 
such payment, until by written notice to the Treasurer, he shall have dis- 
solved his connection with the Society ; any clergymen, however, to 
whom, in his own opinion, it may be inconvenient to pay this sum, may 
be a member, who shall annually pay, as above, the sum of two dollars 
only ; and should any member for three successive years, neglect to pay 
his subscription, unless excused by the Society, his membership shall 
cease. Any person who shall pay at one time a hundred dollars, shall 
be a member for life." 

As the Society had greatly enlarged its operations, and, by the Chris- 
tian beneficence of a number of individuals, had obtained permanent 
funds to a considerable amount, it was thought advisable at the annual 
meeting, May 29th, 1826, to change the above article of the Constitution, 
so as to read as follows: — " Any person who shall subscribe and pay in- 
to the Treasury at one time, one hundred dollars, and if a clergymen, 
forty dollars, shall be an honorary member, and shall have a right to sit 

Collegiate Education in New England. 


and deliberate in all meetings of the Society. But all members hereaf- 
ter added to the Society, who shall be entitled to vote, shall be chosen 
by ballot at an annual meeting." At the annual meeting, May 28th, 
1827, the Constitution of the Society was changed, so as to enlarge the 
Board of Directors by the addition of four, making the whole number 
eleven, and to create the office of Secretary of the Society. 
To be continued. 


The liberal education of young men is a subject of the highest inter- 
est and importance. It was one of the first subjects of public attention 
with our Puritan fathers. " Scarcely had they arrived in this Western 
world, before their thoughts were turned to the establishment of a col- 
lege." While yet struggling with the difficulties and dangers of a new 
settlement, they laid the foundation of Harvard College. 

Dartmouth College dates its existence in the year 1769, when the State 
was estimated to contain less than G0,000 inhabitants. That part of the 
country about the college was then rapidly settling ; and the college im- 
mediately enjoyed a degree of prosperity without a parallel, among the ear- 
lier colleges of this country. In ten years, its graduates numbered 99 ; 
in 21 years, 333 ; in 30 years, (544 ; in 50 years, 1,308. Its present num- 
ber of graduates is nearly 2,500. 

In 1839, there were students from New England, at the different Col- 
leges in the country, in number according to the population as follows : 
From New Hampshire, 1 to 1,032 

" Vermont, (not including those at the Norwich University, 

who we're not expecting to receive a degree,) 1 to 1,064 
" Connecticut, 1 to 1,077 

u Massachusetts, 1 to 1,170 

" Rhode Island, 1 to 1,620 

" Maine, 1 to 2,813 

True Religion is, while on earth, a heavenly plant in an unfriendly 
elime. It has to struggle with soil and season ; and often meets a ma- 
lignant blast that would bring immediate death to it, were it not for the 
care of the Husbandman. He watches and shields it, who will soon 
transplant it to a happier region, where it shall flourish for ever. — CcciL 

80 Notices of New Publicatiom 


The History of Gilmanion, embracing the Proprietary, Civil, Literary, 
Ecclesiastical, Biographical, Genealogical and Miscellaneous History, from 
the first settlement to the present time ; including what is now Gilford] to the 
time it was disannexed. By Daniel Lancaster. Gilmanton: Printed by 
Alfred Prescott, 1845. pp 304. 

" The History comprised in this volume is a compilation of facts derived 
from various sources, hoth oral and written." The Author tells us "the ma- 
terials have been accumulating on his hands for nearly twenty years." The 
subjects embraced in this work are many and various, as will he seen by the 
title page. These are treated in a judicious, and interesting manner, and evident- 
ly with great research and labor, con amove. The present and future genera- 
tions are hereby laid under great obligations to the Author. Such a History of 
every town in the State is much to be desired, and should be early prepared. 

Horce Biblical : being a connected Series of Notes on the Text and literary 
History of the Bibles, or Sacred Books of the Jews and Cliristians ; and on 
the Bihles or Books accounted sacred by the Mahometans, Hindus, Parsees, 
Chinese, and Scandinavians. Volume the First, containing a connected Se- 
ries of Notes on the original Text, early Versions, and printed Editions of 
the Old and New Testaments. Boston: James Monroe and company, 

This is an English Work, and is inscribed by Charles Butler, Esq. of Lin- 
coln's Inn, London, to Sir John Courtenay Throckmorton, Baronet. The 
best notice we can give of this learned and valuable production is to mention 
the topics of which it treats. "I. Dialectics of the Hebrew Language. II. 
Septuagint Version. HI. New Testament — Peculiarities of its Style. IV. 
Biblical Literature of the Text during the Middle Ages. V. Exertions of the 
Jews to preserve the literal Integrity of the Text. VI. Vowel Points. VII. 
Historical Minutes, respecting the slate of the Jews. VIII. Hebrew Manuscripts 
and printed Editions of the Sacred Text.-Doctor Kennicottand De Rossi's Colla- 
tions. IX. Greek Manuscripts. X. Polyglott Editions. XL Printed Editionsof 
the Greek New Testament. XII. Versions of the New Testament into Mod- 
ern Greek. XIII. Oriental Versions. XIV. Latin Vulgate. XV. English 
Translations. XVI. Divisions. XVII. Enquiry whether the various Readings 
raise any argument against the claim of the Sacred Text to Authenticity, or 
Divine Inspiration. XVIII. Account of the principal Works consulted by the 
writer in framing the Compilation." We have room for only one extract: 
M The claim of The Hebrew Language to high antiquity cannot be denied. 
Its pretensions to be the original language of mankind, and to have been the 
only language in existence before the confusion of Babel, have, by many re- 
spectable writers, been thought not inconsiderable. It may be asserted confi- 
dently, that it was, at least, a dialect of that language, and that, in the strictest 
sense of the word, it is the oldest language, in which any work now extant was 
written." We regret that the work is not formally announced as an English 
production, and as having been published before. 



Vol. I. 

JANUARY, 1846. 

No. 2. 


Br the Rev. Leonard Woods, D. D., 
Professor in the Theological Seminary, Andover. 

The Scriptures say, " that the soul be without knowledge, it 
is not good." The opposite is implied, namely, that it is a great 
evil. If the soul should be absolutely without knowledge, its 
value as a rational and moral being would be annihilated. And 
if it remains destitute of knowledge in the higher sense — the 
knowledge of God and divine things, it can enjoy no true hap- 
piness. The blessedness of man consists essentially in the 
knowledge of his Maker and Redeemer. How great then our 
obligations to divine goodness, that knowledge in general, and 
knowledge of the most precious kind, is put within our reach ! 
God himself, who has given us a capacity for knowledge both 
intellectual and moral, has undertaken to be our Teacher. And 
he has chosen those methods of teaching, which are perfectly 
adapted to our nature and circumstances, and which will prove 
effectual to our instruction, if we are not essentially wanting to 

I propose to speak of three methods of Divine teaching, each 
of which is essential to the improvement of our minds and to the 


Three Methods of 

attainment of the true end of our being, and all of which are en- 
joyed by* Christians. God then teaches us by his works, by his 
Word, and by his Spirit. And though I propose to treat par- 
ticularly of the last two, I shall not overlook the importance of 
the first. 

In fact, when God teaches us by his Word, he lias already 
given us instruction by his ivories. It is utterly inconceivable, 
that we should understand the word of God, unless we have 
previously obtained some knowledge of his works. The Scrip- 
tures, at their commencement, teach us, that " God created the 
heavens and the earth." How could we understand this, unless 
we had already become acquainted with the existence of the 
heavens and the earth ? And how could we understand what it 
is to create, without having previously attended to the exercises 
of our own minds and the operations of nature around us, and 
having obtained from them some idea of what we call cause and 
effect 1 For when it is said, God created the world, the same is 
intended as when we say, in the language of science, that God's 
power was the cause, and the created universe the effect. And 
how can we understand the proposition, unless we already have 
some idea of Gpd, and of the world he made ? When the 
Scriptures declare, that God's goodness is over all his works, how 
can we understand the declaration, unless we have some idea of 
God's goodness, and of the works of his hand ? And how can we 
understand what the Scriptures teach of his providential and 
moral government, unless we have some idea of government, and 
of those created intelligent beings, over whom the divine govern- 
irfent is extended ? It is clear then, that some knowledge of 
God's works is an indispensable prerequisite to our understanding 
the Word of God. And it is equally clear, that the more 
knowledge we have of the divine works, the better we shall be 
prepared to obtain an extensive and accurate knowledge of the 
divine Word. All natural science, all the knowledge, which can 
be had by natural means of the material and spiritual creation, 

Divine Teaching. ■ 83 

if rjghtly used, becomes a hand-maid to the knowledge of Scrip- 
ture truth, and*to the exercise of Christian devotion. And it is 
owing to the utter perversion of all the faculties of the human 
mind, that natural science or philosophy is ever, especially in 
Christian lands, separated from a sound religious faith, and a sin- 
cere religious worship. 

And let me remark, that the necessity of a supernatural reve- 
lation from God does by no means result from any defect in the 
works of God, or in the instruction which they are designed to 
give. The works of God are perfect. They are stamped 
throughout with divine wisdom and goodness. And they fail of 
conveying all needed instruction to man, because he is blind, 
and cannot see things aright, and is stupid, and cannot receive 
the instruction which the creation is adapted to give ; and be- 
cause he is a sinner, condemned and lost, and needs a Saviour, 
and needs a revelation that will make the Saviour known. 

We are brought then to this conclusion, that while some knowl- 
edge of God's works is indispensable to the knowledge of his 
Word; we need his Word to reveal the truths, which are neces- 
sary for us as sinners, and also to help us, in our fallen state, to a 
right apprehension of \he divine works. There is a mutual con- 
nection between them. Neither of them can be separated from 
the other. Or if they are separated, they fail of giving the re- 
quisite knowledge. 

But we are to dwell more particularly upon the teaching of 
the Word and the Spirit of God. 

The Word of God is regarded by all Protestants, as pre- 
eminently their guide, as the sufficient and only injallible rule of 
jaith and practice. We are not to disregard uninspired books. 
They are of great value. But their value consists in this, that 
they teach and defend, illustrate and apply the truths which the 
Bible contains. If they do not teach what the Bible contains, 
or if they teach any thing contrary to the Bible, or any thing be- 
yond it, they lose their value, and become unsafe and pernicious. 


Three Methods of 

JVo uninspired men have any authority over our faith or our con- 
duct. We % may, without impropriety, call in question the sound- 
ness of any opinions they advance, and, if we find them at vari- 
ance with the Scriptures, we are bound to reject them. Even 
good men, though sanctified by the Holy Spirit, are still fallible. 
Their piety does indeed imply, that they believe and love the 
essential truths of Revelation ; but it does not secure them 
against all mistake. Those who lived near the Apostolic age 
were as liable to error, as those who live at the greatest distance 
from it. Indeed, when we consider that the early Christian wri- 
ters had but just emerged from the ignorance, superstition and 
false philosophy, in which they had been educated, and that they 
still lived in the midst of a community, which was alienated from 
the knowledge of God ; we cannot wonder, that their views of 
religion were mixed with error. The wide difference between 
their writings and the writings of the Apostles, is, in my view, 
clear evidence, that they did not write " as they were moved by 
the Holy Ghost." In fact, if an approximation to the Apostol- 
ic standard is to influence our judgment on this point, we could 
name many modern writers who have higher claims to our con- 
fidence as inspired-men, than any of the early Christian Fathers. 
And it is as true of the whole body of Christians, as of indi- 
viduals, that they are liable to error. The divine teaching prom- 
ised and granted to o\\ believers, no more affords a complete se- 
curity against error to the whole church, than to any part of the 
church. If there was error in the church at Rome, and at Co- 
rinth, and at Thessalonica, and at Ephesus, and at Colosse, and 
in every other particular church planted and instructed by the 
Apostles ; there must have been error in the whole, taken col- 
lectively. And who can doubt, that the amount of error in the 
whole body taken collectively, was made up of the errors exist- 
ing in all the particular churches ? The whole must certainly 
have contained all the error found in the different parts. For 
surely that, which was error in any part taken by itself, could not 


Divine Teaching. 85 

cease to be error, when taken in connection with the other parts. 
Never was there a more unsupported and absurd position, than 
the one frequently laid down, that the whole church of Christ on 
earth is infallible, though the particular parts of that whole are 
fallible. The only consistent ground for Protestants is, that the 
writings of all Christians since the time of the Apostles, instead 
of being regarded as authorized additions to the New Testament, 
are themselves to be tried by the New Testament, and to be re- 
ceived or rejected according as they agree, or disagree, with that 
inspired standard. 

If any one asks, whether hi making the Bible the sufficient 
and only infallible guide of our faith, we do not set aside human 
reason as altogether useless ; I answer, by no means. What 
then, it may be inquired, is the proper place and province of 
reason in regard to the peculiar truths of Christianity ? The an- 
swer is easy. Reason, or rather, the rational being, man, is not 
the inventor of these truths, but the receiver ; not the teacher, 
but the learner. Reason is the eye which sees the things pre- 
sented before it by Revelation. It is the ear which hears what 
God speaks ; and the intelligence which understands the mean- 
ing of God's Word.- The fact, that God has undertaken to 
teach the great doctrines of Christianity, implies that man needs 
to be taught, and that he has a capacity to receive instruction ; 
and that capacity \s reason. But a capacity to receive instruc- 
tion does not imply a capacity to know without instruction. 
The most powerful mind of man can no more do without divine 
instruction, than the feeblest. The only difference is, that the 
one is a better learner, that is, more capable of receiving instruc- 
tion, than the other. The instruction all comes from God. But 
one man, possessing a higher degree of intellect than others, is 
able to profit more by instruction. He can acquire knowledge 
faster. And the knowledge he acquires has greater clearness 
and greater extent. But he is equally a learner, and equally 
dependent for his knowledge on his divine Teacher. 

86 Three Methods of 

It may))e supposed, that the reason of the most enlightened 
individuals can furnish a sure guide to our faith. But here a 
difficulty arises. For who is authorized to determine what indi- 
viduals are the most enlightened, and the most worthy of confi- 
dence ? And if it should happen, that the individuals, chosen 
by different persons as the guides of their faith, should differ 
among themselves ; how would any approach be made to a sure 
standard for the religious community ? 

The result of all our inquiries will be, that, instead of finding 
any safe and infallible guide, we shall be involved in doubt and 
darkness respecting our most important interests, unless we fix 
upon the Word of God. Here we find reality, and certainty. 
We find here the true religion. And we find it in its own divine 
simplicity, free from the mixture of human inventions. From 
the Oracles of God, our faith should receive all its principles. 
Whatever the Bible teaches, either directly, or by certain conse- 
quence, we must regard as infallibly true, how much soever it 
may clash with the judgments of mere human reason. For the 
doctrines of the Bible emanate from the omniscient, eternal 
mind. And what is the reason of man, who is of yesterday, 
compared with the reason of the infinite God 1 All the com- 
mands found in the Scriptures, being the commands of a holy 
God, must be regarded as holy, just, and good. 

If, after all, you should say, that you must, as rational beings, 
make reason your ultimate standard, I would not object ; if you 
will only choose the highest reason, that which has the best claim 
tq your confidence ; the infallible reason of the divine mind. 
The infinite understanding of God has undertaken to be our 
guide, and has uttered its teachings in the holy Scriptures. If 
you turn away from this divine guide, and follow the dictates of 
mere human reason, you prefer darkness to light, and your por- 
tion will be doubt and error, instead of infallible truth and cer- 

Here we come to the grand principle of the Protestant Re- 

Divine Teaching. 87 

formers. The Bible is our guide. And, in regard to the pecu- 
liar truths of Christianity, the Bible is our only guide. If any 
man does not receive it as such, he must hold, that God never 
intended to give us a sure guide, or that he is unable to execute 
his intention. And whoever holds either of these falls into the 
rank of infidelity. A true believer yields a cordial and/w/Z sub- 
mission to the Holy Scriptures. Real and consistent faith in the 
Word of God is entire faith. The infallible Word of God is 
the rock of our confidence. Amid all the clashing opinions of 
the world, this principle quiets and settles the mind. It com- 
pletely simplifies our business, so that we have nothing to do, but 
to hear and understand what God says. If any theory of unin- 
spired men, however ingenious and plausible, does not agree with 
the instructions of the Bible, we reject it, and turn with confi- 
dence to our only sure guide. The Word of God, properly re- 
garded, checks all our tendencies to error, and keeps us steadfast 
in the belief of divine truth. Many writers of distinguished 
abilities, attempt to account for the formation of a virtuous and 
holy character by the influence of education, of external rites, 
and other means, without the renewing of the Holy Ghost. But 
the attempt avails nothing with us, because it is not according to 
the Scriptures. Let any man bring forward a scheme of religion, 
which rejects or overlooks the entire corruption of man, and the 
necessity of his being born again ; let him describe Christ as 
merely human ; let him represent our justification before God 
to be in whole or in part by our own works, and not by faith in 
Christ who died for us ; or let him so represent justification by 
faith and salvation by grace, as to countenance sin, or supersede 
the necessity of repentance and a holy life ; — from all such views 
we turn away, because they are not agreeable to the Word of 
God. We bring every opinion of man to this test. If all who 
call themselves Christians would really make the Word of God 
the rule of their faith and practice, it would free them from their 
errors and perplexities ; would prevent the waste of time ; would 


Three Methods of 

lead to an end of controversy ; and would finally produce com- 
plete harmony on all important points of theoretic and practical 

But while we maintain that the Word of God contained in 
the Scriptures, is the sufficient and only guide of our faith, we 
do not by any means set aside the necessity of a divine illumina- 
tion within the mind, the teaching of the Holy Spirit. The 
perfect sufficiency of the Bible, of which we speak, is objective. 
The instruction it presents to the mind is all the instruction, which 
we need. It teaches whatever is necessary for us relative to 
divine things. So that if any one who has the Bible, fails of 
obtaining the knowledge which is requisite for his present and 
eternal good, it is not owing to any defect in the instruction 
which the Bible gives. The Word of the Lord is perfect. It 
contains a complete system of divine truth, and presents it be- 
fore the minds of men in the best manner. Where then is the 
necessity of any other instruction ? If the Bible teaches all 
necessary truth, and teaches it in a suitable manner ; what more 
can be necessary to bring men to the saving knowledge of the 
truth, except that they should have what the Bible contains plain- 
ly set before them*? 

These inquiries bring out one of the great principles asserted 
in the Bible itself, and illustrated by the history of mankind in 
all ages ; namely, that unrenewed man discerneth not the things 
of the Spirit of God ; that he cannot know them without the 
effectual teaching of the Spirit within the mind. According to 
the Scriptures, we, who are blessed with a revelation, can no more 
obtain a saving knowledge of the truths of Christianity without 
the inward teaching of the Spirit, than we could have known 
those truths intellectually, without a revelation. This necessity of 
inward, spiritual illumination, which we are so prone to overlook, 
arises not at all from any fault in the external revelation, or from 
the want of any natural faculties in man, but from his moral de- 
pravity and consequent blindness in his natural state. This 

Divine Teaching. 


blindness of mind, this hinderance to spiritual knowledge has 
shown itself in all ages. 

After all the means, which God had used for the improvement 
of the children of Israel in Egypt and in the wilderness, and all 
the instruction which he had given them, Moses said to them in 
his last address ; li Yet the Lord hath not given you an heart to 
perceive, and eyes to see, and ears to hear, unto this day." That 
is, in consequence of their disobedience and obstinacy, the Lord 
had left them in their natural state ; he had not given them the 
precious gift of a spiritual discernment, but had, in righteous 
judgment, abandoned them to their own chosen ignorance and 
error. And how was it in subsequent ages ? Isaiah and the 
other prophets gave plain and faithful instructions, line upon line, 
precept upon precept. There was no deficiency in their teach- 
ing. But what was the reception which the people at large gave 
to all this instruction ? What was the result of it 7 It was this. 
They heard, but did not understand ; they saw, but did not per- 
ceive. Their hearts were gross. Their minds were blinded by 
sin. It was the same in Christ's day. He tells the unconverted 
Jews, that light had come into the world, but that they had lov- 
ed darkness rather than light. And he repeatedly applies to 
them the very description, which Isaiah had given of the perverse- 
ness and blindness of the people in his day. The same fatal 
blindness was often noticed by the Apostles. It was a fact of 
which they familiarly spoke, that no man had a true and saving 
knowledge of God and divine things, unless he was taught of the 
Spirit ; that the gospel was hid to all, except those in whose 
minds God caused the light of the knowledge of his glory to 

This view of the subject is confirmed by the common experi- 
ence and feelings of Christians. What is the meaning of the 
acknowledgment we so often hear from their lips, that they 
were once blind, and that now they begin to see ; that in the 
days of their unregeneracy, they saw no glory in the gospel, no 


Three Methods of 

moral excellence in Christ, and that all the spiritual discernment 
they now*have is owing to the supernatural work of God in 
their hearts? What is the meaning of our prayer for impeni- 
tent sinners, that God would give them eyes to see, and hearts 
to understand ? And what is the meaning of the prayers we 
daily offer up for ourselves, that God would remove the dark- 
ness of our minds, and teach us to understand what is revealed 
in the Scriptures ; that he would open the eyes of our under- 
standing, and enable us to see his glory in the face of Jesus 
Christ? We offer up no prayer to God, that he would give us 
another Bible, or add anything to the Bible which we have ! We 
acknowledge his word to be perfect ; and so it is. It contains 
all the instructions, which are requisite for our highest good. 
Nothing more is necessary, but that we should have a heart to 
understand these instructions. Even after we have be^un to 


know the truths of revelation, we are sensible, yes, more and 
more sensible, that we need to be taught of God. The light 
which shines in us enables us to see more clearly the remaining 
darkness of our minds. Having experienced in some measure 
the teaching of the spirit, we have learnt its preciousness, and 
we desire it and pray for it more and more earnestly ; and we 
seize the gracious encouragement which Christ has given us ; 
" ask, and ye shall receive ; seek, and ye shall find." 

Those who preach the gospel with the disposition which the 
gospel inculcates, rely not for success upon their own labors, nor 
upon the mere truths which they preach, but upon the special 
work of the Holy Spirit. The more they know of their own 
hearts and the hearts of others, the more do they feel that neither 
he who planteth, nor he who watered] is anything, and that the 
increase depends wholly on God, without whose effectual opera- 
tion in the hearts of men, the gospel, however faithfully preach- 
ed, will be a savor of death unto death. No vigor of the in- 
tellect, no aptness to learn natural science, no diligence or per- 
severance in study, even in the study of God's Word, will ever 

Divine Teaching. 


avail to give to fallen men a spiritual discernment of divine truth, 
without that •inward work of the Spirit which removes the 
blinding influence of sin, and causes the true light to shine in 
the heart. Oh 1 what waste of time and talent and labor do 
we see among men of high reputation for learning and for vari- 
ous natural endowments, who prosecute their studies without re- 
ceiving, or even seeking that unction of the Holy Spirit, which 
teaches all things ! And how great is the indebtedness of Chris- 
tians to a merciful God, who has given them instruction not only 
by his works and by his Word, but also by his Spirit ; who has 
not only granted them the light of divine truth from without, but 
has, by his operation within, given them eyes to see that light 
and a heart to love it ! And how deplorable is the condition of 
those who, while enjoying the light which shines upon them 
from the visible creation, and the clearer light of revelation, still 
abide in darkness ! Who can tell how great is that darkness! 

As a suitable illustration of the important truth, that we need 
not only the speculative knowledge which we may acquire from 
natural sources, and even from the Scriptures, but the knowledge 
which comes from the inward teaching of God's Spirit, I shall give 
a brief account of two men of well known characters, viz., Spinoza 
and John Huss. You will see in their case, how blessed is the 
man, who looks earnestly for light, both to the Word and the 
Spirit of God ; and how blind and wretched is he, however 
distinguished for genius and literature, who has never been irradi- 
ated by this spiritual light. 

Who can read the account which Spinoza gives of himself, 
without compassion for the man who, though so great in intellect, 
was lost to spiritual knowledge, to piety, and to happiness ! 

"When experience had taught me," says Spinoza, the pan- 
theistic philosopher, — "that what is generally talked of among 
men, was vain and empty ; when I saw that all I used to fear or 
love, was neither good nor bad in itself, but only so far as the 
mind is affected by it, I concluded at last to search, whether 

92 Three Methods of 

there was any true good, which would communicate itself, and by 
which, if I should renounce every thing else, my mind might be 
influenced ; whether there was any thing by which, if I should 
possess myself of it, I might attain to an eternal and supreme 
happiness. I say that I concluded at last ; for at first it seemed 
unreasonable to lose a certain thing for an uncertain. I clearly 
perceived the advantages connected with honor and riches, and 
that I should have to renounce them if I should pursue a differ- 
ent object. And it was plain to me, that if supreme happiness 
consisted in them, I should lose that happiness in pursuing a dif- 
ferent end ; but that, if happiness did not consist in them, and 
I should seek them supremely, I should lose happiness in that 
way. I then reasoned, whether it was not possible for me to 
enter on my new work, or at least to come to some certainty on 
the point, without leaving my old course of life. But that I 
tried in vain. For what is generally the topic of men's conver- 
sation, and what they esteem most highly, comes at last to three 
things, riches, honor, pleasure. But these things so distract the 
mind, that it can think seriously of no other good. When there- 
fore I saw that all this was inconsistent with my new project, and 
even opposed to it, so that I should necessarily have to relin- 
quish one or the other of the two courses, I was compelled to de- 
cide which I would prefer. It was not without reason, that I 
was accustomed to say, if I could only consider it seriously : for 
although I saw it all clear before my mind, yet could I never, on 
that account lay aside all avarice, ambition, and love of pleas- 

Self-deceived, miserable man ! Being destitute of that 
knowledge and faith, which come from the teaching of God's 
Spirit, he wandered about in doubt, and darkness, and error, and 
was " like the troubled sea which cannot rest, whose waters cast 
up mire and dirt." 

Turn now to John Huss, who for a time was subject to dis- 
tressing doubts and struggles of mind. " I confess," he said, 

Divine Teaching* • 93 

"before God and his anointed, that from my youth up, I doubt- 
ed and hesitated What I should choose ; whether I should praise 
what all others praised, approve what they approved, and ex- 
cuse what they excused ; and whether I should gloss over the 
Scriptures, as others did who seemed to be clothed with sanctity 
and wisdom ; or whether I should manfully accuse and condemn 
the unfruitful works of darkness ; whether I should attempt to 
enjoy a comfortable life with others, and seek for honors, and 
preferments, or go out without the camp, cleave to the pure and 
holy truth of the gospel, and bear the poverty and reproach of 
Christ. I confess freely, that I doubted and hesitated long. At 
last I turned to God, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, in 
sincere and fervent supplication. Taking my Bible in my hands, 
and raising it up towards God in heaven, I cried out with my 
whole heart ; O God, my Lord, Author of my life, and Father 
of lights, illuminate my mind, teach me to knoiv and love the 
pure doctrines of thy word, and guide me into all the truth." 

Happy man ! brought at last, after all his doubts and per- 
plexities, to look for light where it could be found, and to believe 
and love the pure, precious truth, taught him by the Word and 
the Spirit of God. And blessed is every one, who thus enjoys 
the instruction of the sacred Scriptures, and the effectual inward 
leaching of the Holy Ghost. 


Look brfckto the time when God existed independent and alone; when 
there was nothing but God ; no heavens, no earth, no angels, no men. 
How wretched should we, how wretched would any creature, be, in such 
a situation. But Jehovah was then infinitely happy — happy beyond all 
possibility of increase. He is an overflowing fountain, a bottomless and 
shoreless ocean of being, perfection, and happiness ; and when this in- 
finite ocean overflows, suns and worlds, angels and men, start into exis- 
tence. — Pay son. 



The Meditative Spirit. 


By the Rev. Charles Tenney. 

" And Wisdom's self 
Oft seeks to sweet retired solitude, 
Where, with her best nurse, Contemplation, 
She plumes her feathers, and lets grow her wings, 
That in the various bustle of resort 
Were all too ruffled, and some times impaired." 

This passage from Milton suggests a truth which is worthy 
our attention, namely, the high value of a meditative spirit, and 
its special importance to the minister of the gospel. We live in 
a busy day ; it is well we do. It is a requisition of our nature, 
as well as an ordinance of God, that we do with our " might 
what our hands find to do." Both the attributes and the works 
of God speak stern rebuke to the sluggard. The ever-rolling 
orbs above, earth in her untired journeyings, the changing seasons, 
the sleepless billows, all proclaim his unwearied energy, and ad- 
monish man, who was formed in his Maker's image, to work 
while it is called to day. It is not, therefore, with the intention 
of decrying, or diminishing the activity and enterprize now prev- 
alent, that the claims of meditation are urged ; the two are not 
opposed, and I hope, ere concluding, to show, that they are bound 
together by natural and inseparable bonds. 

Meditation is often confounded with reverie, from which how- 
ever it should carefully be distinguished. Were they the same, 
there would be but little reason to wish an increase of them in the 
world. Reverie is that passive state of the mind, in which, with- 
out effort or control of its own, images and emotions pass 
through it just as they are excited, by chance or accidental asso- 
ciation — a dreaming awake, as idle and profitless as dreaming 

* This Article is the substance of an Address, delivered by Mr. Tenney be- 
fore the Society of Associated Alumni of Gilmanton Theological Seminary, nt 
its Anniversary in 1845. 

The Meditative Spirit. 


asleep, and sometimes even more so, for the deluded subject, while 
chasing day-dreams, which the child or the idiot can do as well 
as he, is apt to imagine, he is accomplishing something, that he 
is even absorbed in laborious thought, and shall reap its reward ; 
— a mistake, which he never makes concerning the phantoms of the 
night. That alone is meditation, in which the awakened powers 
of the mind are directed to objects definitely selected, and are 
employed in their investigation, under the stern control of the rea- 
son and the will. And that is a meditative spirit, which is often 
engaged in such exercises, which loves frequently to retire with- 
in itself, and, in the soul's secret chambers, hold intimate commu- 
nion with truth. 

Let it be observed, that with the meditative spirit, this employ- 
ment is a chosen and habitual, not a forced and occcmona/,exercise. 
He, who thinks, only when compelled by his business or the pres- 
sure of circumstances, deserves no more to be called meditative, 
than another, to be termed industrious, who resorts to labor, only 
when forced by hunger or the smart of the lash. A man may 
live an active, business life, and yet not, for one single hour during 
the whole course of it, set himself seriously to contemplate any 
other topics, than those presented by his business or other passing 
events. The preacher may be diligent, and fail not on the Sabbath 
to enter the pulpit with his two sermons duly prepared, and yet 
be far from being a meditative man. The Recluse, who is forced 
into society, is not thereby made social. He may talk for the 
time as others talk, and seem to sympathize with the throng 
around ; but still his heart is not there, and his spirit breathes not 
freely till he has hied him to his loved retreat. So he, who re- 
tires to the solitude within, only when forced by external pressure, 
and who leaves that solitude when the pressure is withdrawn, 
is for all this, only a stranger there, and will expect in vain the 
rewards of him, to whom such retirement is a daily delight. 

With these explanations, let us proceed to consider some rea- 
sons, why the possession of such a spirit should characterize the 


The Meditative Spirit. 

minister of the gospel. It will greatly increase his familiarity witb 
the truths, which he is called to teach. I mean not by this a 
mere verbal familiarity, a readiness to utter certain set forms, and 
stereotyped phrases, which can be acquired by the minister as by 
the parrot, with little reflection ; but a heart-familiarity, the 
constant presence of truth in the soul, as an abiding source of 
thought and emotion. The great value of such an acquisition 
cannot be questioned. It enables its possessor, in his instructions, 
not only to speak with readiness and adaptation, but also with 
peculiar freshness, — a living power, of all things most essential 
to produce lasting effect. Such an one has always that within 
him, which, even if circumstances embarrass and memory fail, 
will give him utterance ; and they, who approach him for in- 
struction and consolation, do it with the assurance, that they are 
not to receive the didactic teachings of one, whom books alone 
have made wise, but of him, whose own heart hath for itself fully 
fathomed all their necessities. Such a familiarity, habits of med- 
itation alone, will impart. Past studies, past acquisitions, will not 
give it. They may greatly facilitate the work of meditation, 
but will not supply its neglect. We do not draw water from 
stagnant pools to Tjuench our thirst ; we seek the gushing foun- 
tain, and knowledge hoarded in other days, will not now warm 
the heart and quicken the tongue, unless by meditative habits it 
be kept in perennial freshness. 

I would again remark, the cultivation of this spirit is an essen- 
tial requisite to deepen knowledge of divine things. Progress 
in 4 this knowledge, the minister should ever be making. He 
owes it to himself, to the church, and to God. To " grow in 
wisdom" is an oft repeated command, binding on him as on all. 
He is to feed the flock of God, and to do it, his own soul must be 
replenished with heavenly stores. Whence are these supplies to 
be drawn, but from the depths of holy meditation ? Is it answer- 
ed, the Bible is his treasury, and this will suffice ? But how, I 
ask, is this to be comprehended? This book, he is not merely 

The Meditative Spirit. 


to read but to expound. He is the steward of God's mysteries, 
and his own*soul must fathom, ere he can reveal to others, those 
hidden deeps. 

We do not undervalue the Bible, nor the writings of the wise 
and good, when we assert, that the mere reading of them 
will not secure growth in knowledge. Momentary contact is not 
sufficient. Truth must penetrate, in order to illumine, the soul. In 
hours of quiet thoughtful ness, it must be recalled and pondered, 
and all its various aspects and relations repeatedly surveyed. It 
is for him alone, who, with unwearied search, explores the^e?ie- 
tralia of truth, that the vail is withdrawn, and then, in her full- 
orbed radiance, she stands revealed. That truth may act upon the 
mind, the mind must act upon the truth, and the reaction will be 
exactly proportioned to the intensity of action. 

Healthy vegetation depends on certain conditions. A proper 
temperature and genial soil are as essential in the production of 
the crop, as the sowing of the seed. So is it with knowledge. 
And as well may you look for a harvest of grain upon an iceberg, 
as one of wisdom in the soul, where meditation does not cherish 
and vivify the seeds of truth. 

The connection between the preacher's growth in knowledge, 
and his acceptableness in his ministrations, deserves a passing- 
consideration. Many a one enters the sacred office with a mind 
well furnished by previous study, and with an extensive knowl- 
edge of sacred truth. His labors are highly acceptable, and, for 
a time, he is considered, by the people of his charge, as one rich 
in wisdom, and a faithful guide in the path of life, and he is led 
to expect he shall live and die, in full possession of their confi- 
dence and affection. Alas, the disappointment ! Soon intelli- 
gence comes to his ears startling as the thunder clap, that disaf- 
fection exists, and his teachings are deemed uninteresting and un- 

Now, making all due allowance for the fickleness or fastidious* 
ness of his auditory, may not one cause of this change be found 


The Meditative Spirit. 

.in the minister's own neglect to grow in knowledge ? Instruc- 
tions once gladly received, he supposed would continue to please, 
if presented with equal clearness and force, and he was satisfied 
with those attainments, which seemed to satisfy others. He for- 
got, that no perfection of knowledge attainable here, precludes 
the necessity of increase, and that the teacher, who advances not 
beyond himself, who gains not fresh and enlarged views of truths 
that are old, will tire even by uniformity of excellence. 

In connection with the preceding advantages, should be men- 
tioned growth in personal holiness. This is pre-eminently de- 
pendent on the cultivation of a meditative spirit. It is by the 
truth of God, the heart is sanctified, but it is by this truth as 
known, understood and applied. With all its omnipotence, truth 
cannot move the heart it does not enter. It may shine around 
us with noon-day brightness, but, if we take it not home to our 
bosoms, we are in darkness still. The ambassador of Christ 
should not therefore suppose, because truth is his message, and 
the exposition of it, his employment, that he will necessarily be- 
come eminent in holiness. Sad as is the fact, his hands may 
handle the bread of life, while his soul within him is famished. 
His only safeguard-against this danger, lies in the constant exer- 
cise of prayerful meditation. By this alone can he know himself 
— the state of his heart, his secret sins, his wanderings, his weak- 
ness, his manifold necessities. Knowledge is the basis of all 
growth in holiness. 

Thus alone can he acquire and retain those deep convictions 
of the vanity of the world, the emptiness of its pleasures, its 
numberless wiles, which will constrain him to watch, and pray 
that he enter not into temptation. Thus alone can he compre- 
hend time and eternity, weigh their respective claims and see the 
one, a drop, the other, ocean's fathomless abyss. Thus alone can 
God himself be known, his glory be unveiled, through beholding 
which, kindred glory is impressed on the believing spirit. The 
great truths of man's spiritual being, we may theoretically know, 


The Meditative Spirit. • 99 

and be able to teach them to others, but if we are not wont daily 
to revolve them ourselves, and with direct reference to our own 
state and wants, they will not sanctify our hearts. The power 
of the world to come, vast and infinite as it is, is all in vain, when 
the attention is constantly engrossed by things present and seen. 

Is it objected, that it is the Spirit that sanctifies, and that we are 
limiting divine power ; but how does this blessed Agent fulfill his 
office? Does not the Bible declare, and the experience of every 
Christian testify, that it is in connection with the truth, that it is 
by and through the truth, his gracious power is for the most part 
exerted ? Would Christ's ambassador, therefore, be filled with 
his Spirit, his word must also abide in him ; yes, abide in him, 
not be occasionally recalled and occasionally considered, but 
wheu he sitteth in the house, and when he walketh by the way, 
and when he lieth down, and when he riseth up, be kept in living 
remembrance. Then it is that, according to the Savior's prom- 
ise, it becomes to him spirit and life. 

The same is true of faith, on whose powerful agency, the Bible 
represents purity of heart and life to be so closely dependent. 
Faith does not work without an object. If knowledge of truth 
exist not in the mind,. there can be no faith there. It gives en- 
ergy and sanctifying power to this knowledge, but never creates 
it. That faith may be in lively exercise, the mind must be dili- 
gently employed in collecting materials, upon which it maybe ex- 
ercised. To be strong in faith and averse to meditation, is a sole- 
cism, the world has not yet beheld, and never will behold, while 
the laws, by which God governs the human mind, remain un- 

This spirit is the soul of eloquence. True eloquence is not 
the gift of chance, nor the product of uncertain, accidental causes. 
It always has, in the human soul, fixed and substantial prerequi- 
sites, and he who would excel in the divine art of making others' 
wills obedient to his own, should not be ignorant of its princi- 
ples. The most essential of these are clear and familiar knovvl- 


The Meditative Spirit. 

edge, combined with deep emotion. He, who would speak con- 
viction to men's minds, must speak of that which he does know, 
and he, who would awaken emotion in men's hearts, must speak 
of that which he does feel. 

Si vis me flere, dolendum est 
Prisnum ipsi tibi. 

Would you wish me to weep, your own tears must first flow, says 
the ancient master. 

Of all subjects this is true, but especially so with the preacher's 
sacred theme. He has to address the darkened understanding, 
the seared conscience, the hardened heart, and shall he expect, 
with the powerless engines of barren conjecture and cold decla- 
mation, to penetrate such barriers ? As well might he address 
the sleeping dead. Why were not holy angels sent to preach 
the gospel, and why was Allien man commissioned ? Is it not one 
reason, that the blood-bought soul alone could fitly speak a Sa- 
vior's love ? That Gabriel, with all his high intelligence, could not 
know, could not feel, and therefore could not speak of sin's 
dreadful bondage, of God's infinite compassion, as he who had 
himself experienced the curse of the one, and the blessedness of 
the other? But, would ministers speak upon these things as they 
may, as God demands they should, let them remember Paul's 
injunction to Timothy, " Meditate upon these things, ^ive thy- 
self wholly to them." Trust not to former knowledge. The 
manna of past experience will putrify if hoarded. Present con- 
victions, present emotions — the offspring of present meditation, 
are the prompters of melting utterance. "While I was mus- 
ing," says the Psalmist, " the fire burned ; then spake I with my 
tongue." So has it ever since been. No other fuel will (eed 
the inward fire; no other fire move the silent tongue. 

The effect of meditation, when thus diligently practised is not 
a matter of uncertainty. God has given his truth power to move 
men's souls. The cause is adequate to the effect — the effect 

The Meditative Spirit. 


must follow the cause. You may complain of coldness of tem- 
perament, of deficiency in natural gifts ; but you have within you 
a human soul. God's truth is within your reach. Grasp it, 
take it home to your bosoms, hold it there with an ever tightening 
pressure, and see what becomes of your icy frigidity, your stam- 
mering utterance. It is not to torrid climes, the effect of volcanic 
power is limited. It spouts the burning lava as well amid the 
glaciers of Iceland, as on the sunny plains of Mexico. And 
no minister of Christ, however torpid his sensibilities, can revolve 
his message, as he should revolve it, without its proving to him 
what it did to the Prophet, " as a burning fire shut up in his 
bones till he is weary with forbearing." 

As a concluding reason, I would name the importance of a 
meditative spirit as a spring of action. Many, indeed, consider 
a meditative and an active spirit, as inconsistent with each other, 
and that the cultivation of the former weakens the latter. This 
erroneous impression has probably arisen from that confounding 
of meditation with reverie, of which we have spoken. But if 
meditation be what we have defined it — the conscious, awakened 
mind, silently and intently communing with truth, there can be 
•no greater error than Jo mistake for it that lethargic stupor, which 
has usurped its name. To think thus, implies activity, is itself 
activity of the highest order, and every outward enterprise of 
interest and moment must have from this its source and impulse. 
Fancy, pleasure and passion often move us powerfully, and 
promise great results ; but their influence is uncertain and tran- 
sient, and whatever depends upon them, must necessarily be of the 
same nature. 

The completion of every noble project for God's glory or 
man's good, lies far from the beginning, and never will be reached, 
unless something, far different from the eiiervesence of momen- 
tary impulse, urge onward. Truth alone is ever the same. Her 
principles are eternal, her power unchangeable; and he, who 
hath searched out her deep foundations, and planted there 


The Meditative Spirit. 

.immoveably, his foot, is the only man, who is prepared to do 
aught, whith will really advance her interests. The reason we 
have so many visionary schemes, so much bustling pretension, 
now vexing and deluding the world, is that their authors are 
strangers in the school of meditation. They know nothing of 
their own hearts, nothing of the nature and wants of man, noth- 
ing of the appropriate remedies, by which the varied evils of his 
social state are reached and cured. Fill the world with these 
reformers, and with all their noisy activity, what is it benefitted ? 
Can the fair temple of truth be reared by such unconsecrated 
hands? Are ignorance and folly competent leaders, when the 
mighty bulwarks of error are to be stormed? Who have been 
the men, where mighty moral energy has roused slumbering na- 
tions, and made after ages own them as benefactors ? Uniformly 
those, who have come forth to their work from the solitude of 
deep meditation, who, by constant and absorbing communion, 
have not so much become possessed of, as possessed by, the 
truth ; by whose inspiration they have had souls to dare, and 
hands to execute, deeds, at which the world stands astonished. 
Read the " Confessions of Augustine," learn the habits of in^ 
tense contemplation which characterized Luther, Bunyan, Bax- 
ter and our own Edwards, and you will discover how it was 
these men of might girded themselves with such resistless strength. 
Why towers the giant oak to the skies, defying tempest and 
thunderbolt ? Because in silence and in darkness, it hath by its 
strong roots and ten thousands fibres, with wide and deep em- 
brace, grasped the firm foundations of the earth beneath. On 
this point we frequently misjudge. Much everywhere needs to 
be done. Loud calls summon us to the scenes of active life. 
We hastily obey, and, leaving our retirement, soon find ourselves 
so busily employed, that to revisit it seems impossible, and we 
postpone meditation to some future hoped for leisure. This 
leisure, like the horizon, flies ever before us, and we toil on until 
our hands become weary, our hearts dry within us, and our most 

m i 


The Meditative Spirit. . 103 

strenuous exertions, like water poured upon the desert. In this 
state, a gloomy despondency steals over the mind, and we al- 
most complain, that while engaged in God's service we should be 
left so deserted and unblessed. But what wonder; — the day of 
miracles is past. Can we expect the streams to flow on, when 
the fountains are cut off? Can we expect inward strength, when 
we neglect the only means, by which God has ordained it ? The 
spirit like the body must receive its appropriate food. Exces- 
sive toil increases, rather than diminishes, this necessity. To 
preach the truth, to labor for it, is not to feed upon it. Its pow- 
er and quickening influence can be felt within us, only by con- 
stant and self-applying meditation, and never let us deem that 
time lost or mis-spent, in which we retire, even from the best of 
causes, to seek refreshment at the secret springs of strength and 
consolation. Our divine Master could certainly far better than 
we, dispense with such succor, and yet we find him preceding 
his ministry by forty days retirement in the wilderness, and, 
in the midst of his multiplied labors, ever and anon withdrawing 
to the desert and his loved Gethsemane. 

Such are some of the considerations, that should incite us to 
cultivate a meditative spirit. Its claims could not well be strong- 
er. Our own inward life, our success as ministers of the gospel, 
our efficiency in every department of Christian enterprise — all 
these we have seen depend upon it. As we value these momentous 
results, such should ever be our zeal and diligence in cherishing 
that, from which they spring. But were these reasons less num- 
erous and weighty, we certainly should not lack incentives to this 
employment. Man was formed for contemplation. This is his dis- 
tinguishing, glorious prerogative, his stamp of divinity, and he has 
been placed, where he may have full scope for its most vigorous 
exercise. Exhaustless themes lie within, around, above, beneath. 
Truth's sacred treasures, not only in the word, but through all 
the works of God everywhere, invite and reward his search. He 
who hath graciously styled himself the Father of our spirits, 


Biographical Memoir of 

while so abundantly providing for the body, hath not forgotten 
therrij or limited them to the husks on which our baser nature 
feeds ; no, he has prepared for them a birth-right blessing, food 
immortal, and spiritual like themselves, truth's eternal feast. It is 
meditation which opens the golden door and introduces to the 
banquet. What bidden guest will refuse to enter? 


[This is the nobleman, after whom Dartmouth College received its name. The 
following account of him was written and published, in the London Magazine 
for October, 1780, while his lordship was living.] 

William Legge, Earl of Dartmouth, Viscount Lewisham, and Baron 
Dartmouth, succeeded to the titles and estates of his grandfather Wil- 
liam, the last earl, who died on the 15th of December, 1750 ; the father 
of the present Earl, George Lord Viscount Lewisham, dying many 
years before his father. 

This noble family is descended from Signorde Lega, an Italian noble- 
man, who flourished in Italy towards the close of the thirteenth century. 
It is uncertain when the founder of the English family first settled in 
England; but as early as the year 1346, Thomas Legge, one of the an- 
cestors, was Lord Mayor of London ; and in 1353, was re-elected, and 
served in that high office, a second time. The residence of this gentle- 
man in the country, was upon an estate called Legge's Place, near Tun- 
bridge, in Kent. The first of the family, raised to the dignity of a 
peer, was Admiral Legge, great-grandfather to the present earl, who is 
the third peer. The admiral was created a peer by Charles II. on the 
2nd of December, 1682, by the style and title of Baron Dartmouth, of 
Dartmouth in Devonshire, and in the spring following, he was appointed 
commander-in-chief of u powerful fleet sent to demolish Tangiers, on the 
coast of Africa, which service he effectually performed. In the reign 
of James U. he was in high favour; being made Master of the Horse, 
General of the Ordinance, Constable of the Tower, and admiral of the 
fleet intended to intercept the Dutch fleet, that conveyed the Prince 
of Orange to England; but the wind being contrary, he could not come 
up with the Dutch fleet, and the prince with his forces was safely land- 
at Torbay. Some historians have asserted, that Lord Dartmouth, know- 
ing that most of his officers secretly favored the cause of the Prince of 

the Earl of Dartmouth, .. 105 

Orange, neglected his duty ; but the famous Dr. Burnet, afterwards 
Bishop of Salisbury, who was chaplain to the Prince of Orange, and on 
board his fleet, declares, that the Dutch fleet was so land-locked, that 
the gale had no effect upon it, while the English fleet was unable to 
keep the sea, and obliged to run into harbour for safety. It is likewise 
evident, that his lordship was considered by King William as a man zeal- 
ously attached to James II., for as soon as the Revolution was accomplish- 
ed, he was deprived of all his employments, and committed to the Tower, 
where he died on the 25th of October, 1698. His son was created Earl 
of Dartmouth, and Viscount Lewisham, by Queen Anne, on the 5th of 
September, 1711. The present Earl, his grandson, was born about the 
year 1730. His lordship received the first rudiments of education from 
the Rev. Mr. Fountaine, master of the academy at Marybone ; from 
which place he was removed to Westminster school, and at a proper age 
was sent to one of the universities ; but we are ignorant which of them 
had the honour of completing his education. 

In 1755, his lordship married the sole daughter and heiress of the late 
Sir Charles Gunter Nicholl, Knight of the Bath, by whom he had issue, 
George Lord Viscount Lewisham, member in the last and the present 
parliament for Plymouth, and four other sons. 

In 1757, his lordship was chosen Recorder of Litchfield; from this 
period to the year 1755, his attachment to letters, and to the endear- 
ments of domestic life, together with a pious turn of mind, seemed to 
have secluded him from the bustle of public life. When he was occa- 
sionally noticed, it was as an amiable private character, from principle 
favouring the sect of Mothodists, to whom he has been a bountiful pat- 
ron, and has built a chapel for his own use, and those of the neighbor- 
hood, who are of the same persuasion, at his seat on Blackheath. 

When his late Royal Highness the Duke of Cumberland was sent for, 
and consulted by his majesty about forming an administration, the Mar- 
tinis of Rockingham, who was placed at the head of it, recommended 
Lord Dartmouth as a nobleman of great integrity, and a firm friend of 
the Constitution, to the very honorable office of First Lord of the 
Board of Trade and Plantations. His lordship at this time, it is said, 
hroke through his own inclinations for a private life to oblige his noble 
friend, and accepted the office, to which he was appointed on the 20th 
of July, 1765, and was at the same time sworn in one of the Lords of the 
Privy-council. In this station he continued only till the month of Au- 
gust, 1766, when that short-lived administration was dismissed, and we 
do not find him in any employment again till the month of August, 1772, 
wlieu his lordship became a member of the present administration, by 


1 06 Biographical Notice of 

accepting the important office of Secretary of State for the colonies, 
and First J^ord of Trade, the two offices being united for him, though 
they had been separately disposed of before, as they have been since. 

Lord Dartmouth is the only nobleman in the Rockingham adminis- 
tration, who has joined the present ministry, and perhaps no greater 
proof can be given of the high value that is set upon his integrity, can- 
dour, and moderation. While there was any prospect left of reconcilia- 
tion with the colonies, his lordship filled his office with reputation, and 
seemed to give entire satisfaction to the ruling powers in the cabinet; 
but soon after coercive measures were resolved upon, it was thought his 
lordship's natural disposition was too timid, too cautious, and too hu- 
mane, for the active exertions of an offensive war against an unfortunate, 
deluded part of his fellow subjects. As all the hostile proceedings were 
to originate in the House of Commons, it was likewise more politic, that 
the minister of the colony department, who was to ask for large sup- 
plies of land forces, and other aids, for carrying on this war, should be a 
member of that House, and a man possessed of an uncommon share of 
fortitude. In this situation of affairs, the minister had not a second 
choice to make ; Lord George Germaine was the only man in either 
House whose undaunted resolution, and political abilities qualified him 
pre-eminently for this most responsible post, which must either transmit 
his name and character with glory or infamy, to ages yet unborn. 

On the 10th of November, 1775, Lord George Germaine was nomina- 
ted Secretary of State for the colonies, and Lord Dartmouth succeeded 
to the no less honorable office of Lord Privy-Seal, on the resignation of 
the Duke of Grafton, who did not approve of the measures then carry- 
ing on against America. No office in the gift of government could be 
more suitable to his lordship's turn of mind, or in which he could be so 
useful to his king and country, and for these reasons we wish he may 
hold it for life, and never consent to those courtly arrangements, which, 
by chopping and changing, to accommodate the heads of parties, throw 
men out of places for which they are peculiarly qualified, to place them 
in others for which they are totally unqualified. In his lordship's pres- 
ent station, his learning, his acknowledged candour, his immaculate in- 
tegrity, and above all, his persuasive coolness and moderation, will allay 
the heat of warmer tempers in council, conciliate jarring interests, and 
gently introduce harmony, unanimity, and clemency. 

In his parliamentary capacity, his present office likewise enables him 
to be peculiarly serviceable. Not being a principal conductor of the 
American war, he is no longer a conspicuous mark for the whole artil- 
lery of opposition, and he has a fair opportunity to check the intemper- 

the Earl of Dartmouth. * 107 

ance of party zeal, by his mild, concise, rational animadversions on some 
of their declamations. His lordship speaks but seldom, but when he 
does, it is with such clearness and precision, and such a mixture of mod- 
esty, with conscious dignity, that he commands attention and respect. 
We have observed him, covering his opponents with confusion, by ex- 
posing the futility of their arguments, and the indignity of amusing the 
House of Peers with prolix digressions from the subject of debate, 
which would not be permitted to school-boys. Indeed if every member 
of parliament was to keep close to his subject, and not Avaste the time in 
unmanly personal abuse, nor in a display of fruitless, unapplicable ora- 
tory — mere inundations of empty sounds — the debates would be greatly 
contracted, and the national business transacted in half the time. In a 
word, Lord Dartmouth is a model for chaste, sensible speakers, who arc 
masters of their subject, and are convinced, that honest truth, plain mat- 
ter of fact, and sound argument, require little or no aid from the flowers 
of oratory. 

His lordship in his person is rather above the middle stature ; his coun- 
tenance indicates a benevolent mind, and a serenity of temper which 
few attain. He has a juvenile appearance, uncommon to a man of his 
years, in which may be traced the comeliness of his youth; he is easy of 
access; affable, and polite in his demeanor; and a strict observer of his 

The following Notice of the Earl of Dartmouth, as a Patron of Dart- 
mouth College, is taken from the Dartmouth, a Periodical conducted by 
students of the College. 

"When in 17GG — 7 the" Rev. Messrs. Whitaker andOccom, the latter an 
Indian convert and preacher, were commissioned to solicit funds in 
England, for Moor's Indian Charity School, which had been set up by 
Dr. Eleazar Wheelock, in Lebanon, Connecticut, the Earl of Dartmouth, 
with characteristic liberality, gave them his active support and co-opera- 
tion. He commended their enterprise to the Royal Family, Nobility, 
and others ; and, through his patronage, about £7000 were collected. A 
Board of Trustees was constituted, under his Presidency, to receive the 
monies thus obtained, for the use of the Institution, and engage in its 
behalf "the benevolent and charitable of all denominations in the king- 
dom." About £2000 were also collected in Scotland. Through this mu- 
nificence Dr. Wheelock was enabled to enlarge the plan of his Institu- 
tion, and give it a location more favorable to its contemplated objects. 
It was soon removed to Hanover ; obtained a royal charter, as Dartmouth 
College, in 17G9 ; and continued to enjoy the lavor of its distinguished 

108 Sketches of Alumni 

patrons in Great Britain, till the interruption of friendly relations by the 
war of the Revolution. 

A full-length portrait of this excellent nobleman, from an original by 
Sir Joshua Reynolds, adorns the gallery of the College. It was receiv- 
ed in 1829, a compliment from the present Earl, a grandson of the Pat- 
ron, and is an additional memorial of the liberality of this distinguished 
family; whose name, it is hoped, will never be dishonored by the Insti- 
tution which bears it ; and which, in its whole history, has well illustra- 
ted the sentiment of the family motto, GAUDET TENTAMINE VIR- 


Dartmouth College received its Charter, Dec. 13th, 1769, 
and its first Commencement was celebrated, Aug. 28th, 1771. 
At this time, four individuals, Levi Frisbie, Samuel Gray, Syl- 
vanus Ripley and John Wheelock received the degree of Bach- 
elor of Arts. As there was not a quorum of the Trustees of 
the College present on the occasion, a copy of the following 
Document was given to each of them, instead of a regular Di- 
ploma : 

"Dartmouth College in Hanover, in the 'Province of New- 
Hampshire, August 28, A. D. 1771. 

We, the Subscribers, being the only Trustees of Dartmouth 
College convened, do hereby certify, that we were present this 
day at the probationary act performed by Levi Frisbie, Samuel 
Gray, Sylvanus Ripley and John Wheelock, students in said 
College, and we do adjudge and declare, that the said Levi 
Frisbie, Samuel Gray, Sylvanus Ripley and John Wheelock 
are fully and sufficiently qualified to be admitted to the degree 
of Bachelor of Arts ; and it is our unanimous vote, that a Di- 
ploma of such degree be perfected and presented to each of the 
said Levi Frisbie, Samuel Gray, Sylvanus Ripley and John 
Wheelock, at the first sufficient meeting of the Trustees after 
this date. J. Wentworth, 

Eleazar Wheelock, President^ 
George Jaffrey, 
D. Peirce, 
Peter Gilman, 
Benjamin Pomerqy/' 

of Dartmouth College. 

J 09 

A brief Notice of each of the above graduates will be here 

Levi Frisbie, M. A., the first graduate named on the Cata- 
logue of Dartmouth College, was the son of Elisha Frisbie of 
Branford, Ct. and was born in April, 1748. In 1767, possessing 
the character of a pious young man of promising talents, he 
was placed under the Rev. Dr. Eleazar Wheelock, with a spe- 
cial view to prepare for the missionary service. His studies even 
at school were directed to this work, partly at Lebanon, which 
was the place of the residence of his patron, and partly at Beth- 
lem, with Rev. Dr. Bellamy. He entered Yale College, where 
he continued more than three years ; but finished his studies at 
Dartmouth College, and was graduated in the first class in 1771. 
May 21st, 1772, he and David McCIure were ordained as mis- 
sionaries to the Indians at Muskingum, and in June, 1772, he 
and Mr. McCIure set out on a mission to the Delaware Indians 
west- of the Ohio, and returned in October, 1773. An abstract 
of his Journal of the mission, is annexed to the Rev. Dr. Whee- 
lock's Continuation of the Narrative of the Indian Charity 
School, printed at Hartford in 1773. Having extended his la- 
bors to different parts of the country and into Canada, the con- 
vulsed state of public affairs, being the time of the Revolution- 
ary war, induced him to abandon his enterprise. He was in- 
stalled, Feb. 7th, 1776, as the successor of the Rev. Nathaniel 
Rogers at Ipswich, Ms., and after a ministry of thirty years, he 
died Feb. 25th, 1806 in the 58th year of his age. He was a 
faithful, evangelical preacher, whose labors, at different periods, 
it pleased God to render eminently useful, especially between 
the years 1798 and 1801. His discerning mind was strengthened 
by a close application to study and was furnished with the most 
useful knowledge ; and all his acquisitions were consecrated to 
moral and religious purposes. Mr. Frisbie's life displayed the 
meekness, humility and benevolence of the Christian, and he was 
highly respected and esteemed by all who knew him. His son 
Levi was professor of the Latin Language, and afterwards of Na- 
tural Theology, Moral Philosophy and Civil Polity at Harvard 

Mr. Frisbie's first wife Zeruiah, daughter of Capt. Samuel 
Sprague of Lebanon, Ct. died Aug. 21st, 1778, aged 31 years. 
His second wife Mehetable, daughter of Rev. Moses Hale, whom 


110 Sketches of Alumni 

' he married June 1st, 1780, died April 6th, 1828, aged 76. His 
children were Mary, Sarah, Levi, Nathaniel, and Mehetable. 

Mr. Frisbie published an oration on peace, 1783 ; an oration 
at the interment of the Rev. Moses Parsons of Byfield, father • 
of Judge Parsons, 1784 ; two sermons on a day of public fast- 
ing ; a thanksgiving sermon ; a eulogy on Washington, 1800; 
a sermon before the Society for Propagating the Gospel among 
the American Indians, 1804 ; an address in poetry to Gov. John 
Wentworth, on the grant of a Charter to Dartmouth College ; 
and also a poem on the Founding of the College ; both of which 
were written in his senior year and the latter has been publish- 
ed. Memoir of Dr. E. PVheehck, and his Narratives, Allen's 
Biog. Diet., Am. Quar. Register, Vol. IV. pg 45. 

Samuel Gray, M. A. was the son of Samuel Gray, Esq. of 
Windham, Ct. and was born at Windham, June 21st, 1751, old 
style. His mother was Lydia Dyer, the daughter of Col. Thom- 
as Dyer, and sister of Hon. Eliphalet Dyer, Chief Justice of 
the Supreme Court of Connecticut. His grandfather was Dr. 
Ebenezer Gray, whose wife was Mary Gardner of the Isle of 
Wight. Dr. Gray's father was Samuel Gray, and was born in 
Dorsetshire, England, 1657. His wife was Susannah Langdon 
of Plymouth, England. They removed to this country about 
1680, and settled in Boston. The subject of this notice gradu- 
ated at Dartmouth College in the first class, and was one of the 
number that removed with the Institution from Lebanon Crank, 
now Columbia, Ct. to Hanover, N. H. After graduating, he 
taught Moor's School for a short time, and then returned to 
Windham, and began the study of law. At the commencement 
of the Revolutionary War, he entered the army in the Commis- 
sary Department as assistant to Col. Joseph Trumbull, who was 
the first Commissary General, and continued in this service until 
the decease of Col. Trumbull in August, 1777, when he receiv- 
ed from Congress the commission of Deputy Commissary Gen- 
eral of issues for the Eastern Department, which included New 
England and New York, under which commission he served 
about five years, until near the close of the war. In July, 1788, 
he married Charlotte Elderkin, the daughter of Col. Elderkin of 

In August, 1787, on the decease of his father, who had been 
clerk, he was appointed Clerk of the County and Superior 
Courts, in the county of Windham and held the office of clerk 


of Dartmouth College. 


of the county court till 1818, and of the Superior-Court till 1825, 
The duties of Clerk of the Superior Court he regularly perform- 
ed even to the age of 75. 

He had three children, viz. Harriet, who married Oliver C. 
Giosvenor of Rome, N. Y. a graduate of Yale College and a 
Teacher. Mary who married Samuel H. Byrne, a merchant of 
Windham, and Thomas who graduated at Yale College in 1815, 
and now resides at Windham and is a member of the bar. Mr, 
Gray attended the commencement at Dartmouth College in 
1827, and deceased Dec. 13th, 1836, in the 86th year of his 
age. He received a pension from the government of $600, per 
annum from 1832, till he died. Manuscript Letters. 

Sylvanus Ripley, M. A., was graduated at Dartmouth 
College in the first class. Immediately upon receiving his 
degree, he studied divinity with President Wheelock. Soon 
after he commenced preaching, and was ordained as a mis- 
fionary. Returning from a mission to the Indian tribes in Can- 
ada, September 21st, 1772, "he brought with him eight youths 
from the Cahgnawaga, and two from the Loretto tribe of Indi- 
ans," to receive an education at Moor's Indian Charity School, 
of which he was Preceptor from 1772 to 1779. He was also 
Tutor in the College from 1772 to 1782, when he was appoin- 
ted the first Professor of Divinity. He succeeded President 
Wheelock in the pastoral care, and regularly preached to the 
students of the College and School and the inhabitants of the 
Plain on the Sabbath, and delivered to the students lectures on 
Theology and various other branches. He was an eloquent and 
popular speaker, pleasant in his voice, and winning in his manner, 
very amiable in his temperament and address ; but not particularly 
distinguished for his native talents or literary attainments. In 
person he was tall, slender, and pallid, yet good looking. He 
was appointed a Trustee of the College in 1775, and remained 
in office until his decease which occurred at the age of 37 in the 
winter of 1787, in a very sudden and affecting manner, in the 
vigor of life in the midst of extensive usefulness. He went on 
die Sabbath to preach in the east part of Hanover, and on hfe 
return in the evening with a student, who was driving the horse, 
the sleigh struck a log, and Mr. Ripley was thrown out of it. 
His head came so violently against the end of the log that it 
broke his scull, and immediately destroyed life. Prof. John 
Smith preached a funeral sermon on the occasion. His widow 


Sketches of Alumni 

•Abigail, daughter of President Eleazar Wheelock, died at Frye- 
burg, Me., April, 1818. His daughter, the wife of Hon. Judah 
Dana, late Senator in Congress died also at Fryeburg where she 
lived. His son Gen. Eleazar Wheelock Ripley, graduated at 
Dartmouth College in 1800, entered the army in the war of 1812, 
and distinguished himself as an officer on the Canadian frontier. 
He was elected a representative to Congress from the state of Lou- 
isiana, and died at West Feliciana, where he resided. His other 
son Gen. James Wheelock Ripley lived in Maine, and was col- 
lecter at the port of Passamaquody. Pres. Allen's Biog. Diet., 
Manuscript Letter. 

John Wheelock, LL. D., son of Rev. Eleazar Wheelock, 
D. D. first President of Dartmouth College, was born at Leba- 
non, Ct. Jan. 28th, 1754. He entered Yale College while a 
youth and remained there until his venerable father removed to 
Hanover, when his relation was transferred to the College in that 
place. He graduated in the first class in 1771. The next year 
he was appointed Tutor in the College, and continued in office 
until the beginning of the Revolutionary War. In 1775, when he 
was scarcely twenty one years of age, he was elected a member 
of the Provincial Congress which sat at Exeter. In the spring 
of 1777, he received the commission of Major in the service of 
New York ; and in November following, he was appointed a 
Lieut. Colonel in the continental army, and attached to the regi- 
ment of Col. Bedel. In 1778, he marched a detachment from 
Coos to Albany. By direction of Gen. Starke, he conducted an 
expedition into the Indian country. At the request of Gen. 
Gates, he entered his family, and continued with him until 1779, 
when by the death of his father he was called to succeed him in 
the presidency at the age of 25. His associates in the care of the 
College were professors Woodward, Ripley and Smith. To pro- 
mote the interests of the College, the Trustees in 1782, resolved 
to send him to Europe. With letters from General Washington, 
Governors Trumbull and Livingston, and others he sailed from 
Boston, Jan. 3rd, 1783, and visited France, Holland and Eng- 
land, procuring donations for the College in money and books. 
On his return in the brigantine, Peace and Plenty, he left Hali- 
fax, Dec. 29th, and, in the morning of January 2nd, 1784, was 
shipwrecked on the sand bars of Cape Cod, losing all that he had 
obtained for the College and narrowly escaping with his life. 
The Institution was, however, benefitted by the President's visit 

of Dartmouth College. ■ • 113 

to Europe, as he was better prepared to discharge the responsi- 
ble duties devolving upon him, than he otherwise would have been; 
for he had an opportunity to form many important acquaintan- 
ces, to examine the literary Institutions of the old countries, and 
to ascertain their methods of instruction and government. Pres- 
ident Wheelock was thirty-six years in office, a longer time than 
any President in any College in the country had officiated. Dur- 
ing this period he performed the duties of an Instructor faithfully 
and to general acceptation. He was popular as a President and 
very uniformly gained the cordial attachment of those under his 
care, for he possessed many excellent qualities as a presiding 
officer. He was ardently attached to the interests of the Col- 
lege, and under his administration it greatly flourished. u His 
favorite subjects of investigation were intellectual philosophy, 
ethics, politics and history." " In the College he performed mul- 
tiplied laborious duties. In addition to the cares of the govern- 
ment, and the stated religious offices of the chapel, moraine" and 
evening, he attended the daily recitations and exercises allotted to 
the Senior Class. To the labors of President, he added those 
of Professor, and for many years delivered two public Lectures 
in a week on Theology, History and the Prophecies. These 
evinced at once the extent of his learning, the diversified pow- 
ers of his intellect, and the irresistable force and pathos of his 
eloquence." In his Lectures, " he never made use of any man- 
uscript, yet he was not embarrassed, very seldom hesitated for a 
word, or uttered an imperfect sentence." 

In person President Wheelock was rather above mediocrity in 
height, stooping in posture as he advanced in age, thin favored 
had light complexion, blue eyes and aquiline nose, brown hair in 
a cue behind and parted before, was very polite in manners, 
neat in personal appearance, but not handsome. He always 
wore small clothes, and a triangular hat till within a few years 
of*his death. He was evidently a man of talents and learning, 
and a great historian, but not a close reasoner, nor an accurate 
scholar. At times he was eloquent in his remarks, but thev 
were frequently desultory and not much connected. He was "a 
member of the Massachusetts and New York Historical Socie- 
ties, also of the American Antiquarian Society. 

An unfortunate difficulty between the President and the Trus- 
tees of the College, occurred towards the latter part of his life, 



The Claims of the Gospel 

which resulted in his removal from office in 1815. From this 
time, his health gradually declined till April 4th, 1817, when 
he deceased, aged 63 years. His widow, Maria, the daughter of 
Gov. Suhm of St. Thomas, died Feb. 16th, 1824, aged 56. 
His only child, Maria Malleville, wife of the Rev. William Al- 
len, D. D. late President of Bowdoin College, died at Brunswick, 
Me. June 3rd, 1828, aged 40 years. 

When he received his master's degree, he delivered an Essay 
on the Beauties and Excellencies of Painting, Music and Poetry, 
which was published. He prepared for the press a large Histor- 
ical Work, proposals for the publication of which were once is- 
sued by a Boston bookseller ; but the work is still in manuscript. 
He published a Eulogy on Professor John Smith, 1809 ; also 
Sketches of the History of Dartmouth College, 1816. — See Dr. 
Allen's Biog. Diet.; Hon. S. C. Allen's Eulogy. 

By the Rev. Cyrus Mann. 
[Continued from page 76.] 

2. The religion of the Gospel is worthy the reception of young men, tor 
it delivers from sol-did selfishness, and inspires universal benevolence. 
That is a mean spirit which cares only for self, which drudges through 
life only for its own gratification and aggrandizement. Selfishness shuts 
up the tenderest sensibilities, and noblest aspirings of which a mortal is 
susceptible. Is not that a contracted soul which can jostle through the 
multitudes of fellow-travellers to the grave, and feel for none of their 
woes and sufferings? Is not he a groveling creature, who can be con- 
tent to feed himself, while others are famishing, who is willing to raise 

the great community of immortal beings, demanding his solicitude, be- 
yond the narrow circle of his own personal necessities, or the few rela- 
tives who are a part of himself? Selfishness is a low and sordid princi- 
ple, and yet it reigns in full power in every unrenewed heart. It is the 
chief element in the constitution of our apostate race. It is the main 
spring of a depraved nature and actuates every one who has not imbibed 
the spirit of the gospel. How many spend all their lives under its con- 

upon Young Men. . 115 

troling influence, and go down to death, without having felt one desire 
lor the general good, or the diffusion of universal holiness and happi- 
ness. The Gospel breaks up this contracted, criminal love of self, 
throws open the doors of the heart, and expands the soul in pure affec- 
tion for a lost race. The subject of renewing grace rises to new life and 
hope, and benevolent desires gush forth into action, like streams from 
the smitten rock. And is not that religion worthy of reception, which 
imparts the luxury of doing good, which teaches to act in view of the 
amazing results, pending upon our present existence ? 

The young man possessed of piety begins to contemplate in its true 
light the interests of a dying world, involved in his future character and 
conduct. He sees his influence extending onward down the current 
of time, spreading wider with each successive generation, affecting my- 
riads of the great brotherhood of mankind, and doing something to de- 
cide their destiny for the boundless periods of eternity. The sun-light of 
another world will reveal the " finger-marks" he makes on the minds 
around him, " in their primary formations, and in all the successive strata 
of thought and life." He begins to estimate aright the relations in 
which he stands to a world of immortal beings, to God the Judge of all, 
to a universe of intelligences, formed, for the high and exalted purpose 
of loving and adoring their Creator. He sees himself standing as it 
were in a vast amphitheatre, surrounded by a great cloud of witnesses 
who are beholding him from every part of creation. He finds, that he 
is running a race, not to win the idle breath of human applause, or 
wreath his brow with fading laurel ; but to acquire a crown of unfading 
glory, to secure the plautlitof the King Eternal, the approbation of pure 
and exalted spirits, and a seat in the mansions of everlasting bliss. 

He is fired with a holy ardor to do right, to employ every power and 
faculty he possesses to the highest and best purpose, to benefit to the ut- 
most his fellow-travellers to eternity, and cany along with him the great- 
est number possible up to the abodes of the blessed. He looks abroad 
upon the earth, and sees the crisis at hand in the great moral conflict 
between sin and holiness, between the Son of God and the prince of 
darkness. He throws himself and all he possesses into the scale of 
truth. He takes his stand on the Lord's side, and contends manfully for 
the faith once delivered to the saints. His influence is felt for good in 
every circle be enters, in every relation he sustains. He listens to the 
cries that come from distant quarters of the globe, summoning the peo- 
ple of God to relieve the destitute, to disseminate the light of truth, and 
save the millions who are perishing for lack of vision. He disperses 
abroad, and scatters the " dew drops of charity" over the earth. The 


The Claims of the Gospel 

.benefits conferred will tell upon the moral condition of the world, until 
time shall be*no longer. Is not that religion worth securing, which can 
thus raise its possessor from a low and groveling selfishness, inspire 
him with a God-like benevolence, and render him a benefactor to the 
human family ? For the want of it, thousands have lived only to spread 
around them the contagion of an evil example, to corrupt and destroy 
the souls of men. In the close of their career, the retrospection of the 
past has filled them with horror. The prospect of the future over- 
whelms them with despair. " Laden with many and grievous sins I 
tremble," said William the Conqueror, as death approached, — " I can by 
no means number the evils I have done these sixty years, for which I 
am now constrained, without stay, to render an account to the just 
Judge." Young man, is this the end which you covet, and for which you 
would prepare yourself? If not, remember that God alone is the only 
satisfying portion of the soul. Learn to live to his glory, and be in read- 
iness for an immortal state. 

3. The Gospel lays imperious claims upon young men, from its power 
to adorn and exalt the human character. Who is there, who does not 
desire a reputation unsullied, a character distinguished for the highest 
and most commendable qualities ? How much of life is spent in acquir- 
ing those accomplishments which are esteemed in the community. 
They are accounted an essential part of education. It is deemed an 
honor to possess a talented and cultivated mind, an ease and dignity of 
manners, an acquaintance with the proprieties of social intercourse. It 
is commendable to be skilled in the useful arts and professions, to excel 
in the business and employments in which we are engaged. But how 
insignificant are these accomplishments, compared to those which piety 
confers. The ornament of a meek and quiet spirit, is, in the sight of God, 
of great price. Holy affections, a heart submissive to the divine will, a 
life devoted to God and conformed to his law, constitute immeasurably 
tjie highest ornament in the sight of infinite purity. Every other quali- 
ty without holiness leaves men, poor and blind, and miserable. Infinite 
wisdom estimates character according to its real worth. It sees through 
the' outward glare and splendor which so often deceive and captivate the 
superficial observer, and is satisfied with nothing short of the virtues and 
the graces which piety alone confers. In these the young nobleman 
who came to Jesus, inquiring what he must do to inherit eternal life, was 
utterly deficient. With all his amiableness, he lacked one thing, one 
essential trait of true excellence. The want of this cast a shade over 
all his other endowments, rendered them of no account in the sight of 
God, and sent the young man away exceedingly sorrowful. O how 



Upon Young Men. . 117 

liiany would find in themselves the same destitution, did they but estimate 
things aright. t How many, who pride themselves on their attainments 
and their prospects, would perceive, that they are wretched and destitute 
of all which is most desirable and lovely, did they realize their true con- 
dition. Were those scenes now before them, which certainly and short- 
ly must open to their view, were the light of eternity poured around 
them, were they standing before the judgment seat, and examined by the 
holy and perfect law of God ; how quickly would all their seeming ex- 
cellencies vanish, and how would they appear vile and odious, stained 
with guilt in every part of their character. 

Is the religion of the Gospel beneath your notice and concern ? View 
it in the estimation of holy beings, of the spirits of the just made per- 
. feet, of those high and lofty intelligencies who surround the throne 
above. View it in the estimation of God himself, of Jesus the Media- 
tor of the everlasting covenant, and of the Spirit of all grace. View it as 
you will view it, when the glories of heaven, the terrors of the judgment, 
and the quenchless fires of hell, are laid open before you. Place your- 
self in imagination, where you will soon be in reality, and then tell me, 
if you are not sadly mistaken in your estimate of the excellence of true 

. We need not however lift the curtain of the future, to show the value 
of religion, and its power to adorn and exalt the human character. 
Who are those, who have shone with the brightest lustre on earth, and 
whose names are embalmed in the sweetest remembrance of posterity ? 
Upon what trait in a departed friend or parent do you dwell with the 
fondest recollection ? -Glancing over his past life, do you not involunta- 
rily fix your thoughts on his deeds of piety, his seasons of devotion, his 
sacrifices for the honor of God and the salvation of men ? Do not 
these cast a brilliancy over his character, and reflect a light upon the 
world, dearer to you, and more admired, than any of his other quali- 
ties ? 

"The present condition of the world," it has been said, " might not 
have been materially different from what it now is, had Alexauder never 
been born, and had Julius Caesar died in his cradle." Could this with 
any propriety be said of Moses, or Daniel, or Paul ? Has not the condi- 
tion of the world been essentially changed by the religion they taught, 
and exhibited in their lives? Compare the life of Bonaparte with that 
of Washington, and what rendered the latter pre-eminently illustrious? 
What made the hero of our country, the admiration of posterity and 
the world? It was his love of justice, his regard for God, his bright ex- 


The Claims of the Gospel 

ample of conformity to the precepts of the Gospel. What most of all 
endeared the memory of Sir Matthew Hale to one nation, and of Chief 
Justice Marshall to another? It was their firmness of principle, their 
veneration for religion. We admire the intellectual attainments of New- 
ton, Addison and Wilberforce, but we most of all admire their piety. 
This was their crowning excellence, and rendered them worthy of 
esteem. Let the memory of heroes and statesmen, who have waded 
through carnage and blood in their career of mad ambition, rot. The 
just shall be had in everlasting remembrance. Their characters bright- 
en on the page of history through revolving ages. 

Communion with God elevates, expands and ennobles the intellect. 
It is to the mind what gravitation is to the material universe, noiseless 
but mighty. It raises the soul above the trifles of earth, above its clouds 
and mists, and binds it to the glorious centre of all good. It lifts the 
poor out of the dust, and clothes them with honor. It confers addition- 
al greatness upon princes and nobles. Who does not regard with high- 
er veneration those judges and magistrates, whose piety has engaged 
them in pouring the messages of mercy and love into the youthful mind, 
in Sabbath Schools ? Who does not deem it an honor to the present 
king of Prussia, that, when a young man, he was often in a Bible Class, 
when his father was at the theatre, and that he declared at his corona- 
tion, " it would be his effort to be, not only a just, but a Christian king ?" 
Piety has made him the benefactor of an empire. Under its influence, 
a system of general education has been established, and the Bible intro- 
duced into all the Common Schools throughout his dominions, Religion 
is not beneath your notice and most anxious concern, young man, what- 
ever your station. It can add new dignity and charms to every condi- 
tion. " Exalt her and she shall promote thee, she shall bring thee to hon- 
or, when thou dost embrace her." 

4. Religion claims your immediate attention. Unless you secure this in- 
valuable treasure now, you will soon find yourselves far behind the men 
of your age. The progress of Christ's kingdom is onward, with a rapidity 
hitherto unexampled since the days of the Apostles. The purposes of 
God are being accomplished in bringing a revolted world into allegiance 
to its Maker. The Prince and Savior is going forth to gather his 
elect from every nation and people. He is levelling in the dust the 
mighty obstacles, which guilt and rebellion had thrown up to prevent his 
universal reign. Already we see the signs of the coming of the Son of 
man, not to burn the world, and melt down its material structure, but to 
effect its moral renovation by the power of his Spirit. He is extending 


upon Young Men. 


his conquests in the north and south, the east and west. Tidings are 
borne on the wings of the wind, not of carnage and blood, filling the 
land with orphan's tears , and widow's sighs; but tidings of redeeming 
mercy, of sinners subdued and humbled, and rejoicing in God their Sa- 
vior. The shout of a King is heard in Zion,and rejoicing that the Lord 
God omnipotent reigneth. This glorious work of emancipating a lost 
race from the bondage of sin will continue to advance. Multitudes in 
early life are consecrating themselves to the Redeemer, who bought 
them with his blood. Enrolled under the Captain of salvation, they are 
marching on to new triumphs in their warfare with the powers of dark- 

The young men, who do not now engage in the service of Immanuel, 
will soon be left far behind the spirit of the age, and far behind those who 
are starting in the bright career of "glory, and honor, and immortality, 
eternal life." Those who now linger in sin will soon find themselves 
deserted, and groping in darkness, while others are exulting under the 
beams of the Sun of Righteousness ; will find themselves creeping, like 
the snail, in the dust of this word's pollutions, while others are soaring 
upward to the skies. Should they ever come to repentance and find mer- 
cy, they will see, that their early associates are too far in advance of them 
ever to be overtaken. They will have to mourn over a life spent in 
transgression, like the poor heathen who had murdered their children, 
before the gospel came to teach them their guilt, and discover how irre- 
parable was their loss. The sinner is murdering his time, talents, and 
his own soul, and if reclaimed to God in riper years, he can do little 
else than weep over bis former blindness and criminality. The proba- 
bility is, he will never be reclaimed, but will be deserted of God, and find 
his doom written, " Behold, ye despisers, and wonder and perish, for I 
workaworkin your day, which ye will not believe." While some 
awake to everlasting life, to shine as the brightness of the firmament, 
and as the stars forever and ever ; the unbelieving will awake to ever^ 
lasting shame and contempt, to run the eternal round of ages in the 
blackness of darkness, with the wrath of God abiding on them. What 
is the part which the young men of the present day are to take in this 
amazing alternative ? God calls you now to settle this question ibr 
yourselves. " Choose ye this day whom ye will serve." He invites you 
in mercy to come and labor in his vineyard. He offers to honor ami 
bless you, to satisfy the cravings of your immortal nature from his own 
infinite fulness, to inspire you with a benevolence, which shall urge 
you on in the delightful paths of holy obedience, to adorn and exalt you 

120 The Claims of the Gospel 

with the robes of a Savior's righteousness, and communion with the 
Father of spirits. Will you comply with the invitations of eternal 
Love ? Will you believe on the Lord Jesus, and) surrender all your pow- 
ers to him to be employed in promoting his glory and the world's conver- 
sion ? If you refuse, the work will progress, urged on by the hand of 
Omnipotence. God will not be frustrated in his purposes. He will ac- 
complish his unfathomable designs, and crush all the powers of earth 
and hell who oppose. He is thrusting in the sickle to gather the great 
harvest of the world, and he will burn the chaff with unquenchable 

Amazing responsibilities rest on those, who are now entering upon 
the stage of action. Consequences are pending, which might fill an 
angel's mind with solicitude, and employ an angel's powers. It 
is to be decided, whether this nation shall be filled with the tem- 
ples and altars of Jehovah ; whether the Holy Spirit shall descend 
with his refreshing, purifying influence throughout the land; wheth- 
er future millions shall here walk in the light of the Lord, enjoy- 
ing the blessings of civil and religious liberty: or whether we shall be 
abandoned to vice and crime, to the guilt of infidelity, to Popish super- 
stition and to slavery, to be scathed with the judgments of Heaven, and 
made a monument of wrath to warn others, that the people who will 
not serve God shall be destroyed. 

But not this nation alone is concerned. It remains to be seen, wheth- 
er the vials of wrath are to be poured upon the earth, and its kingdoms 
made desolate and purified by great judgments, or they are to be won to 
the obedience of faith* in Christ by the gentle influences of sovereign 
grace, descending like rain upon the mown grass. If the men of this 
generation will do their duty, and yield to the peaceful reign of Imman- 
uel, his going forth will he as the morning to cheer and bless the world. 
If they refuse and rebel, they will be destroyed, for the mouth of the 
Lord hath spoken it ; and others will be raised up who will carry out 
his great designs of redeeming love and mercy. Away then with your 
prejudices against the religion of the Gospel, and come to participate in 
the honor and the blessings it confers, by the surrender of your heart to 
God. Come to share in the efforts and sacrifices to l>e made in extermi- 
nating error, disseminating divine light, and achieving the moral renova- 
tion of the world. Come to Jesus to be made strong by the power of 
his might, wise by the teaching of his Spirit, and to be furnished for ev- 
ery duty, the word of God abiding in you. In view of your fearful re- 
sponsibilities, of the souls perishing in sin and of the cross, on which 

upon Young Men. 


your redemption was purchased; in view of the approaching judgment, 
of a future retribution and the crisis of this world's affairs now at hand, 
awake from slumber, and do what in you lies to hasten the universal 
reign of Immanuel. " Work while the day lasts, for the night cometh 
wherein no man can work." 

t &&* 


'" Here are a few of the reminiscences of war, entirely shorn of poetry. 
*They are bloody witnesses, and let them testify. In the periodical butch- 
eries in the human family, the following hecatombs have been offered 
up to that God of battles which Christians and pagans have worshipped 
with the same devotion : 

Loss of life in the Jewish Wars, - - 25,000,000 

By Wars in the time of Sesostris, - - 15,000,000 

By those of Semiramis, Cyrus and Alexander, 30,000,000 

By Alexander's successors, - - - 20,000,000 

Grecian Wars, - - - - 15,000,000 

Wars of the twelve Csesars, - - - 30,000,000 

Roman Wars before Julius Coesar, - - 60,000,000 

Wars of the Roman Empire, Turks and Saracens, 180,000,000 
Wars of the Reformation, . - , 30,000,000 

Wars of the jVJiddle Ages, and nine crusades, 80,000,000 

Tartar and African Wars, -. - . - 180,000,000 

American Indians destroyed by the Spaniards, 12,000,000 

Wars of Napoleon, - 6,000,000 

The above is a mere extract from the bloody statistics of glorious 
war ; one chapter in the annals of the violence, crime and misery that 
have followed in the foot-prints of the Great Destroyer. — Jldvocale of 



Juridical Statistics of 


By Samuel D. Bell, Esq. 

Hillsborough is one of the five original Counties, into which the Prov- 
ince of New Hampshire, was divided by an Act of the Provincial Leg- 
islature, which took effect on the 19th of March, 1771. In 1823, all the 
towns lying East and North of the towns of Goffstown, Weare and 
Hillsborough, were separated from the County, and now constitute a 
part of the County of Merrimack. Pelham which previously was a 
part of Rockingham, was annexed to this County in Dec. 1824. 

The first Court in the County, of which I have found any account, was 
held at Amherst, in Oct. 1771. The Judges were Matthew Thornton, 
Chief Justice, Samuel Hobart, John Shepherd, Jr. and Samuel Blodgett, 
Justices. Stephen Holland was Clerk. The Attornies, whose names 
appear upon the Docket, were Ebenezer Champney of New Ipswich, 
Joshua Atherton of Amherst, Nathaniel P. Sargeant of Haverhill, Ms. 
John Prentice of Londonderry, Samuel Livermore, John Sullivan of 
Durham, and Mr. Lowell of Boston, Wyseman Claggett of Litchfield. 
Mr. Atherton and Mr. Champney were the only Attorneys then resident 
in the County. 

About the same time, a Court of General Sessions was held, of 
which the Justices Were John GofTc, Edward Goldstone, Lutwyche Sam- 
uel Hobart, Matthew Thornton, John Shepherd, Jr. William Clarke, Reu- 
ben Kidder, Samuel Cummings, John Hale, Samuel Blodgett, and Ste- 
phen Holland. 

The names of Jeremiah Page, James Underwood, Robert Fletcher, 
Matthew Patten, AndreAv Fuller, Moses Nichols and John Hale, appear 
as Justices attending this Court in 1771. They were probably most of 
the Justices of the Peace then in commission in the County. Prior to 
1776, the names of Peter Green of Concord, and Stephen Scales of Hop- 
kinton, and Moses Parsons of Amherst, appear as Attorneys. 

The names of the Judges of the Inferior Court of Common Pleas, 
from 1771 to 1813, when the Court was abolished, were 

From To Residence. 

Matthew Thornton, Chief Justice. 
Samuel Hobart, 
John Shepherd, Jr. 






Hillsborough County, 

■ 123 

Samuel Blodgett, 




Jonathan Lovewell, Chief Justice. 
Jeremiah Page, 




James Underwood, Chief Justice. 




Timothy Farrar, Chief Justice. 


1813jNew Ipswich 

Francis Blood, 


180- Temple 

Ebenezer Webster, 


1806 Salisbury 

Robert Wallace, 



Robert Alcock, 



Judge Farrar was Chief Justice of the Court of Common Pleas, for 
the Eastern Circuit, from 1813 to 1816. 

Joshua Darling, Henniker, Jedediah K. Smith, Amherst, were Judges 
of the Court of Common Pleas for the First District, from 1816 to 1822. 


Joshua Darling, Henniker, 
Jedediah K. Smith, Amherst, 
Abiel Wilson, Wilton, 

Joseph Philbrick, Weare, 
Jacob Tuttle, Antrim. 


Simon P. Colby, Weare, from 1833 to 1840 

Frederick G. Stark, Manchester, from 1833 to 1835 
Jesse Carr, Goffstown, from 1835 

Jacob Whittemore, Antrim, from 1840 

Charles F. Gove was appointed Circuit Justice of the Court of Com 
jnon Pleas throughout the State, 1843. 


John Goffc, Derryfield, 1771 to 1776. 

Matthew Patten, Bedford. 1776 to 1785. 

Jonathan Blanchard, Dunstable, 1785 to 1787. 

Samuel Dana, Amherst, 1787 to 1792. 
Ebenezer Champney, New Ipswich, 1792 to 1810. 

Clifton Claggett, Litchfield. 1810 to 1812. 

John Harris, Hopkinton, 1812 to 182a 

Clifton Claggett, Amherst, 1823 to 1829. 

Edmund Parker, Amherst, 1829 to 183a 

, Luke Woodbury, Antrim, 1836 


Joshua Atherton, Amherst, 1771 to 1776. 

Jonathan Blanchard, Dunstable, 1776 to 1784. 

Samuel Dana, Amherst, 1784 to 1787. 

William Gordon Amherst, 1787 to 1797. 

Charles 11. Atherton, Amherst, 1798 to 1837. 

Stephen Peabody, Milford. 1837 to 1842. 

Lemuel N. Pattee, Goffstown, 1842 


Juridical Statistics of 


Nathaniel &dams, Portsmouth, 1780 to 1816, throughout the State. 
Nathaniel Healey, Jr. Portsmouth, Assistant pro tern 1783. 
Frederick French, Amherst, 1816 to 1824. 

Andrew Wallace, Hancock, 1824 to 1839. 

Perley Dodge, Amherst, 1839 


Stephen Holland, 1771 to 1776. 
Robert Fletcher, 1776 to 1783. 
Robert Fletcher, Jr. 1783 to 1804. 
Frederick French 1804 to 1824. 

Edward French, Assistant. 
Moses Eastman, 1816 to 1822. 
Andrew Wallace, 1824 to 1840. 
Perley Dodge, 1840 


Enoch Darling, Henniker, } Elisha F. Wallace, Amherst. 


Moses Kelley, Goffstown, 1776 to 1807. 

Benjamin Pierce, Hillsborough, 1807 to 1814. 

Israel W. Kelley, Salisbury 1814 to 1819. 

Benjamin Pierce, 1819 to 1827. 

Jacob Whittemore, Antrim, 1827 to 1837. 

Frederick G. Stark, Bedford, 1837 to 1842. 

Mace Moulton, Bedford, 1842 to 1845. 

Elijah Munroe, Amherst, 1845 


Samuel Hobart, 1771 to 1776. Ezra Prescott, 

Moses Nichols, 1776 to 1790. John L. Hadley, 

Jonathan Smith, 1790 to 1806. Edwin A. Bod well, 
Isaac Brooks, 1806 to 1828. 

Alfred Foster elected 1827, deceased without acting. 


Robert Means, 
David Stewart, 
John Secombe, 
John Bruce, 

1806 to 1823. 
1823 to 1829. 
1830 to 1833. 

David Underbill, 
Israel Fuller, Jr. 
Nathaniel Bruce, 


William Gordon, 1794 to 1801. 

Thos. W. Thompson, 1805 

Nathaniel Green, 

Baruch Chase, 1809 to 1810. 

Parker Noyes, 

John Harris, 1817 to 1823. 

Titus Brown, 
Edmund Parker, 
Benj. M. Farley, 
Charles F. Gove. 
Charles J. Fox, 
G. W. Morrison, 

1828 to 1838. 
1839 to 1842. 

1834 to 1838. 
1839 to 1842. 

1823 to 1825. 
1825 to 1829. 
1829 to 1834. 
1834 to 1837. 
1837 to 1814. 



Hillsborough County. 



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Biographical Notices of 


[For information respecting the following medical Gentlemen, we are 
indebted to Dr. Fisher.] 

Dr. Ward Eddy was the first physician of Stoddard. He 
came from Massachusetts to this place, not far from 1785, prac- 
tised until 1815, and died in 1828, aged about 85 years. He 
was a very good man. 

Dr. Asher Loveland came from Keene to this place in 1790, 
practised till 1835, and is still living, aged 80 years. He has 
been accounted a skilful Physician for his time. 

Dr. Nathaniel Worcester came into the town in 1809, and 
died 1825, aged 42. 

Dr. Jonathan Knight moved into the place in 1816 from 
Westmoreland, continued here about three fourths of the time 
till 1837, and then removed to Littleton. 

Dr. G. F. Dunbar was from Keene. He came to Stoddard 
about 1818, and removed to Westmoreland, where he now re- 
sides. It is said he graduated at Dartmouth College in 1817, 
but his name does not appear on the Triennial Catalogue. 

Dr. Hervey Fisher was born in Stoddard in 179*2. His father 
moved into the place from Wrentham, Ms. Dr. Fisher re- 
ceived the degree of Doctor of medicine at Dartmouth College 
in 1818, and has practised medicine ever since. 

Dr. Josiah Fleman was born in 1810, received a medical 
degree in 1836, came Irom Vermont into Stoddard, where he has 
practised about 9 years. 

There have been Drs. Frink and Flint, and some other Phy- 
sicians resident in the town for a short time, but little is known 
concerning them. 


Dr. Nathaniel Peabody, who was the first Physician in At- 
kinson, was born at Topsfield, Ms., March 1st, 1741. He was 
son of Dr. Jacob Peabocly, who removed to Leominster, and 
there remained till his death in 1758. His mother was Susanna, 

Physicians in Atkinson. .. 135 

daughter of the Rev. John Rogers of Boxford, and was of the 
tenth generation in a direct line of descent from John Rogers, the 
Martyr. He studied medicine with his father, and settled as a 
Physician in Atkinson, where he soon acquired a very extensive 
business, and was accounted an able and successful practitioner. 
March 1st, 1763, he married Abigail, daughter of Samuel Little, 
Esq. of Atkinson, but they had no children. So great was his 
reputation in his profession, that a number of individuals sought 
his instructions as a teacher in medicine, and when the New 
Hampshire Medical Society was chartered, he was appointed one 
of the Fellows. Oct. 27th, 1774, he was appointed Lieut. 
Colonel of the 7th regiment, and upon the commencement of 
hostilities between this and the mother country, he espoused the 
cause of independence and took a very active part in the Rev- 
olutionary struggle. March 25th, 1779, he was elected a Del- 
egate to the Continental Congress, and was also re-appointed in 
1785, but this last appointment he did not fulfil. He was 
Speaker of the House of Representatives, a state Senator, and 
also a Counsellor for the State. He held also the offices of 
Brigadier General and Major General in the militia ; but about 
1795, he retired from all public trusts. 

Dr. Peabody was a friend to education, and did much in 
procuring the charter of Atkinson Academy, of which, for many 
years, he was a Trustee. He also assisted several young men in 
obtaining a liberal education. In 1791, the Corporation] of 
Dartmouth College conferred on him the degree of M. A. 

. He was, evidently, a man of very respectable talents, showy, 
but not great. He was, too, a man of uncommon capability in the 
transaction of business, and a great manager, but full of intrigue, 
and apparently destitute of all moral principle. About the com- 
mencement of the present century, Dr. Peabody became greatly 
involved in debt, and for many of the last years of his life, he 
was imprisoned at Exeter, and died within the limits of the jail 
yard, June 27th, 1823, aged 82 years. See Farmer's and 
Moore's Collections, Vol. III. 

Dr. Kendall Osgood was born at Andover in 1757, and was 
settled as a Physician in Atkinson about 1785. He removed to 
Peterborough in the summer of 1788, where he spent the re- 
mainder of his days. He was one of the original Fellows of 
the New Hampshire Medical Society. He died, Aug. 19th, 


Biographical Notices of 

1801, aged 44 years. A more full account may be expected of 
"him under the head of Peterborough. 

Dr. William Cogswell was born at Haverhill, Ms., July 11th, 
1760, and died at Atkinson, Jan. 1st, 1831, in the 71st year of 
his age. His mother was Judith Badger, daughter of Joseph 
Badger, a merchant of Haverhill, Ms. His father, whose name 
was Nathaniel, was bom at Ipswich, Ms., Jan. 19th, 1707, and 
was also a merchant in Haverhill. He died March 23rd, 1783, 
aged 76 years. His father's name was John, who was born at 
Ipswich in 1650, and died there in 1710, aged 60 years. He 
was the son of William of Ipswich, who was born 1619, and 
died about 1701, whose father was John Cogswell, a merchant 
of London, who came to this country in 1635, and settled in 
Ipswich, Ms. He died Nov. 29th, 1669, leaving a wife and 
seven children — three sons and four daughters. He descended 
from the ancient family of the Cogswells in a direct line from 
Lord Humphrey Cogswell of England, to whom in 1447, was 
first granted the Coat of Arms, which appertains to the name of 

Dr. Cogswell spent three and a half years with his brother-in- 
law, the Rev. Jonathan Searleof Mason, N. H., with whom he 
studied Latin, Greek and other branches of education, thus pre- 
paring himself for the contemplated study of medicine. At the 
close of this time, the Revolutionary War having commenced, 
he left his studies, and entered, though only fifteen and a half 
years of age, the army of the United States, as a private soldier, 
in a company commanded by his brother, Capt. Thomas Cogs- 
well, and continued in the service about a year. He then com- 
menced the study of medicine and surgery under the direction of 
Dr. Nathaniel Peabody of Atkinson, who was a Physician of 
distinction, and to whom a number of young men resorted for 
medical instruction. Having completed his course of prepara- 
tion, he was July 19th, 1781, appointed surgeon's mate to Dr. 
William Eustis, late Governor of Massachusetts, in the General 
Military Hospital of the United States, established at West Point, 
and continued in service until the close of the Revolutionary 
War in 1783. Jan. 5th, 1784 he was promoted to the chief 
charge of the Hospital at West Point, and remained in office till 
Sept. 1st, 1785, having served his country more than five 
years in its memorable struggle for Independence. The freedom 

Physicians in Atkinson. ■ 137 

of the country having been obtained, he retired to the circle of 
his'friends, and commenced the practice of medicine in the town 
of Atkinson, N. H., where his parents resided during the latter 
part of life. July 22nd, 1786, he was married to Judith 
Badger, daughter of the Hon. Joseph Badger of Gilmanton. 
She was born May 15th, 1766 and still survives in the 80th 
year of her age. They had nine children, eight of whom are 
now living. 

Dr. Cogswell took a very active part in establishing the Med- 
ical Society of New Hampshire, and when it was incorporated in 
1791, he was appointed by General Court one of the nineteen Fel- 
lows,whose names are mentioned in the Charter, only one of whom 
still survives, the memorable Dr. Green of Dover, in the 99th 
year of his age. The reputation in which he was held as a Physi- 
cian, may be ascertained from the fact, that young gentlemen 
frequently resorted to him for medical instruction, preparatory 
to the practice of physic. — He also manifested a lively interest 
in the education of youth and did much for the establishment of 
Atkinson Academy, one of the oldest literary institutions in the 
S^ate, of which he was one of the Trustees from its commence- 
ment, and for many years, President of the Board of Trust. 

This biographical notice will be concluded by a short extract 
from the sermon preached at Dr. Cogswell's funeral, by the Rev. 
John Kelly of Hampstead : " As a man, he had a mind above 
the ordinary level, accurately discerning men and things. It was 
improved by useful science, and a disposition to do good. As 
a Physician, he was judicious, careful and attentive. As a 
magistrate, he encouraged no vexatious litigations, nor aided the 
knavish in their fraud and violence. As a husband he was kind, 
tender and provident. As a father he united dignity with the 
most endearing affection to his children. As a Christian pro- 
fessor, he was uniform, steady, and firm as a rock. In his last 
sickness he was resigned, humble, and patient, and so he fell 
asleep in Jesus." 

Dr. Thomas Wallace was born in Bedford, Jan. 14th, 1793. 
His preparatory education was obtained at Atkinson Academy. 
He studied medicine with Dr. Spaulding of Amherst, and his 
brother, Dr. Isaac ^Wallace. He commenced practice in Mid- 
dleton, Ms., but soon moved to Atkinson, where he remained 
only a short time, and then removed to Derry, where he now 

138 Biographical Notices of Physicians in Plaistow-. 

resides. In 1837 he was elected a Fellow of the State Medical 
Society. * 

Dr. Isaac Burnham Hovey was born in Derry, May 1st 
1790. He fitted for college at Pinkerton Academy, and entered 
Dartmouth College, but his health failing he abandoned the idea 
of pursuing a collegiate course of education. He read medicine 
with Dr. George Farrar of Derry, and Dr. William Ingalls of 
Boston, and attended the Medical Lectures at Brown University, 
where he received the degree of M. D., Sept. 6th, 1820. His 
license to practice was obtained, July 31st, 1822. He com- 
menced business in Gloucester, Ms. but removed to Atkinson, 
October, 1822, where he has since resided. He married Eliza 
Richards, daughter of Mr. Joseph Richards of Atkinson, by 
whom he has a son. He is a magistrate, and a Trustee of At- 
kinson Academy. 


Though Plaistow was incorporated as early as 1749, yet there 
was never a Physician resident in the town, till recently. The 
sick have been visited by medical gentlemen from abroad. Dr. 
Nathaniel Knight Kelly is the first and only Physician, who ever 
settled in the place. . He is a son of Dea. Simeon Kelly, who 
was brother of the Rev. John Kelly of Hampstead, and 
was born in Plaistow, September 14th, in the year 1800. 
He acquired his preparatory education at Atkinson Academy, 
studied medicine with Dr. Hovey of Atkinson, and received a 
degree of M. D. at Bowdoin College in 1828. Immediately 
after, he commenced practice in his native town, where he still 
resides. Sept. 19th, 1836, he married Anna Dow, daughter of 
John Dow, Esq. of Atkinson, and sister of the Rev. Moses 
Dow, late of York, Me. 

A Plea for Common School Education. 139 


By Edwin D. Sanborn, 
Prof, of the Latin Language and Literature in Dartmouth College. 

Education proposes to developc man's mental and moral faculties. It 
can furnish no new sense or capacity. It takes the human soul as it 
Jinds it, morally depraved. Its object then is, as far as possible, to 
check and subdue the native propensities to evil ; and, by the aid of 
God's grace, to fit the man for a useful life and a happy eternity. Some 
men ascribe to education all the efficacy and power of regeneration. 
Assuming the sinlessness of the human soul in infancy, they maintain 
that all transgression results from ignorance ; and, that men need knowl- 
edge only in order to become holy. Though we freely admit, that "knowl- 
edge is power," we cannot admit, that it is either piety or holiness. We 
cannot predicate of mere intelligence either holiness or sinfulness. Jt 
becomes holy or sinful only by its association with a sinful or holy be- 
ing. It is then employed precisely like military stores or ready armor, 
only to enlarge the power of the executive agent. Increase the intelli- 
gence of a wicked man and you increase his ability to do evil. The 
converse of this is equally true. Enlarge the intellectual resources of a 
good man and you, thereby, give greater scope and energy to his practi- 
cal benevolence. The value of knowledge, therefore, depends chiefly up- 
on the moral state of the subject, who possesses it. Education can neith- 
er cleanse the heart, nor purify the affections. Admitting the depravity 
of the human soul, education has no power to save. The polluted heart 
must l)e washed in atoning blood ; the conscience must be purged from 
dead works by the Spirit of the living God. There is no other redeem- 
ing power. The perverse will can only be swayed by infinite love ; and, 
those educators, who would reform the world simply by educating the 
common mind, without the agency of God's Spirit, are building upon 
the sand. It must be remembered, however, that the education receiv- 
ed, inmost of our New England schools, is in a high degree moral and 
religious as well as intellectual. Wherever the liible is read and studied, 
it cannot be otherwise; and it is tiiis indirect influence of the gospel, 
which flows from the domestic altar, from the sacred desk, and from the 
study of God's word, which gives to educated New England mind, its 
exalted character for virtue and piety. Let this influence be abated or 
diminished, and just so far will the character of the people be degraded. 
Mere scientific instruction, apart from a religious education, can never 

140 A Plea for Common School Education. " 

. make its subjects the "salt of the earth," or " the light of the world." 
Has education then no conservative power ? Has knowledge no tendency 
to diminish, vice and prevent crime ? Some men affirm, that " to educate 
an irreligious soul is like putting weapons into the hands of a maniac. 
Just so far as you discipline and strengthen the unregenerate mind, you 
increase the skill and energy of a wicked agent." If the discipline of a 
depraved child were wholly mental hi its character; if the moral influ- 
ences which surround every child in a Christian land were wholly with- 
drawn, what is here asserted might be true. But as men are conditioned, 
in Christian communities, it is neither abstractly nor relatively true, that 
educated minds are actually rendered more wicked, or that their natural 
propensities to sin are strengthened. On the contrary, it is safe to assert, 
that education makes men more prudent and thoughtful ; and, conse- 
quently, less liable to run heedlessly into sin. Divine Inspiration encour- 
ages us to entertain such views of instruction. " Train up a child in the 
way he should go," says the wise man, " and when he is old he will not 
depart from it." This precept is addressed to every parent. It refers 
merely to human agency in the education of young minds. It makes no 
allusion to the aids of divine grace any farther, than such influences are 
supposed to accompany all well-directed efforts to do good. The same 
unerring authority says; "A child left to himself bringeth his mother 
to shame." In these two passages, the legitimate fruits of knowledge 
and ignorance are presented in bold contrast. Right instruction secures 
integrity of character. Ignorance and self-will lead to degradation and 
ruin. But if knowledge, in itself, is neither holy nor sinful, but becomes 
such only by its union with a holy or sinful being, it may be asked, how 
does education, necessarily, exalt the character and strengthen the social 
virtues ? I answer by appealing to the natural instincts of the soul, such 
as love of fame, desire of excellence, thirst for knowledge, self-respect 
and conscious worth. It is true, that these are not the most exalted mo- 
tives that can influence a rational being, still they are important in their 
place. They are the bands which bind the social fabric together ; and, 
in their legitimate action are, indirectly, promotive of true piety. The 
results of education here alluded to, relate principally to the well-be- 
ing of men in this life. It is, in this view, that I wish to present them. I 
propose to examine briefly our Common School System in its social and 
economical relations. 

To he continued. 



Outline of a Course of Theological Study. 



[The following Course of Study was adopted by the late Rev. Asa Burton, 
D. D.of Tlietford, Vt. in preparing young men to preach the Gospel. About 
sixty individuals read Divinity witli him us Candidates for the Ministry.] 

1. On the Understanding. Is it a Faculty of the mind ? What are its 
operations, with their specific differences ? 

2. On Taste. Is there such a Faculty ? What are its operations ? 
Into how many classes are they divisible ? And how do they differ from 
the operations of the Understanding ? 

3. On the Will. Is it a Faculty ? What are its operations, with their 
design ? And in what respects, do they differ from those of the Taste ? 

4. What is the spring of action in moral Agents ? 

5. Why are some things termed morally good, and others, morally evil: 
and some things, naturally good, and others, naturally evil ? 

G. What properties are necessary to constitute a moral Agent ? And 
why ore they necessary ? 

7. On Liberty. What is it ? Does it agree with necessity, and is it 
necessary to praise and blame ? 

8. On the Affections and Passions. Are they distinct from, and ante- 
cedent to, Volition ? 

9. Is a knowledge of right and wrong necessary to the existence of 
moral good and evil ? • 

10. On the Being of God. 

11. On the Inspiration of the Scriptures. 

12. On the Perfections of the Deity, with the arguments to establish 
his moral perfections. 

13. On the Trinity and Unity of the Godhead. 

14. On the Decrees of God, and their agreement with Liberty. 

15. On God's last End in all his operations. 

16. On the Nature of Holiness. 

17. On the Moral Law, and the Covenant of Works, with the differ- 
ence between diem. 

18. What is the Import and Design of the rewards and punishments, 
annexed to the Law ? 

19. On the Fall of Man. What effect had it on his Posterity ? 

20. On the Nature of Selfishness, or Total Depravity. 

"21. On the Necessity and Nature of Christ's Atonement for sin, 
22. On the Necessity and Nature of Regeneration. 


History of the 

23. On the Covenant of Grace. 

24. On Faith. 

25. On Justification. 

26. On the Saints' Perseverance. 

27. On Heaven and Hell, or the Nature of Future Happiness and Mis- 

28. On the General Resurrection. 

29. On the Final Judgment. 

30. On the Duration of Future Happiness and Misery. 

31. On the Sabbath. 

32. On the Nature of a Christian Church, with the qualifications 
necessary for Communion. 

33. On Baptism. 

34. On the Lord's Supper. 

35. On Church Discipline. 
3(3. On Church Officers. 


[Continued from page 79.] 

The Society is National in its character, and Catholic in its principles, 
and has bestowed its patronage upon young men of different denomina- 
tions of evangelical sentiments whose qualifications have been deemed 
suitable, from all parts of the United States and of the Canadas. Most 
of its beneficiaries, however, have been connected with Congregation- 
alists and Presbyterians. These features of the Society have been ap- 
plauded by the wise and the good, and have laid a foundation for its 
great extent and usefulness. Upon these principles the Society contin- 
ued to make appropriations until April 14th, 1841, when the follow- 
ing preamble and vote were adopted : 

" Whereas, The number of beneficiaries of this Society has been great- 
ly -increased within a few years, and its receipts for the same time, owing 
to the pecuniary embarrassments of the country, have not been propor- 
tionably increased, and, consequently, have not been sufficient to meet 
the current disbursements, and thus a debt has been incurred which the 
Directors do not feel justified in increasing ; — and whereas, the funds of 
the Society are derived from four or five denominations of Christians, 
while assistance is now rendered to individuals of at least eight differ- 
ent denominations, and most of those of other denominations, which do 
not contribute to the funds of this Society, have now Education Societies 
of their own to assist young men in preparing for the ministry; there is 
not, therefore, the same reason for this Society's rendering assistance to 

American Education Society. 143 

young men of those denominations^ formerly existed ; and, as appro- 
priations must be withheld from some beneficiaries, justice seems to re- 
Suire, that aid should not be rendered to young men connected with 
lose denominations, which do not contribute to the funds of this So- 
ciety : Therefore, 

" Resolved, That no appropriations be made hereafter to new appli- 
cants for assistance, connected with denominations, which do not con- 
tribute to the funds of this Society, until its funds will enable it to do so 
without embarrassment." 

The object of the Society is to increase the number of eminently 
holy, learned and efficient ministers of Jesus Christ. In the preamble 
' to the original Constitution, the design of the Society is thus expressed, 
" to aid indigent young men of talents and hopeful piety, in acquiring a 
learned and competent education for the gospel ministry." Undoubted 
piety, and respectable talents and scholarship are indispensable prereq- 
uisites to its patronage. The Rule of the Society on this subject is: 
"No person shall be patronized who does not furnish satisfactory evi- 
dence of promising talents, and decided piety, and who is not in the way 
of obtaining a thorough classical and theological education." In con- 
formity to this regulation, the Society has ever endeavored to raise up 
ministers after the heart of Jehovah, " who shall Iced the people with 

knowledge and understanding." 

April 10th, 1810, the Directors voted, that they would hold quarterly 
meetings on the second Wednesdays of January, April, July and Octo- 
ber, at 10 o'clock, A. M., for the purpose of making appropriations to 
beneficiaries, and transacting any other business that might come before 
them. The quarterly meetings have been held on these da} s from that 
time to the present. 

The method of bestowing the charities of the Society, has been vari- 
ous. The plan first adopted, was to afford gratuitous assistance to young 
men, sufficient to meet their necessary expenses ; but this was tbund to 
encourage indolence, and extravagance. October 13th, 1819, the 
Directors fixed upon a definite sum to be granted to the beneficiaries, 
throwing them for support, in some measure, upon their own resources 
and efforts; but this method did not prove, in its operations, altogether 
satisfactory. October 11th, 1820, the method of assisting young men by 
way of loans was adopted ; and an obligation was required of them by 
the Society, to refund one half the amount received. This method op- 
erated favorably. July 12th, 182G, the whole was made a loan, 
payable by instalments in one, two, and three years, after the young men 
should come into the ministry. April, 1836, the conditions of payment 
were iurther relaxed, by extending the credit on the whole amount to 
five years from the conclusion of the course of study; and still further, 
by offering a discount of twelve per cent, per annum, on all sums refund- 
ed before the expiration of the five years, according to the part of the. 
time anticipated by the payment. The notes, however, of foreign and 
domestic missionaries, and of ministers settled over feeble churches, 
might be cancelled at the discretion of the Board of Directors. 

On this footing the appropriations continued to be granted until May 
30th, 1843, when the present change was adopted. By this change, 
after having made a full experiment both of the gratuitous and of the 
loaning system under various modifications, the attempt has been made 

144 History of the 

to retain the advantages of' both, by keeping them more distinct, 
rather than by virtually amalgamating them as on the former plan ; and 
by giving teethe young men their choice, influenced by such advice in 
view of their peculiar circumstances as they may obtain from judicious 
friends and from the officers of the Board, whether to receive assistance 
as a gratuity or as a loan. 

The loans, though without interest during the term of credit, are to be 
treated more strictly as a debt than heretofore, being required to be re- 
funded in full by the young men before their settlement in the ministry; 
or within two years after they shall have finished their studies, if they 
do not settle within that time. This change in the loaning system 
seemed to be demanded by the community, especially by those who had 
been the recipients of its charities ; and the Society, always willing to 
be the servant of its patrons and friends, most readily adopted it. 

The Board of Directors established a Committee of Agency of their 
own members, as early as Jan. 13th, 1819. Jan. 9th, 1828, the name of 
this Committee was changed, and its powers enlarged. It was called 
the Executive Committee, and invested with authority to act in behalf 
of the Directors during the interim of the Quarterly Sessions of the 
Board. May 28th, 1827, a Financial Committee was established for the 
purpose of superintending and managing the funds of the Society. 

For the first ten years, the Society operated in different parts of the 
United States in a loose and desultory manner, though societies and 
associations auxiliary to it, were formed in various places of the land. 
Since then, it has irom time to time become more systematic in its opera- 
tions. In 182G and 1827, the Education Societies which had been formed 
in Maino, New Hampshire, Vermont, Connecticut and New York, (the 
latter extending over the States of New York, New Jersey, and Penn- 
sylvania,) became connected with the American Education Society as 
Branches. In 1829 and 1830, Branch Societies were formed in Illinois, 
Indiana, and that part of Ohio called the Western Reserve. In 1829 
also, an Agency was established at Cincinnati, Ohio ; in 1831, Agencies 
were established in East and West Tennessee, at Utica in 1833, and at 
Philadelphia in 1834. In 1830, an Auxiliary Society was formed for 
Rhode Island. Since 1829, county auxiliaries have been formed in most 
of the counties in the States of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Con- 
necticut and Massachusetts. It should be observed, however, that pre- 
viously to 1818, four county societies had been formed within Massachu- 
setts. July 13th, 1831, the Presbyterian Branch was reorganized, and 
greatly extended in its operations. October 2nd, 1835, an Education 
Society for Michigan Territory was formed, and went into operation, 
connected with the Western Reserve Branch. In the autumn of 1837, 
this Society altered its constitution so as to become a Branch, and as 
such was, January 10th, 1838, recognized by the American Education 
Society. Within a tew years past, there have been some little modifica- 
tions in the Presbyterian Branch, and the Education Societies at the 
West, in reference to their connection with the Parent Society; but 
nothing, essentially affecting its interest or operations, has taken place. 

The plan of pastoral supervision of the beneficiaries, was early adop- 
ted, and, in some measure, carried into execution. Persons were speci- 
ally appointed to visit the young men, for this purpose. Since 182G, this 
service has been more fully performed, and been attended with happy 


American Education Society. 145 

effects on the beneficiaries, and the' cause generally. The object, as ex- 

Erossed in a Rule of the Society, is thus stated :— " The Secretary shall 
o required to axercise, so far as he shall be able, pastoral supervision 
(over all who are under the patronage of the Society, by visiting them at 
the places where they reside, and conversing and praying with them in- 
dividually and collectively; corresponding with them and their 
instructors, and by other means calculated to excite them to ef- 
fort, and to encourage them to seek an elevated spirit of piety." The 
Secretary of the Parent Society has performed this service, so far as his 
other duties of an imperative nature would allow. Other Secretaries 
and permanent Agents also have taken a part in this important work. 

The receipts of the Society from year to year, as appears by the An- 
nual Reports, are as follows, viz. 1816, $5,714; 1817, $6,436; 1818, 
$5,971; 1819,$19,330; 1820, $15,148; 1821, $13,108; 1822, $15,910; 
1823, $11,545; 1824, $9,454; 1826,* $16,596; 1827, $33,094 ; 1828, $31,- 
591; 1829, $30,084 ; 1830, $30,710; 1831, $40,450 ; 1832, $42,030; 1833, 
$47,836; 1834, $57,818; 1835, $83,002; 1836, $63,227; 1837, $65,574; 
1838, $55,660; 1839, $55,075 ; 1840, $51,963; 1841, $63,113,58; 1842, 
$32,352,15; 1 843, $33,789,33 ; 1844, $34,811,67 ; 1845, $51,219,55. 

The Society has a permanent fund, amounting to $73,887,36. 

The results of the Society have been as follows. It has assisted since 
its formation, 3,587 young men of different evangelical denominations, 
from the different States in the Union. The number aided in each suc- 
ceeding year, from 1816 to 1845, is as follows: 7, 138, 140, 161, 172, 205, 
195, 216; 198, 225,156,300, 404, 524, 604, 673, 807, 912, 1,040, 1,040, 
1,125, 1,141, 981, 922, 810, 615, 468, 388, 345. 

The whole amount which has been refunded by former beneficiaries, 
is as follows: during the eleven years preceding April 30rh, 1826, 
$339,60; in 1827, $90,00; 1828, $864,22 ; 1829, $830,91 : 1830, $1,007,84 ; 

1831, $2,647,63; 1832, $1,312,77; 1833, $2,1 13,27 ; 1834, $1,947,78; ia35, 
$2,957,14; 1836, $4,332,53; 1837, $7,644,10; 1838, $4,467,95; 1839, 
$4,426,40; 1840, $4,784,84 ; 1841, $6,633,30; 1842, $4,724,78 ; 1843, $2,- 
157,05 ; 1844, $3,514,04 ; 1845, $3,212,23— making in the whole $60,008,38. 

The sum of earnings by the beneficiaries for labor and school-keeping, 
reported from year to year, for sixteen years, is as follows, viz: 
1827,$4,000; 1828, $5,149; 1829, $8,728; 1830, $11,010; 1831, $11,460; 

1832, $15,568; 1833, $20,611 ; 1834, $26,268; 1835, $29,829 ; 1836, $33,- 
502; 1837, $39,685,87 ; 1838, $37,844,88 ; 1839, $33,177; 1840, $31,972; 
1841, $21,739,51; 1842, $18,968— making in the whole $349,510,51. 

In July, 1827, the Directors of the Society established a periodical, 
first entitled the " Quarterly Journal of the American Education Socie- 
ty ;" in January, 1829, it took the name of the "Quarterly Register and 
Journal" of the American Education Society;" in August, 1830, the name 
of the " Quarterly Register of the American Education Society;" and 
from August 1831, till the work was discontinued in 1843, making 15 
Volumes, the title of the "American Quarterly Register." This publi- 
cation contains a great mass of" literary and ecclesiastical statistics, and 
various treatises relating to education, the Christian ministry and benevo- 
lent operations. 

•In 1826, the lime for holding the annual meeting was changed, and the An- 
nual Report of that year embraces a period of twenty months. 


146 Want of Ministers. 

The American Education Society is fundamental in the benevolent 
enterprises of the present day. It operates unseen but with immense 
power. Its success in carrying out its plans has surpassed the highest 
expectations of its founders. Though formed on broad and liberal prin- 
ciples, and in some respects under favorable auspices, yet such results 
could not have been anticipated. From the success of the past en- 
couragement may be entertained in reference to the future. As the ad- 
vancement of this cause is inseparable from the promotion of the inter- 
ests of the church, the welfare of mankind, and the divine glory, it must 
be dear to the heart of Infinite Love. The justice of Sinai, the mercy of 
Zion, and the command of Christ to "preach the gospel to every crea- 
ture," press all the friends of the Society to adopt as their motto — Ener- 
getic Perseverance, until it shall be announced — "The kingdoms of this 
world are become the kingdoms of our Lord and of his Christ, and he 
shall reign forever and ever." 


In the New England States many vacant churches exist, and 
their call is, Send us Pastors, that we may be fed with knowledge 
and understanding. " But looking beyond the narrow limits of 
New England," we quote from the last Report of the American 
Education Society, " and embracing the country at large, for 
which our labors are needed, there is no longer any necessity for 
very minute inquiry, in order that we should be convinced of 
the extensive destitution which exists. If we speak only of the 
destitute churches, as recognized by the Congregational, Pres- 
byterian, Dutch Reformed, German Reformed, and Evangelical 
Lutheran denominations, we find that these exceed the number 
of ministers by more than two thousand and three hundred. In 
almost every section of the west and south, numerous towns, 
counties, and sometimes larger districts, are found entirely desti- 
tute of any competent evangelical instruction. Of the numer- 
ous proofs which might be adduced, a few only must suffice. A 
committee, appointed by a convention of ministers and elders be- 
longing to the three eastern Presbyteries of Michigan, which as- 
sembled in 1844, " to concert measures to supply with the gos- 


Want of Ministers. 147 

pel the churches and regions destitute of it within the boundaries 
of 'those three Presbyteries," reported " twenty-six churches as 
destitute, and ten places where churches ought immediately to 
be formed." A short time since, there were in Missouri, about 
fifty counties in which no Presbyterian minister resided. In 
Kentucky, at the same time, there were from ten to fifteen coun- 
ties without a Presbyterian minister. Not long ago, it was stat- 
ed by a minister in Indiana, that in nine of the twenty-one coun- 
ties embraced in the Presbytery to which he belonged, there was 
no minister of his own denomination living or preaching, except 
himself. Even in Southern Illinois, which was examined with 
reference to this point in 1844, at an expense, of three months' 
labor, while there was found a minister of some sort to every 
three hundred souls, there was not found, of duly qualified min- 
isters, so much as one to a county. In the State of Louisiana, 
it has been estimated that there are but about one hundred and 
thirty evangelical ministers among a population of more than 
460,000 souls." 

A minister from Ohio, writes, " would to God you could hear 
the urgency of the requests for but one day's labor among many of 
the famishing neighborhoods in this section of our Valley. Our 
churches may be permanently established, if we can get timely 
assistance. But it is useless to organize more churches here un- 
til we have some prospect of supplying them." A letter from 
Wiskonsin, says, " The time has come when this country must 
be provided with the ministrations of the gospel. The necessi- 
ties and desires of the people, like the accumulation of an ob- 
structed stream, have been rising and increasing till the anxiety is 
very great, and the demand imperious. The people will do all 
they can, and all they ought, make any effort, any sacrifice, if 
they can only have a good minister. The cry every where is, 
Send us ministers — Send us good ministers — Send them noiv." 

The Lutherans have 1,400 churches, and yet but about 400 

148 Want of Ministers. 

pastors. The German Reformed have 700 churches, and only 
about 1^0 pastors. 

We only add, that the increase of the population of the United 
States is, probably, more than 1,350 every day, on an average. 
Allowing, then, one minister only to 1,000 souls, five hundred 
ministers annually are needed to supply the increase of the pop- 
ulation of this country. And let it be remembered, that this esti- 
mate does not include the present destitution of ministers, which 
is very great, nor the vacancy made by the decease of ministers, 
to supply which would require about 500 annually. Such is our 
home condition. 

But what shall be said of the foreign field ? The American 
Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions are urgent in their 
demands for more laborers. In addition to the men they now 
have in service, and to the numbers requisite to supply the places 
of those who decease, or return to this country, on account of ill 
health, it is estimated by the Secretaries of the Society, after 
particular examination and mature reflection, that at least 230 
missionaries more than they now have in the field, might easily 
and advantageously be employed immediately, could they be ob- 
tained. Such are now the openings in the providence of God 
for laborers in heathen lands. Other openings will annually occur, 
and, in a few years, there will probably be a greatly increased 
demand for missionaries of the cross. The Society has now 
been in existence 35 years, and before the same period of time 
shall have again elapsed, it is confidently believed, that the 
whole heathen world will be in readiness for the reception of am- 
bassadors of Christ. Two thousand missionaries at least, the 
churches in the United States ought to send forth on this embas- 
sy of mercy. A great work is to be performed. There are now 
about six hundred millions of the human race in Pagan and Mo- 
hammedan lands, shrouded in moral darkness, in all its varied and 
horrid appearances. Twenty millions of souls, annually, pass to 
their everlasting destiny without the knowledge of the Savior of 

Early History of Amsrican Geographies. 149 

sinners. For the conversion of this world to Christ, nothing, ex- 
cept the Holy Ghost, is wanted, so much as ministers of the gos- 
pel. And yet there are not so many by nearly one third, now pre- 
paring for the ministry, as there were eight years ago. O, that the 
I pious young men of our country, would ponder this well, and then 
say Here, Lord, am I, send me. 


Before the Revolution, Europeans were the only writers of American 
Geography. The work last used to any considerable extent, before Geogra- 
phies were prepared and published by Americans, was the one publish- 
ed by William Guthrie, Esq. of London, entitled " a Geographical, His- 
torical and Commercial Grammar." This was imported from England, 
and was a standard work in our Colleges. Thirteen editions of it had 
been printed in 171J2. 

The Rev. Jedidiah Morse, D. D. of Charlestown, Ms. was the pioneer in 
the department of Geography in this country.. The first edition of his 
work was printed at New Haven, Ct. October, 1784. lie was, at that 
time, the teacher of a Young Ladies' School, and the manuscript was 
intended not for publication, but to be copied by his pupils. Soon, how- 
ever, so many copies were "wanted, that he was induced to publish 
it in an 18mo. volume of 214 pages. This was the first Geography ever 
printed on the Western Continent. IJefore 1784, no English or For- 
eign Geography had been re-printed in America. The first octavo edi- 
tion of Dr. Morse's work was in one volume, and was published in 
March, 1781), and dedicated tollis Excellency William Livingston, Esq. 
LL. D., at that time Governor of the State of New Jersey. Prior to pub- 
lishing it, the Doctor spent four years in visiting the several States of 
the Union,* corresponding with men of science, and consulting the 
most authentic sources of information. \n this way he obtained the 
documents and materials for his account of the country. Having done 
this, he prepared the manuscript, and then submitted it to the inspec- 
tion of gentlemen in various parts of the country, distinguished for their 
attainments in this department of knowledge. In this manner, the work 
was made as correct as could have been expected. What he said in bus 
Geography respecting Europe, was taken from Zimmerman's Political 

150 Early History of American Geographies. 

Survey and Guthrie's Grammar. In 1828, there had been published 28 
editions^of Morse's Common School Geography 8vo.; 4 editions of his 
American and Universal Gazetteer, first published in 1797, and several 
editions of his elements of Geography, 18mo., and of the Abridgment 
of his Universal Geography, in one volume, 8vo. The whole number 
of copies of these works amounted to more than 300,000, of which 
about 30,000 or 40,000 were of the 8vo. size, and the remainder chiefly 
of the 12mo. size. The first edition of the 8vo. Abridgment was print- 
ed in 1811. The first edition of Morse's large work was re-printed in 
London, Edinburgh, and Dublin, and translations in French and Ger- 
man, were printed on the Continent. Dr. Morse died at New Haven, Ct. 
in 182G, aged 65 years. 

About the time Dr. Morse published his Geography, Mr. Caleb Bing- 
ham of Boston, who was a graduate of Dartmouth College, published a 
Geographical Catechism. His work was enlarged and improved, and 
22 editions of it, or 100,000 copies were printed. 

Dr. Nathaniel Dwight of Connecticut, brother of President Dvvight, 
published in 1790, a 12mo. School Geography in the form of question 
and answer, but it never had a very extended circulation. 

In 1803, the Hon. John Hubbard, who was afterwards a professor in 
Dartmouth College, published a work of 240 pages, entitled "The Rudi- 
ments of Geography." At that time, he was Preceptor of an Academy 
at Deerfield, Ms. It was a good Geography for its day, and so accepta- 
ble, that it passed through seven editions. 

Mrs. Susanna Rawson of Roxbury, Ms. who was for many years a 
teacher of a High School for Ladies — published in 180G, a work entitled 
"An Abridgment of Universal Geography, designed for the use of 
schools and Academies in the United States." The extent of its circu- 
lation is not known. 

A work of this kind was published in 1810, by Rev. Dr. Elijah Parish of 
Newbury, Ms. entitled " A Ncav System of Modern Geography." It had 
some interesting characteristics, and was popular for a time, and passed 
through several editions. Dr. Daniel Adams published in 1814, his Ge- 
ography, and it has passed through about twenty editions, averaging 
about 0,000 copies to an edition. Since this was issued, a great number of 
works of the kind, good, bad and indifferent, have gone forth from the 
press. The most scientific, correct, useful, and, therefore, best of these 
are Joseph E. Worcester's and William C. Woodbridge's. 

A School Geography, illustrated with Cerographic Maps, by Sidney E, 
Morse of New York, has recently been published. It is a highly valua- 
ble work, and adapted to general circulation. 

Dissenting Academies in Great Britain. ■ 151 


From Mann's Lectt. Eccl. Hist., xii. p. 518. 

When founded. 

1G65 Rathmel, in Yorkshire, removed 
to Attercliffe, near Sheffield, 1698, 
and hack to Rathmel, Presbyterian 

1665 Taunton, Presbyterian, extinct in 
in 1759. 

1669 Shrewsbury, Presbyterian,extinct. 

1710 Bristol, Particular Baptist. 

1716 Kendal, Independent, extinct in 

1729 Northampton, now at Wymond- 
ley, Herts, Independent, removed 
to London and called Coward Col- 

1752 Axminster, Independent,removed 
to Exeter. 

1756 Hexmondwike, Yorkshire, Inde- 
pendent, extinct in 1800. 

1757 Warrington, Lancashire,Socinian, 
extinct in 1783. 

1768 Trevecka, South Wales, removed 
to Cheshunt 1792, by Countess of 

1772 Homerton, from Mile End, Inde 

1780 Abergavenny, removed to Oswes- 
try 1782, and to Wrexham 1795, 

1782 Newport PagneI,Bapt. and Inde- 

1783 Hoxton, now Highbury, Indepen- 

1786 Manchester College, removed to 
York 1803, Socinian. 

1789 Gosport, Independent, Missiona- 
ry Acad. Extinct. 

1794 Worship Street, London, General 
Baptist, Socinian, (doubtful.) 

1795 Rotherham, Independent. 
1795 Carmarthen, Independent. 

1799 Wisbeach, General Baptist, new 

1800 Idle, near Bradford, York, Inde- 

1803 Hackney, Independent. 

1806 Bradford, Particular Baptist. 

1807 Abergavenny, Particular Baptist. 
1810 Stepney, Particular Baptist. 
1816 Blackburn, Independent. 

[1834 Wesleyan Theological Institu- 
tion, London.] 


Report of the Superintending School Committee of Dublin, A*. H., read at 
the Annual Meeting, March, 1845. Kecne : Printed by J. & J. W. Pren- 
tiss. 1845. 

The Superintending School Committee are Levi W. Leonard, H. A. Ken- 
dall, Thomas Fisk, A. II. Fisk and T. P. Mason. The report of these gentle- 
men is prepared with great labor and much care, and is worthy to be read by all 
•imilar Committees. We will give a brief outline of it, thus presenting the 
subjects considered. 

I. Summer Schools. Examination of Teachers. Employment of Teach- 
ers. Examination and statistics of the Schools. Condition of the Schools. 

II. Winter Schools. Examination of Teachers. Statistics and school 
Record. Studies. Composition. Visits of Parents and others. Discipline of 
the Schools. Thorough Instruction. Common School Association. School 



Notices of Neiv Publications. 

. This document concludes as follows: — " Our report is a long one ; and our 
apology, or rafaher defence for taking up so much time is, that the common 
schools constitute an object of the highest public interest. We all know how 
much time has been spent in Town Meeting, every year, in discussing the subject 
of roads. Good roads are, indeed, important ; but the happiness of a people 
depends much more upon their common schools than upon their roads ; and we 
should be willing to give our schools their fair proportion of public hearing. 

While we are grateful to the Giver of all Good for our privileges, it behooves 
us, at the same time, to be diligent and faithful in improving them. It is a com- 
mon saying, that we can give nothing to the young so valuable as a good edu- 
cation. If we really believe this, we shall be sparing neither of pains nor ex- 
pense in furnishing the young with every facility lor thorough instruction and 
training, in all that can properly develope their faculties and render them in- 
lellectually wise, and morally good and happy. 

A Funeral Sermon, preached at Newmarket, JV. IL, April, %0th, 1845, 
on the Death of Mrs. Helen St. John, wife of Gilbert A. Grant, Esq. By 
Rev. Stephen S. JV. Greely, Pastor of the Congregational Church. Boston : 
Printed by S. N. Dickinson & Co., 1845. 

This sermon published at request is founded upon Luke viii : 52. "And all 
wept, and bewailed her : but he said, Weep not ; she is not dead but sleepeth." 

After an interesting introduction, the writer traces the analogy between 
the sleep of the body in its literal sense and its sleep in death, under the fol- 
lowing heads. I. Sleep pertains to the body ; and it is the frail structure of 
the body that makes it a necessity. 11. Sleep follows and terminates the period 
of wakeful, conscious existence. III. Sleep cuts off, during its continuance, 
all intercourse with surrounding objects, and closes up the avenues of sense. IV. 
The sleep of the body is temporary. V. In this connection, I notice one more 
item of resemblance, between the sleep of the body and the sleep of death, 
neither effect any alteration in man's moral character. The sermon closes with 
a brief notice of Mrs. St. John, who was a devotedly pious person, and appro- 
priate and sympathetic addresses. 

A Sernwn,preached at Chichester, JV. H., Oct. 15th, 1845, at the Ordina- 
tion of Rev. Charles Willey, by Rev. E. JV. Hidden, Pastor of the Congrega- 
tional Church, Deerfield, JV. H. Published by request. Gilmanton: Printed 
by Alfred Prescott, 1845. 

The text selected for the occasion is 1 Thes. ii : 4. " But as we are allowed 
of God to be put in trust with the gospel, even so we speak; not as pleasing 
men, but God which triethour hearts." In the Sermon the preacher treats of 
the Pastoral Office — its origin, duties, difficulties and qualifications. I. The 
Pastoral Office is an institution of divine appoinlment. II. The Pastoral Of- 
fice embraces a wide field of Christian duties. III. The Difficulties of the 
Pastoral Office. Two are mentioned ; the indifference of the people to the 
gospel, and their fastidiousness. IV. The Qualifications for the Pastoral Office. 
Those named are Boldness, Humility, and Fidelity. Tiie sermon is serious* 
appropriate and timely. 



' 1 



Vol. I. 

APRIL, 1846. 

No. 3. 


By the Rev. Isaac Robinson of Stoddard. 

« For we know that the law is spiritual ; but I am carnal, sold under 
sin. For that, which I do, I allow not: for what I would, that do I 
not ; but what I hate, that do I. If then, I do that which I would not, I 
consent unto the law that it is good. Now then, it is no more I, that do 
it, but sin that dwelleth in me. For I know that in me, (that is, in my 
flesh,) dwelleth no good thing ; for to will is present with me, but how to 
perform that which is good I find not. For the good that I would, I do 
not, but the evil which I would not, that I do. Now if I do that 
I would not, it is no morel that do it, but sin that dwelleth in me. I 
find then a law, that when I would do good evil is present with me. For 
I delight in the laAvof God after the inward man ; but I see another law 
in my members, warring against the law of my mind, and bringing me 
into captivity to the law of sin, which is in my members. O wretched 
man that I am ! who shall deliver me from the body of this death ? I 
thank God through Jesus Christ our Lord. So then, with the mind I 
myself 'serve the law of God; but with the flesh the law of sin." 

The first question, which this passage naturally suggests is 
this, — " of whom speaketh" the apostle " these things ? Of 
himself, or of some other man ?" To this I answer, that if he 
ever speaks of himself, or describes his own experience we may, 
I think, safely conclude that he does it here. For he uniformly 

154 An Inquiry into the 

speaks in the first person ; and uses the pronoun I more than 
twenty times in this paragraph, and the pronouns, me, my, and 
myself repeatedly. And if by these personal terms, he means 
not himself, but some other person, whose character and state 
were widely different from his own, then how are we to know 
that he ever speaks of himself in any part of his writings. I am 
aware that we have been referred to the following texts for proof 
that " the Apostle often employs the first person singular," 
when he intends not himself, but others. 1 Cor. 6 : 12, " All 
things are lawful unto me, but all things are not expedient ; all 
things are lawful for me, but I will not be brought under the pow- 
er of any." 1 Cor. 13: 11, 12. " When Jwas a child ispake 
as a child, /understood as a child," &tc. Gal. 2 : 18. " For if 
/build again the things which J destroyed /make myself a 
transgressor." But where is the evidence that the Apostle did 
not intend to include himself as well as others in " the general 
principles," which he here lays down ? or what parallelism is 
there between these texts and the passage under consideration, if 
in that, the Apostle is describing, not his own experience ; but 
the experience of another man ? 

But " to be Paul's own experience," the next ques- 
tion is, " when had he such experience ?" Is the experience 
here described that of Saul, the Pharisee, or of Paul, the Apos- 
tle of Jesus Christ ? To prepare the way for an answer to this 
question, it must be borne in mind that the Apostle has here rep- 'P> 
resented it as a part of his experience that he " Tcnew the law to 
be spiritual." But what is meant by the law's being spiritual? 
Undoubtedly this, that it requires not merely outward actions, 
but a spiritual obedience, an obedience " agreeable to the nature, 
and mind of the Holy Spirit." Whoever therefore knows that 
the law is spiritual, knows that it requires of him the renuncia- 
tion of all carnal and selfish affections, supreme love to God, 
and disinterested regard to his glory ; and that it requires all 
this, under penalty of eternal death ; and without making the 

Meaning of Rom. 7 ; 14 — 25. 


Jeast allowance for any supposed inability to perform the obedi- 
ence required. With this remark in view, permit me to offer the 
following arguments in support of the position that the Apostle 
is here delineating his experience, as a Christian. 

1. In describing his experience he employs the present tense. 
He had before spoken of his stupidity, and his conviction by the 
law, as past events. " I ivas alive without the law once, but 
when the commandment came, sin revived, and I died" But 
here he changes the tense, and speaks of the conflict which he 
describes, as being what he experienced at the time, when he 
wrote. "low," — not I was, — "carnal, sold under sin. I 
know that in me, that is, in my flesh there dwelleth," — not there 
did dwell, — " no good thing. I find," — not 1 found, — " a law 
that when I would do good evil is" — not was, — " present with 
me ;" and so through the whole of this paragraph. But, if the 
Apostle is here speaking of his past experience in his unconvert- 
ed state, why does he not continue to speak in the past time ? 
Why change the tense, apparently without any reason? Must 
not such a change of tense be adapted to lead his readers into 
error? And has it not actually had this effect upon a large por- 
tion of them, if it be a fact that he is here describing his experi- 
ence in a legal state ? Can any parallel instance of such a 
change of tense from the past to the present, while the writer is 
still speaking of a past event, be produced from any other part 
of the New Testament ? Until I see such an instance produced, 
or some satisfactory reason assigned for the Apostle's using the 
present tense, while speaking of his past experience in his uncon- 
verted state, I shall consider this change of tense as no inconsid- 
erable proof, that he is here describing his experience as a Chris- 

2. That Paul is here speaking of himself as a Christian, I argue 
from the fact, that his experience as here described does not ac- 
cord with the description, which is elsewhere given of his expe- 
rience in a legal state. He belonged to the sect of the Phari- 

156 An Inquiry into the 

sees ; and probably excelled many, if not most of them, in the 
strictness* with which he observed the law. And what exalted 
views they entertained of their own purity and rectitude, is suffi- 
ciently manifest from all the descriptions given of them in the 
New Testament. The Pharisee mentioned in the parable spok- 
en " unto certain, who trusted in themselves that they were 
righteous, and despised others," and who was doubtless present- 
ed as a representative of the sect in general, is described as hav- 
ing, in his own view, no sins to confess. He thanks God that he 
is not as other men ; boasts of the frequency, with which he 
fasted, and the punctuality with which he paidtythes; but no 
confession of guilt escapes from his lips. And such appears to 
have been the case with Paul, while " after the straitest sect of 
the Jews' religion ; he lived a Pharisee." Accordingly he says 
in the ninth verse of the context, " I was alive without the law 
once ;" by which I understand him to mean " spiritually alive 
in his own apprehension, and not in reality.". And hence he as- 
sures us, Philip. 3: 6, that " as touching the righteousness, which 
is in the law, he was blameless ;" which must, I conceive, mean, 
that he verily thought that he had the righteousness, which the 
law demanded. *But how could he think this, when he knew 
the law to be spiritual, and felt himself to be " carnal, sold under 
sin ?" 

But it will, perhaps, be said that the Apostle in the text is de- 
scribing his experience, not while he was alive without the law, 
but after the commandment came with convincing power. Be 
it so. But when did the commandment thus come ? To this 
it has been answered, " We may suppose to be in childhood, or 
in riper years." But if Paul, " in childhood or in riper years," 
had had those views of the spirituality of the law, and that deep 
and painful sense of his own want of conformity to it, which he 
describes in the text, it seems to me impossible to account for 
those exalted views of his own purity and righteousness, which 
he cherished, while engaged in persecuting the church. For it 

Meaning of Rom. 7 : 14 — 25. - 157 

, will be recollected that he is expressly said in the Scriptures to 
have been*at that time a young man ; which forbids us to sup- 
pose that he was over thirty years of age. Indeed all that is 
said of him in the Bible, before he was struck down to the 
ground by a light from heaven, seems to me irreconcileable with 
the supposition, that previous to that time he had those views of 
the strictness and spirituality of the law, and had felt that pain- 
ful conflict in his own breast, which he here so feelingly de- 
scribes. With such views of the law, and with such a sense of 
his own want of conformity to it, how could he have entered 
with all his heart into the dreadful work of persecution, and yet 
all the while " have verily thought with himself," that he was do- 
ing right ? And with such views of the law and of himself, 
how could he have placed that entire dependence on his 
own righteousness for justification, which we know that he 
did, up to the very time of his conversion ? In reference to this 
he said, " what things were gain to me," (that is, the things, by 
which he had before hoped to gain eternal life,) "those 1 counted 
loss for Christ — that I might be found in him, not having mine 
own righteousness, which is of the law, but that which is through 
the faith of Christ." Indeed the views, which the Apostle ex- 
presses of himself in the text, are as opposite to those, which he 
cherished in his unconverted state as light is to darkness. 

But it may be said, that after he was struck under conviction 
on his way to Damascus, and before he was converted he might 
have experienced all that he has described in the text. We need 
however only read the text attentively, to be convinced of the 
contrary. Nothing can be more evident than that he is here de- 
scribing, not a transitory, but a durable conflict ; not feelings of 
which he might have been the subject, a day or two, and never 
before or after ; but feelings which he habitually experienced. 
" I find then a law," says he, " that when 1 would do good, evil 
is present with me." That the term law here means custom, or 
what is habitual and established, will, I presume, be universally 


An Inquiry into the 

admitted.* How then could Paul experience all that he has 
here described during that conviction, which immediately pre- 
ceded his conversion ? It appears then, I trust, that the de- 
scription which he here gives of his experience is altogether 
irreconcileable with the description, which is else where given 
of his experience in his unconverted state. And if so, then 
the experience, which he here describes, in the present tense, 
must be his experience as a Christian. And this will appear 
more clearly, if, 

3. We examine the language in which he here describes his 
experience. I am aware that some part of this language has 
been considered as furnishing clear proof, that Paul is speaking 
of himself as unconverted ; and this I shall examine before I 
close. At present I shall confine myself to those expressions, 
which I consider as affording decisive evidence of the Christian 

First, Though the Apostle here complains of committing sin, 
yet he speaks of it as that which he does not approve, but hates. 
Thus in the 15th verse, he says, "For that which I do, I ap- 
prove not ; since it is not what I desire that I do ; but I do that 
which I hate." \ .But in what other part of the Bible is an un- 
converted man ever spoken of as hating sin ? Though the un- 
converted are often described in the Scriptures as hating ; yet sin 
is never in a single instance represented as the object of their 
hatred. On the contrary they are described as loving it, as find- 
ing it sweet to their taste, and as hiding it under their tongue, 
while at the same time, they are represented as " hating God, as 
hating Christ, as hating Zion, as hating good men, as hating 
the light, as hating good, as hating instruction and reproof, as 
hating peace, as hating their own souls, and as living in malice 

" See Prof. Stuart in Loco. 

t I have here, and in a few other places, adopted the translation of Prof. Stu- 
art as probably expressing more accurately the meaning of the Greek, than the 
received version. 


Meaning of Rom. 7 : 14 — 25. • 159 

and envy, hateful and hating one another." And the same idea 
is communicated, when they are represented as " despising God, 
despising his law, despising his statutes and judgments, despis- 
ing Christ, and despising wisdom and instruction J 7 If then the 
Apostle has here represented himself, while unconverted, as hat- 
ing the sin, which he committed, his representation seems to me 
in direct contradiction to all the descriptions which are given of 
the unconverted in other parts of the Bible. In this connection 
I wish to remark, that the Apostle has here not only represented 
himself as hating sin, but as desiring holiness, and as finding it 
easy to desire it. il It is not what I desire, Sb'Xw, which I do. 
For to desire, to SsXsjv, what is good is easy for me, but to do it 
I find difficult."* But the Bible is so far from representing the 
wicked, as desiring that, which is spiritually good or holy, that it 
uniformly represents them as desiring the contrary. " Ye will 
not, ou &s'Xsre, ye desire not to come unto me that ye might have 
life." " His citizens hated him, and sent a message after him 
saying, ou Ss'Xoasv, we desire not this man to reign over us." 
" How often would I have gathered thy children together, xcu 
ou* ^&sXVa*"s, and ye have not desired it." " Ye desired a mur- 
derer to be granted, unto you, and killed the Prince of Life." 
" Depart from us, for we desire not the knowledge of thy ways." 
"The soul of the wicked desireth that, which is evil" "The 
desire of the wicked shall perish." " Grant not O Lord the de- 
sires of the wicked." " Among whom we all had our conversa- 
tion in time past in the lust of the flesh fulfilling, «ra Ss'X^ara, the 
desires of the flesh and the mind ; and were by nature the child- 
ren o'f wrath even as others." If a single instance could be 
found in the Bible, in which the wicked are represented as de- 
siring, or " finding it easy to desire, that which is good," or ho- 
ly, it would afford a stronger argument against the doctrine of 
total depravity, than any of its opposers have ever yet been able 
to produce. 

* See verses 15th and 18th, in Stuart's translation. 

160 An Inquiry into the 

It has hdeed been said, that when the Apostle represents him- 
self as desiring, and finding it easy to desire that which is good, 
he only means, " that his reason and conscience decide in favor 
of doing good." But wherever the verb ^s'Xw, or any other 
verb signifying to desire occurs in the Bible, it expresses the acts 
of the will, or the desires and affections of the heart ; and not 
merely the dictates of reason and conscience ; faculties of which 
desiring and willing can with no propriety be predicated. 

And as the wicked are uniformly represented in the Bible as 
desiring that which is evil, so the righteous are as uniformly rep- 
resented as desiring that which is spiritually good. " The de- 
sire of our soul is to thy name, and to the remembrance of thee: 
with my soul have I desired thee in the night. My soul break- 
eth for the longing (in the Hebrew, for the desire) that it hath to 
thy judgments at all times." " One thing have I desired of the 
Lord, that will I seek after, &c." " We trust we have a good 
conscience, SiXovrsg, desiring in all things to live honestly." And 
said Nehemiah, in solemn address to God, " Let thine ear be 
attentive unto the prayer of thy servants, who desire to fear thy 
name." It is worthy of remark that he does not say that they 
feared the Lord, but that they " desired to fear his name" And 
how many of the people of God are there, whom a conscious- 
ness of their own imperfections, constrains to adopt the same 
modest and diffident language ? They dare not say that they fear 
the Lord, or that they love him, or trust in him, but they know 
that they desire to do all this, and that it is easy for them to de- 
sire it." For such desires spontaneously arise in their hearts, 
whenever his character is brought into their view. The fact, 
therefore, that the Apostle desired, and found it easy to desire, 
that which is spiritually good, I consider as affording decisive ev- 
idence, that he is here speaking of himself as a Christian. Nor 
is this evidence, in my view, in the least invalidated by the 
Apostle's adding that " he found it difficult to do the good, which 
he desired." For where is the Christian, who has not experi- 

Meaning of Rom. 7 : 14—25. 161 

enced the same difficulty ? As the venerable Mr. Jay has just- 
ly remarked, " What the Christian does in this world is very lit- 
tle, compared with what he ought to do, and with what he desires 
to do. If you view his dispositions, if you judge of him by 
his desires, he would attend on the Lord without distraction ; he 
would run and not be weary, walk and not be faint. He would 
equal a seraph in the services of heaven. But if you view his 
executions; if you judge of him by his attainments, he cries out, 
'The flesh lusteth against the Spirit, and the spirit against the 
flesh, and these are contrary the one to the other, so that 1 can 
not do the things that I would.' "f 

Secondly, In the language, by which the Apostle here describes 
his experience, he clearly distinguishes between his renewed and 
his corrupt nature. "It is no more 1 that do it ; but sin that dwell- 
eth in me." Here his corrupt nature is personified and called sin, 
and his renewed nature is personified and called 1, or as he more 
forcibly expresses it in a subsequent verse, J, myself. That this 
view of his language is correct, is evident from the explanation 
which he adds in the words immediately following. " For I 
know that in me, (that is, in my flesh,) there dwelleth no good 
thing." By flesh here, it is universally admitted that the Apos- 
tle does not mean his body, but his corrupt nature, which he else- 
where calls the " body of sin," and " the old man, which is cor- 
rupt according to the deceitful lusts." But if he had no other 
nature but this ; no nature but one that was, tfa^f, or tfa^xixo's, 
fleshly and corrupt, how could he distinguish between this, and 
some other nature that he possessed ? Why, when he declared 
that no good thing dwelt in him, should he be so careful to add 
the explanatory clause, " that is in my flesh ;" thus clearly dis- 
tinguishing between his flesh and some other part of him, and 
necessarily implying that in that part " some good thing did 
dwell ?" But it has been said, that the Apostle here distinguishes 

* Family Sermons Vol. II. p. 160. 


An Inquiry into the 

.not between his renewed and his corrupt nature ; but between 
hisjflesh or*corrupt nature and certain faculties of his mind, such 
as reason and conscience. But the mind of the unregenerate, 
with all its faculties, is declared by Paul to be <*&$, flesh, pollu- 
ted and depraved. He tells us expressly, Rom. 8: 7, that their 
mind is <p£oV^.a a% Ca^xop, the mind of the flesh, and therefore en- 
mity against God. And in Col. 2 : 18, he calls the mind of the 
unrenewed man, vovs (fagxhs, a mind of flesh, by which he is vainly 
puffed up. And in Titus 1 : 15, he tells us that the mind and 
conscience of the unbelieving are defiled, so that to them there is 
nothing pure, nothing spiritually good in any part of them. And 
this is the uniform language of the Bible. In no part of it, can 
I find even a remote intimation that in the natural man, or any of 
his faculties, there is any thing morally good. It declares that 
he is flesh and ascribes to him nothing better. " My spirit shall 
not always strive with man, because he is flesh." " That which 
is born of the flesh is flesh." " They that are in the flesh can 
not please God ;" they have nothing in them spiritually good, or 
pleasing in his sight. If then the Apostle is here speaking of 
himself as " in the flesh," or unconverted, how could he in effect 
say, that in any part of him there dwelt something spiritually 
good and pleasing to God? I say, spiritually good ; for it will 
be universally admitted that it is spiritual good or holiness, that 
he meant to deny dwelt in his flesh. Is it not plain then, that 
he has here distinguished between his sinful and his renewed na- 
ture ; and of course that he is speaking of himself as a Chris- 
tian. This, I trust, will more clearly appear, if we con- 

Thirdly, That the Apostle has here represented himself as 
taking pleasure in the divine law, with respect to his spiritual, or 
renewed nature. " I delight in the law of God after the in- 
ward man." The verb 2uv^<Jo{jiaj here used, literally signifies to be 
pleased with a thing as agreeable to the taste, or " to delight in 

Meaning of Rom. 7 : 14 — 25. 


it altogether, or wholly"* And how exactly does what the 
Apostle here says of himself, as taking complacency in the law 
of God, accord with the representation, which in other parts of 
the Bible, is given of the good man, as " loving the law of 
God," as having " his delight in his law ;" as " esteeming it bet- 
ter than thousands of gold and silver, as finding it sweeter than 
honey and the honey-comb, and as having it written in his 
heart." And the same idea is communicated when he is repre- 
sented as saying " Thy testimonies are my delight and my coun- 
sellors. Thy testimonies have I taken as an heritage forever ; 
for they are the rejoicing of my heart. Thy statutes are my 
songs in the house of my pilgrimage." But how opposite to 
this is the description, which the Bible gives of the unconverted. 
They are represented as " rejecting the law, forsaking the law, 
turning away their ear from hearing the law, pulling away the 
shoulder and refusing to hearken, and stopping their ear, and 
making their heart as an adamant, lest they should hear the law 
of the Lord." The description therefore, which the Apostle has 
here given of himself as delighting in the law of God is in di- 
rect opposition to the description, which the Bible gives of the 
unconverted, and in perfect harmony with that, which it gives of 
the regenerate. Indeed it seems to me impossible, that any man 
who knows the law to be spiritual, should " delight in it altogether 
or wholly," while unrenewed. In opposition to this however, it 
is asserted, that the Bible uses as strong language respecting the 
unregenerate, as the Apostle here uses respecting himself. Let 
us examine the texts adduced in support of this assertion. The 
first two are Mark 6 : 20, and John 5 : 35, in which we are told, 
that " Herod heard John gladly, and that the Jews were willing 
to rejoice in his light for a season." But it is no uncommon thing 
for wicked men, to be pleased for a season with the eloquence, 
fervor and zeal of a faithful preacher. But when the truth be- 

Soo the word in Dr. Robinson's Greek Lexicon. 


An Inquiry into the 

gins to hear on their consciences, if they are not brought cordial* 
ly to embrace it, they generally become open and bitter oppo- 
sers, as was the case with Herod and the Jews here referred 

The next text adduced is Matt. 13: 20, in which we are told, 
that that class of Gospel hearers represented by seed sown on 
stony ground " receive the word with joy ; but having no root in 
themselves endure but for a season, and in the time of temptation 
fall away." But this is no proof that they knew the law to be spir- 
itual, or that they correctly understood the word, which they re- 
ceived with joy. It is very possible for persons, when they hear 
the gospel preached, to be filled with a selfish joy, because they 
think they have an interest in its invaluable blessings. They 
love God, not because he is holy ; but because they believe that 
he loves them, and will save them with an everlasting salvation. 
Christ is precious to them, not on account of the moral excellen- 
cies, that adorn his character ; but because they expect to share 
the saving benefits of his mediation. Such selfish religion is too 
common in the world ; and for the most part is as transitory " as 
the morning cloud and early dew, that goeth away." 

We are next referred to John 2 : 23, 34, and to Acts 8 : 13, 
from which we learn that Christ did not commit himself to cer- 
tain Jews, who believed on his name, because he knew their 
hearts ; and that Simon the sorcerer, when he heard Philip 
preach, believed. But men may have a speculative belief, that 
Jesus of Nazareth is the Son of God and the Savior of the 
world ; and yet be far from delighting either in the law of God, 
orin the gospel of his grace. Indeed the unconverted are often 
represented in the Bible as believing. " Nevertheless among 
the chief rulers also, many believed on him ; but because of 
the Pharisees they did not confess him, lest they should be put 
out of the synagogue : for they loved the praise of men more, 
than the praise of God. But while the Bible teaches us that 
there is " a dead faith," as well as " a faith that worketh by 

Meaning of Rom. 7 : 14 — 25. 


love," a " believing for a season," and a " believing in vain," as 
well, as a " believing to the saving of the soul," it never teaches 
us that men can delight in the law of God, and yet retain " the 
carnal mind, which is not subject to the law of God, neither in- 
deed can be" 

The last text to which we are referred, and on which the 
most stress is laid, is Isa. 58: 2, "Yet they seek me daily and 
delight io know my ways, as a nation that did righteousness, and 
forsook not the ordinances of their God : they ask of me the or- 
dinances of justice ; they take delight in approaching unto God." 
The knowledge of God's ways, in which the self-righteous Jews 
are here represented as delighting, was, as the connection shows, 
a speculative knowledge of his ordinances ; for it is added, as 
explanatory of this, " they ask of me the ordinances of justice." 
And when it is said, " they take delight in approaching unto 
God," it is equally evident that an external attendance on the 
ordinances of his worship is all that is meant. " With these 
things,"as Dr. Scott has justly remarked, "they were pleased,mere- 
ly because they gratified their pride, entitled them to respect, 
and increased their presumptuous confidence." By such out- 
ward performances, they. flattered themselves, that they had 
brought God into their debt ; and therefore, in the words follow- 
ing, demanded, " Wherefore have we fasted, and thou seest not ? 
wherefore have we afflicted our souls, and thou takest no knowl- 
edge?" That the unconverted, who are disposed to trust in 
such external performances for justification, take delight in them 
is readily admitted. The Pharisees of old, no doubt, took plea- 
sure in the law of God, which they believed they had so perfect- 
ly obeyed, that it secured to them eternal life. But would they 
have delighted in it, had they "known it to be spiritual/'' and 
felt, that instead of promising them life, it doomed them to eter- 
nal death ? 

Those, who hold that Paul's delighting in the law of God is 
no proof, that he was then a Christian, seem to overlook the fact, 


An Inquiry into the 

that when he delighted in the law, he knew it to be spiritual 
But he did not know the law to be spiritual till after " the com- 
mandment came ; but when the commandment did come, " then 
began his active and increased opposition to it ;" and of course 
this opposition must have been subdued, before he could delight 
in the law of God after the inner man. 

But what is the meaning of the phrase, " inner," or inward 
"man?" To this it has been answered, "It means the intellectual 
part of man in distinction from his heart, or in other words, his rea- 
son and conscience in distinction from his propensities and affec- 
tions." But in what other part of the Bible do we find such a dis- 
tinction ? The phrase " inner man" is peculiar to Paul ; and he 
elsewhere uses it with respect to believers; and, as I must think, 
to signify their renewed nature. Thus he prays for the Ephesians* 
that " God would strengthen with might by his Spirit in the in- 
ner man." But how does the spirit strengthen believers? Not 
by rendering their natural faculties more vigorous ; but by in- 
creasing their graces. That this was the strength, which the 
Apostle prayed might be granted to the Ephesian Christians, is 
rendered certain by what he immediately adds, " That Christ 
may dwell in your hearts by faith, that ye being rooted and 
grounded in love may be able to comprehend with all saints what 
is the breadth and length, and depth and height ; and to know 
the love of Christ which passeth knowledge; that ye might be 
filled with all the fulness of God." That the " inner man" 
here means the renewed nature of believers, and that this is 
strengthened by the Spirit's increasing their faith and love, and 
other graces, and, in this sense, filling them with all the fulness 
of God, is in my view too evident to admit of a doubt. And in 
the same sense I understand the phrase in 2 Cor. 4 : 16, " For 
which cause we faint not, but though our outward man perish, 
yet the inward man is renewed day by day." The Apostle's 
meaning, I take to be this : Though under our afflictions our 
corporeal nature is decaying and perishing ; yet our spiritual 


Meaning of Rom. 7 : 14 — 25. 


nature is gaining renewed strength from day to day. The 
afflictions, *which we suffer, have, through the agency of the Di- 
vine Spirit, a sanctifying influence upon us, and prove the means 
of invigorating our graces, and increasing our spiritual strength 
and conformity to God ; and thus " our light affliction which is 
but for a moment, worketh for us a more exceeding, eternal weight 
of glory." It is manifest then, I think, that by the " inner man" 
is meant the same that Peter calls, " the hidden man of the 
heart ;" and Paul, " the new man which is renewed in knowl- 
edge after the image of him who created him." And if so, then 
the conflict, which the Apostle here describes, must have been 
between his sinful and his renewed nature. If with respect to 
his renewed nature, he delighted in the law of God, it is certain 
that he is speaking of himself as a Christian. Additional 
evidence of this is furnished by the fact, that he here complains 
of a conflict between the law of his mind, and the law in his 
members. " I see another law in my members warring against 
the law of my mind." But what does he here mean by " the 
law in his members ?" Undoubtedly, " the law dictated by his 
carnal passions and desires ;" and of course the law of his mind 
must be the law dictated by his spiritual affections and desires. 
For he represents these two laws as directly opposite to each oth- 
er ; and as opposing one another in all their operations. If then 
the law in the members is the law dictated by carnal passions 
and desires, the law of the mind must be the law dictated by 
spiritual affections and desires ; otherwise there would be no op- 
position between them. The warfare, therefore, between these 
two laws must be the warfare between the affections of the old 
and the new man. 

This will appear further evident if we consider the earnest 
desire which the Apostle expresses for deliverance from the law 
in his members, which warred against the law of his mind. "O 
wretched man that I am ! who shall deliver me from the body of 
this death ?" Dr. Doddridge and some other critics have con- 


Appropriate Superscriptions. 

sidered this language as containing an allusion to a kind ofcruef 
punishment* adopted by some ancient tyrants, of chaining a dead 
body to a living man and compelling him to drag it about with 
him till it was consumed. And no image could more forcibly ex- 
press, how loathsome sin was to the Apostle, and how earnestly 
he desired to be entirely delivered from it. And hence he breaks 
out into an ascription of praise to God in prospect of complete 
deliverance. " I thank God through Jesus Christ our Lord" 
And is it possible, that Paul is here describing his feelings while 
unconverted ? Were such the breathings of his soul while he 
" was a blasphemer, a persecutor and injurious," and " breathed 
out threatnings and slaughter" against the followers of Christ ? 
This will not be pretended. Will it be alleged tben, that such 
were the breathings of his soul at some period, antecedent to bis 
becoming a persecutor ? Who can believe it ? He might 
while a Pharisee have often said, " God, 1 thank thee, that I am 
not as other men ;" but never did he breathe out thanks to God 
through Jesus Christ our Lord, till he became a Christian. 
To be continued* 


Over the door of the theological chamber of the Theological Semina- 
ry at Montauban, in France, is written the inscription : " The best theolo- 
gian is not he who argues best, but he who leads the most pious life, and ivho 
is most capable of teaching others the way of salvation" 

Over the door of the philosophical chamber, are inserted these words : 
" Retigion is live best of philosophy. What the most skilful philosophers have 
sought in vain, by the most painful effort, Chist has revealed to us clearly and 

Over the door of another room, are these words : " There is no trite 
piety without holiness, no true holiness withuxd piety" 

A Plea for Common School Education. . 169 


By Edwin D. Sanborn, 
Professor of the Latin Language and Literature in Dartmouth College. 

(Continued from page 110 J 

A large amount of money is expended upon our schools, and if it be 
denied that their influence is to make men virtuous and good members 
of society, it may very properly be asked whether it were not better that 
they be without them. There are certain obvious results of education, 
which need only to be stated to be appreciated. 

The expansion of the human mind is always accompanied with an increased 
self-respect. The enlightened man sets a higher value upon life, charac- 
ter, and reputation, than the ignorant. He forms a juster estimate of 
the powers and capacities of his own soul, and, consequently more 
fully, appreciates its dignity. Ho would not, therefore, so soon conde- 
scend to do a mean or unworthy action. The motive to refrain may, it 
ia true, be purely selfish, or it may be praise-worthy. In cither case, so 
far as his conduct affects others, society gains by his increased self-re- 
spect. Every other citizen's life, property and reputation, are more safe 
in consequence of it. So far then as education tends to produce in the 
minds of men ajust self-respect, it tends to the well being of society, 
and to produce confidence between neighbors, and to supercede the 
necessity of courts of justice and penitentiaries. 

An enlarged mental culture also begets a respect for law. This is an es- 
sential element of political security. No government can long exist 
without it. In a free government, it is the key stone of the political arch. 
When respect for lav/ declines, anarchy ensues. "To make, acknowl- 
edge and obey laws," says Lieber, "is one of the high prerogatives as well 
as duties of man among all the animate beings of the visible creation. 
Obeying a law, in this case, means the willing our actions to conform to 
laws, that is, rules in which principles as applied to a class of cases, are 
pronounced. The individual himself, as well as society at large, stands 
in need of laws, without which there would be physical and moral dis- 
order." This subjection to law, in the absence of the sanctions of In- 
spiration, was the only safe guard of the old republics. When love of or- 
der and reverence for law declined, those governments were speedily dis- 
solved, and under the sway of the malignant passions, the foulest crimes 



170 A Plea for Common School Education. 

< were perpetrated. Of the Greek republics, Sparta was the most stable, 
consistent, and efficient. She owed her renown to the intelligent obedi- 
ence of her citizens. Her success in war, her security in peace, resulted 
from the same cause. " Stranger, tell the Lacedaemonians that we lie 
here in obedience to her laws," was the simple but significant inscrip- 
tion commemorative of the heroic devotion of Leonidas and his faithful 
followers at Thermopylae. Had this same fidelity and obedience con- 
tinued in the state, Sparta would not so soon have been blotted from the 
page of history. In a free government, law, which is the expression of 
the popular will, is the true sovereign, to which every citizen owes al- 
legiance. A man's loyalty and patriotism must, therefore, be measured 
by his obedience to the laws of the land. If he disregards the solemn- 
ly expressed wishes of the people, he certainly cannot be a good citizen. 
Respect for law and its constituted executors is one of the instinctive 
sentiments of the human soul. Man was created for society, and socie- 
ty cannot exist without law. We should, therefore, expect to find, 
among the original elements of the soul not only a sense of justice and 
right, but a deep conviction of the necessity of executing justice, and 
vindicating the right in all social relations. In the untutored mind, this 
conviction remains undeveloped. The obedience of an ignorant man is 
forced. He yields his own will to law through fear of punishment. He 
consents to be governed with the apathy and indifference of a brute. 
The moment he becomes conscious of the weakness of the ruling pow- 
er, or of its inability to execute the laws, he yields to his own selfish in- 
clinations, and violates those precepts, which he before obeyed by con- 
straint. On the contrary, the obedience of the cultivated, well-informed 
mind, except in cases of peculiar perversity, is intelligent and cordial. 
Such a man looks upon law as essential to the well being of the nation, 
and indispensable to his own personal security. An enlightened self- 
iuterest, therefore, co-operates with a sense of duty in enforcing the 
claims of law. Whatever tends to diminish, in the souls of men, this 
conviction of the necessity and obligatory character of law, weakens the 
hold of government on the affections of the people, and diminishes its 
wholesome restraints upon human passions. All hasty and passionate 
legislation, all violent and sudden reforms in the judiciary of the land, 
frequent innovations upon the settled and long established usages of the 
country, and all popular clamors against the infliction of the higher pen- 
alties of the law, tend directly to the subversion both of political gov- 
ernment and Christian morality. Reverence for law more effectually 
guards public interests and individual rights, than Praetorian cohorts, 
Janizaries, or standing armies. This is an all-pervading, omnipresent 

A Plea for Common School Education. 


power. It is ever at hand to check the rising thought of crime ; to stay 
its progress jvhen once in action ; to hold the hand of the assassin ; to 
extinguish the torch of the incendiary, and cool the passions of the lib- 
ertine. It is the very life blood of the social state. When its current is 
poisoned, the sinews of the government are weakened, and wanton mis- 
rule soon usurps the seat of justice. This same sentiment is the guar- 
dian of the hearth-stone and of the domestic altar. Like the law of 
-gravitation, it causes all the inferior members of the family circle to re- 
volve in harmony and order about the central and controling power. It 
■ gives to the unenforced command of a feeble parent, the efficacy of a di- 
vine precept. Its execution is secured as effectually as though an arm- 
ed legion awaited the father's bidding. The well regulated family is the 
. nursery of all those virtues that adorn the state. " Patriotism, as all 
languages testify, springs from the hearth." The good father makes the 
good magistrate. The son who has " borne the yoke in his youth," 
makes the exemplary citizen; while the enlightened and refined mother 
and sister give to society its highest dignity, and to home its fondest en- 
dearments. Whatever interrupts the harmony of domestic life, or dis- 
turbs its divinely appointed relations, poisons the very well-springs of 
society, and introduces disease into its political organization. The ty- 
rannical father is not a safe depositary of delegated power. The dis- 
obedient son early learns to contemn the wholesome restraints of law, 
and, before his maturity, often becomes a hardened culprit. The uned- 
ucated, undisciplined daughter is often the disgrace of her family, and 
the reproach of her sex. In a word, the condition of the family is the true 
index of the condition of society. Where insubordination and insolence 
prevail at the domestic fireside, there will be violence and blood-shed in 
the streets, oppression and injustice in high places. In such a state of 
society, the industrious and virtuous become the prey of the idle and 
vicious. Where men are thoroughly instructed in regard to the claims 
of law, and their obligations to obey, such evils cannot exist. The en- 
lightened citizen feels, that his own life and estate are secure only un- 
der the dominion of law, and while he claims the protection of the gov- 
enlment for himself and his property, he cheerfully accords to every oth- 
er man the rights, which properly belong to him. Consequently, there 
springs, from this reverence for law, a respect for the HgMs of others. This 
affords safety and value to property. Ignorance and vice as effectually 
prevent social progress and individual thrift, as " war, pestilence and 
famine." Where there are no schools, there is generally no enterprise. 
The value of property is essentially enhanced by the establishment of 
schools and the gathering of churches. Learning is usually the hand- 

172 A Plea for Common School Education/ 

maid of morality, and as men become intelligent and virtuous, their so- 
ciety is sought ; their neighborhood is desired, and their established rep- 
utation for integrity becomes, like the sword of the magistrate, " a ter- 
ror to evil-doers and a praise to them that do well." The most selfish 
man on earth, if he rightly appreciated his temporal interests, would la- 
bor, assiduously, for the promotion of sound learning and Christian mo- 
rality, as the most certain and effectual method of increasing the value 
of his own estate. The man who aims only at temporal prosperity, can 
best secure it by giving to the rising generation a Christian education. 
This is true wisdom, and commendable economy. The benefactor is 
thereby, doubly blessed. He enjoys the satisfaction of doing good, 
while he receives an immediate reward in the esteem and respect of his 
fellow-citizens, and in the appreciation of his own wealth. The bene- 
ficiary is prepared, by his education, to promote, effectually, his own in- 
terests and at the same time, to be useful to others. A good practical 
education is a young man's best capital in commencing business. The 
mind that has been trained to think, is apt to be sagacious in planning, 
and energetic in executing. Such a mind readily perceives the relations 
of actions and events, and adapts means to ends. Jlencc more labor is 
accomplished with less expenditure of strength and time. Ignorant men 
know not how to invent new processes of business or art. They follow 
the old routine of practice without a suspicion of its inconvenience, or 
want of adaptation to their present condition. Nothing better can bo 
expected of such men. The undisciplined mind neither thinks nor re- 
flects, much less does it reason and invent, in the higher significance of 
these terms. Improvidence and inconsideration ruin men for time and 
eternity. Ignorant men are proverbially inconsiderate and improvi- 
dent. What is true of individuals, is true ofnations. Barbarian and un- 
educated tribes seldom make provision for the future. The sunshine 
and enjoyment of to-day, limit all their thoughts and all their aspirations. 
Minds trained to think, to reason and to decide, become prudent, sober and 
provident. They foresee the evil and avoid it. They bring to the duties 
of active life a manly euergy, and a power of discrimination and inven- 
tion, which generally ensure success ; while a slight difficulty perplexes, 
and a formidable obstacle disheartens, untutored minds. Such men of- 
ten fail in business for want of sagacity in the choice of opportunities 
and in the use of means. They object to improvements, because they 
cannot appreciate them. They do all their work by the most toilsome 
processes. They scorn the king's high-way and the public coach, and 
choose to thread the rough mountain passes of their native wilds, with 
their own laden mules. Such men look upon the introduction of ma- 


A Plea for Common School Education. ' 173 

chinery into manufactories as a public calamity, and load, with no mea- 
sured abuse, the man who would improve their clumsy implements of 
agriculture. So long as a community remains uneducated, they will, 
pertinaciously retain the customs of their fathers. Let the minds of the 
young be stimulated by appropriate study and discipline, and that same 
people will, at once, become conscious of their wants, and begin the 
work of reform. The progress of minds, once excited to healthy ac- 
tion, can be limited only by time and resources. Mental discipline is 
worth more to the young adventurer, than pecuniary capital. Wealth, 
without the requisite skill to manage it, may prove a snare ; but intelli- 
gence, ingenuity, and active powers of invention, seldom fail to secure 
affluence and honor. From carefully collated statistics, it is ascertain- 
ed that educated operatives in our large manufacturing villages earn, on 
an average, forty per cent more than those who have had no mental 
culture. If the extremes be compared, the best educated with the least 
educated, the difference in wages is sixty-six per cent. The superiority 
of the former class results entirely from their education. The well- 
trained mind acts with rapidity, thinks quickly, and readily comprehends 
a difficulty and its remedy. The uneducated operative is soon perplexed, 
and easily frustrated. His mental resources are soon exhausted, and 
he can accomplish little except by brute force. 

Viewed in this light, is not our Common School System, one of strict 
economy ? How could the money expended upon our schools be invest- 
ed so as to yield larger interest? If we regard only the physical condi- 
tion of those who are well educated, the chances of success are, by 
mental culture, multiplied a hundred fold. In New England, the man 
who is possessed of good health, good habits, and a good education, never 
need be destitute of wealth, friends or credit. Good health will enable 
him to labor, and honest industry, in our country, is always rewarded. 
Good habits will command the respect and confidence of the communi- 
ty, and ensure success in business. A good education, supported by an 
unblemished character, is equivalent to a patent of nobility in other 
lands. It is a passport to the best society, the country affords. With 
such qualifications it is scarcely possible ibr a man to be overlooked or 
neglected. The country needs all the physical energy, moral worth and 
intellectual power, which it can command. If a man is well fitted for a 
station of usefulness or honor, he generally obtains it. If he fails, in a 
favorite pursuit, he is not left without resources. The field of Ameri- 
can enterprise is boundless, and there, is usually, no want of versatility 
in American talent and skill. The services of well educated and virtu- 
ous men are always in demand. How great the encouragement, there- 


A Plea for Common School Education. 

fore, for young men to aim at high attainments, and to expect corres- 
ponding results. Those indispensable requisites, to which I have allud- 
ed, a sound body, an unperverted heart, and a well-disciplined mind, depend 
mainly upon education. I use the word in its broadest signification, in- 
dicating a thorough training of the whole man, " body, soul and spirit" 

The most influential agents of American education, are " the domes- 
tic circle" and the Common School. The immense importance of our 
Common Schools in preparing men for the duties of active life is ac* 
knoivledged, but not appreciated. A truth sometimes loses its influence 
from its very commonness. By a strange perversity of our nature, we 
neglect those principles, in education as well as religion, which most 
concern us as rational beings. All admit that the safety of our republic 
and the permanency of our much-loved institutions depend upon the 
virtue and intelligence of the people. The school and the church are 
die sure indexes of our knowledge and piety, and the most certain 
pledges of national prosperity. Nothing can so inevitably, insure our 
ruin as the neglect of either of these elements of success. Learning 
ought ever to be subservient to religion. The school-house is a highly 
appropriate appendage of the church. When these structures are al- 
lowed to fall into decay, it is sale to infer that the community is corrupt. 
A large majority of the people of New England receive their entire ed- 
ucation in the Common School. The young mind there receives its 
most lasting impressions, The health, character and intellect of the man 
are all modified by the discipline of the school room. The whole man 
is moulded by it. Not a nerve, or fibre of the physical system escapes 
its influence. The thoughts, passions, affections and tastes receive their 
direction and coloring from it, Its influence upon a single individual 
cannot be estimated. Its influence upon the whole community, is un- 
limited. The welfare of the state and of individuals are involved in the 
right administration of our Common School System. There is a vague 
impression abroad, among people, that their children ought to be educa- 
ted ; that learning and morality are essential to a good citizen ; that our 
government cannot be maintained and our institutions perpetuated with- 
out intelligence and virtue ; yet they do not seem to think that their 
agency is required to secure results so desirable, or that it depends on 
thern, at all to promote learning and religion. 

It is true, they pay somewhat grudgingly, their tax for the support of 
schools ; yet they seldom inquire how the money is expended. They 
send their children to school, but they neither inquire after their accom- 
modation or instruction while there. Herein, they not only desert their 
duty, but abuse their privileges. The Common School System belongs 

A Plea for Common School Education, 175 

ep&entially to the people. It is for their benefit. They support it and 
ought to be interested in its operations. A school is not a self-moved 
machine, that needs to be wound up once in a year, and then suffered 
lo run down ; as it most certainly will run down in every sense of that 
phrase, if its patrons and supporters desert it. Good laws are unavail- 
ing unless sustained by an enlightened public opinion. A code of laws 
will never execute themselves. Every man who enjoys their protection 
is bound to interest himself, not only in observing them, but in enforcing 
their observance on others. If any man doubts the utility and economy 
of our system of free schools, let him compare the condition of ignor- 
nant and thriftless millions of the old world, with that of the educated 
population of New England, or let him compare the educated and neg- 
lected countries of Europe, and if he be a reasonable man he will ask 
no other evidence. Travellers inform us that in Europe, the limits of 
the Common School System are definitely marked by the external as- 
pect and condition of the country. Where there are free schools, there 
are well-cultivated farms, commodious dwellings and a neatly clad 
population. For example, the stranger reads the history of the Common 
Schools of Prussia, in the thrift, enterprise and prosperity of its inhab- 
itants. He reads with equal ease, the tale of iron bondage and priestly 
oppression in Austria. Catholic and Protestant countries resemble the 
divisions of Egypt, occupied by the Israelites and Egyptians of old. 

In the Goshen of Protestant Europe, there is light ; in Catholic 
Egypt, darkness, gross darkness, " darkness that may be felt," covers the 
people. The great principles for which Luther contended, liberty to 
read and to think, are now felt in every department of business and of 
state; in the public marts and in the family circle ; in the consecrated 
church and at the domestic altar. The history of educated, enfran- 
chised mind is written over all the surface of society. The benefits of 
intellectual and religious freedom are not like hereditary estates, inheri- 
ted and enjoyed by the few, they are the nation's birthright. Like the 
light and air of heaven, they are free to all. It was the object of the 
Reformation to secure freedom of thought ; and where the mind is free 
to think there will be progress, invention and improvement. The very 
essence of Protestantism is progress. Catholicism is stationary, formal 
and lifeless. Ignorance, bigotry and poverty in the masses are the legit- 
imate fruits of the latter; intelligence, virtue and thrift, of the former. 
The early settlers of New England were thoroughly imbued with the 
spirit of the Reformation. They cordially hated the oppression of the 
old hierarchy and as cordially loved liberty. The Bible was their palla- 
dium. It was their first desire to teach their children to read and prac- 

176 A P tea for Common School Education. 

tise its precepts. To secure this object, they early established Common 
Schools i and in the midst of their deep poverty they founded a College 
in order to raise up an able and faithful ministry, and to furnish compe- 
tent teachers. By their wise administration they laid the foundation for 
the prosperity of their adopted land. The glory of New England is 
her free schools and her churches. These have given to her population 
a pre-eminence over the same classes in the mother country. England 
has no free schools. Consequently the multitude are miserably ignore 
ant and poor. To be sure, there are, in England, boundless wealth, un-< 
rivalled splendor, superior intelligence and unparalleled liberality. But 
where are these advantages found ? First, among the thirty three 
thousand land holders, who own every inch of England's soil; and, sec- 
ondly, among the merchant princes and wealthy manufacturers, who 
supply the world with rich fabrics and costly merchandise. The remain- 
ing portion of its 17,000,000 of inhabitants are not serfs or villains, nor are 
they slaves, but they are worse than all these, they are the degraded de- 
pendents, the ignorant servants of a purse-proud aristocracy. Millions 
subsist upon the charity of their oppressors, and this very charity is 
doled out by the grudging minions of the law, the law which both sanc- 
tions the robbery and requires a partial distribution of the plunder. 
These stinted streams of charity do not reach all. It is estimated that 
50,000 die of starvation, annually, in that Island. Could such a system 
long exist if the people were educated ? The establishment of free 
schools in England, would revolutionize the government, break up the 
immense estates of the nobles and introduce freedom and equality 
among the people.* Fear and ignorance must support the thrones of 
tyrants. The slave owner of our own country, will not teach his servants 
letters, lest they learn to know and assert their rights. The same policy 
prevents the general diffusion of knowledge and the establishment of 
parish schools in England. Scotland has her parochial schools; and, in 
Scotland, the poor have a competency, and the people are generally in- 
telligent and thrifty. In England, no schools exist, except such as are 
supported by tuition, or by funds furnished by liberal benefactors. Of 
course, the poor are not provided for. They are " like the heath in the 
desert," not knowing when good cometh. Our school system, like the 
gospel of Christ, was designed for the poor, as well as the rich. It is en- 
joyed by the poor ; and, if the rich scorn it, it is because they hate in- 
struction, and know not its value. 

We have thus far noticed a few of the obvious advantages of 
intellectual and moral culture. They are such as pertain chiefly 
to this present life. The higher spiritual relations of education, its 

A Plea for Common School Education. 


influence upon the progress of the soul both for time and eternity, 
have been purposely omitted. While we ascribe to education a power 
almost limitless in elevating and refining society, we would carefully 
guard against the substitution of mere knowledge, or mental culture for 
holiness. The office of science is not to renew the heart. This prerog- 
ative belongs to the Holy Spirit. The influence of the best intellectual 
discipline is chiefly preventive. It makes men prudent, not Jioly. It 
checks the natural propensities to evil, and ibsters the amiable virtues. 
It begets, in men, a proper self-respect, teaches them the dignity and 
worth of the soul, and substitutes the pleasures of intellect and taste for 
those of sense. It gives to the citizen a true notion of his duties and 
responsibilities, promotes cordial obedience to law, and a regard to the 
rights of others. It reveals to him the inestimable value of character, 
and begets an abhorrence of all perfidy and meanness. It developes 
the natural affections, and through the agency of the involuntary sympa- 
thies of our nature, becomes indirectly promotive of Christian philan- 
throphy. In a word, it is the voice of one crying in the wilderness of 
human passions ; " Prepare ye the way of the Lord." It is the true 
herald of the gospel of Christ. It prepares men to discharge well the 
duties of citizens, and with the superadded grace of God, to live the 
life of a Christian. Men must be governed by force from without, or 
byprinciple within. There is no alternative. We must maintain standing 
armies and an efficient police, or give the people instruction. We must 
build poor houses and penitentiaries, or furnish convenient school- 
houses. We must employ judges and executioners, or provide compe- 
tent teachers and school superintendents. If we neglect our schools, 
we must enlarge our prisons. The ignorant and brutal mob can be con- 
trolled only by force, while the enlightened assembly, like the stars in 
their courses, is swayed by an indwelling law, — by the convictions of the 
thinking, reasoning mind. The world, in past ages, has been governed 
by standing armies and a numerous police. It is now proposed to gov- 
ern men by their own intelligent convictions of right; by those virtues 
which find their appropriate aliment in the school and church. Which 
systetn is the most economical ? Which is best adapted to the 
character and destiny of immortal beings ? Compare the expense 
of our own little army and diminutive navy with the amount of money 
expended upon our Common Schools. Look at the results of each. 
Weigh the blood and earnage,the tears and \voes,the fury and commotion 
of a single campaign with the arts of peace, which are the fruit of right 
instruction ; with the joyous hearts and happy homes of educated men ; 
with social harmony and domestic love ; witli the active energy of en- 



A Plea for Common School Education; 

larged beneficence and universal philanthropy. Does it matter nothing' 
whether a child learns to look upon his neighbor as a rival or a friend? 
Whether he is taught to regard the stranger as an enemy, or a brother ? 
Remove the restraints of education and law from men, and this world 
would become too hot for its inhabitants. It would be but a theatre for 
the display of the malignant passions. Such it ever has been, where hu- 
man passions have not been curbed and guided by a religious education. 
If men were properly taught* war would be an impossible condition of 
society. " War is a game which if their subjects were wise, kings 
would seldom play at ;" — nay more, if their subjects were wise, they 
would never play at it. Those violent and brutal passions displayed in 
mobs, insurrections and wars, are but the developed and strengthened 
germs of evil, which lie enveloped in the soul of every child. Cultivate 
the senses and neglect the heart and intellect, and you will transform a 
man into a brute, or worse perhaps, into a demon. Restrain and disci- 
pline the passions, and these tyrants of the soul may be made the obe- 
dient servitors of reason. Every district school possesses the materials 
of future villany and crime in all their revolting forms, as well as the ele- 
ments of civility, courtesy and virtue. " Looking in upon such an as- 
sembly, (I use the language of another,) grouping these children into 
separate circles, and looking forward but a few sbort years, to the for- 
tunes that await them, shall we predict their destiny in the terrific lan- 
guage of the poet ; — 

These shall the fury passions tear, 

The vultures of the mind, 

Disdainful Anger, pallid Fear 

And Shame that skulks behind ; 

Ambition this shall tempt to rise, 

Then whirl the wretch from high, 

To bitter Scorn a sacrifice 

And grinning Infamy; 

The stings of Falsehood these shall try 

And hard Unkindness' aller'd eye 

That mocks the tear it fore'd to flow; 
* And keen Remorse witli blood defil'd, 

And moody Madness laughing wild 

Amid severest woe ; — 
or concentrating our whole souls into one resolve, high and prophetical- 
ly strong, — that our duty to these children shall be done, shall we pro- 
claim in the language of the blessed Savior," ' It is not the will of your 
Father which is in Heaven, that one of these little ones should perish ?' 
This is the end and aim of a thorough Christian education. This is true 
economy in the worldling ; true wisdom in the good man. 

Ministers in Hillsborough County. 



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Ezra Jones 

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Jonathan Barns 
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184 Notes on the Churches and Ministers 



The earliest inhabitants of the County of Hillsborough, came from Mas- 
sachusetts, and planted themselves in Dunstable, and the vicinity. At a 
later date, a second and distinct class, the Scotch-Irish Presbyterians, 
came from Londonderry and the adjacent places, and settled in Bedford, 
Goffstown, New Boston, Peterborough, Antrim, and, in smaller numbers, 
in several other towns. The only towns in the County, in which church- 
es have been in existence more than a century, are Nashua, Litchfield, 
Hudson^ Amherst, and Ilollis. Several other churches are approaching 
nearly fo the completion of a century. The first church in Nashua, 
dates back into the seventeenth century, has existed 1(10 years, and is 
much the oldest in all the central and western portions of the State. A 
hundred years ago, all the north-western part of the County, was a "wil- 

In the towns, of which the first settlers were of Scottish descent, the 
churches were from the beginning Presbyterian, as in Bedford, New 
Boston, Peterborough, and Antrim. In other towns, of an inter- 
mingled English and Scottish population, the result was either two 
churches, a Congregational and Presbyterian, as in Goffstown and Fran- 
cestown, which afterwards united on the plan of the predominant party; 
or fluctuations from one form to the other, as in Litchfield, Hudson, 
Deering, and Manchester. 

Of forty ministers, who received a pastoral charge within the County, 
prior to 1800, the average duration of their pastoral relation to their re- 
spective churches, was very nearly twenty-five years. Only three of 
this number survive ) of whom but one, Mr. Hill of Mason, retains the 
pastoral relation, aided by a colleague. Of 58 ministers, settled since 
1800, who have either died or resigned, (by far the greater portion re- 
signed,) the average duration of their respective pastorates over the same 
church, has been only about seven years. Out of this number of 58, 
thirty-seven, settled within the last twenty years, who have deceased or 
resigned, have sustained the pastoral relation to the same church for an 
average period of less than four and three fourths years! A striking 
instance of modern instability and love of change. 

Of forty-eight ministers, who have held the pastoral office within 
the County, now deceased, the average age is almost sixty-seven and one 
half years. Twenty-two of the forty-eight, lived over seventy years ; 
of whom six exceeded eighty. 

Prior to the Revolutionary War, and for some little time after, most of 
the pastors and churches of the County, were more or less inHined to 
Arminian sentiments. During this period, what was then called " The 
halfivay Covenant" obtained general reception. The result of it was, pa- 
rents, who had been themselves baptised, were admitted, on assenting to 
the Church Covenant, or " owning it" as the usual phrase was, to bring 
their children to baptism : with the understanding, however, that they 
were not to be required to come to the Lord's table, for which they ap- 

of Hillsborough County. 


prehended themselves not to be qualified. They were of course not 
members in, full communion ; nor generally considered as so fully ame- 
nable to the church as communicants were held to be ; but bore toward 
it a sort of half way relation. The practice was early introduced into 
New England: but it tended to laxness, and is now almost universally 
abandoned. The most evangelical of the early ministers were Emerson, 
of Hollis, and Farrar of New Ipswich. About the close of the war, and 
within a few years afterwards, the settlement of Harris of Dunbarton, 
and Wood of Boscawen, both at that day included in this County ; also 
of Bruce of Mont Vernon, Bradford of Francestown, Hill of Mason, and 
Paige of Hancock, checked the current of Arminianism, and finally 
placed orthodoxy quite in the ascendant. 

JlmJierst. At the settlement of Mr. Wilkins, in 1741, the church, or- 
ganized on the day preceding his ordination, consisted of 12 members, 
and the township, then including Milfordand Mont Vernon, had 14 fam- 
ilies. Rev. Mr. Chase of Lynn, Ms. preached the ordination sermon. 
Mr. Wilkins possessed respectable talents and a good degree of public 
estimation, though inadequacy of support somewhat diverted his atten- 
tion from prolessional duties. Mr. Wilkins died, Feb. 11th, 1783, aged 
72. Mr. Barnard's ordination sermon was preached by Rev. Mr. Adams 
of Lunenburg, Ms. During his ministry, two new churches, those of 
Milford and Mont Vernon, were formed out of the original church. He 
retained his pastoral relation to the church till his death. He was born 
February 28th, 1750, and died, January 15th, 3835, aged 84. The 
ministry of the Rev. Dr. Lord, who was born November 28th, 1792, 
was highly useful. At one period of it, he had a severe trial in the se- 
cession of some of his parish for the purpose of forming a Unitarian So- 
ciety; but the great body of the church stood firm. He was afflicted 
in the latter part of his residence here, by a partial loss of voice, and 
was called away in 1828, to the Presidency of Dartmouth College. He 
studied theology at the Theological Seminary, Andover, and graduated 
there in 1815. Mr. Aiken, born May 14lh, 1790, after a success- 
ful ministry of eight years, marked by two interesting revivals, accept- 
ed an invitation to become pastor of Park Street Church, Boston. His 
theological education was under the direction of President Tyler of Dart- 
mouth College. Mr. Adams studied theology at Andover, and on the 
resignation of his pastoral charge, became principal of Dummer Acad- 
emy in Newbury, Byefield parish, Ms. A revival occurred in the brief 
ministry of his successor, Mr. Savage, in 1842; who on retiring from 
Amherst, became pastor of a church in lloulton, Me. He studied divin- 
ity at Lane Seminary, Ohio. The present pastor is the Rev. Josiah 
G. Davis, who studied divinity at Union Theological Seminary, N. Y. 

Jintrim: named after the County of Antrim in Ireland. The first move- 
ment toward the organization of a church was made by the town in its cor- 
porate capacity. At their request the Rev. Mr. Morrison, appointed by 
tfic Presbytery of Londonderry, visited the place andorganized a Presby- 
terian church of about sixty members, Aug. 1788. Several attempts to 
settle a minister followed this event; but without success, till the ordi- 
nation of Mr. Fullerton, in 1800. His name was originally Utile ; 
changed to Fullerton, by an act of the Legislature, on his petition. He 
remained here but four years ; was installed afterwards at Hebron, N, 
Y„ from which place he was in a few years dismissed. He was bom, 

186 Notes on the Churches and Ministers 

June 30th, 1774, and died in Maryland, in 1815, aged 41. The present 
pastor, Mr. Whiton, b. Aug. 1st, 1785, was ordained, 1808. The years 
1816,1827, 1831, and 1830, were seasons of special religious interest. A 
Union Meeting House having been built by persons of different denom- 
inations, from this and adjacent places, near the east border of the town, 
a Congregational church was organized there in 1827. It never had a 
pastor ; and having been reduced to a very small number, its remaining 
members thought best, in the autumn of 1843, to dissolve the church, 
and unite themselves to the Presbyterian church at the centre of the 

Bedford. The Presbyterian church was gathered, 1750. Mr. Hous- 
ton ceased to officiate as pastor in 1775, nearly three years before his 
formal dismission. Most of the ministers were zealous friends of the 
American revolution ; he viewed it with disfavor, and this rendered him 
unacceptable to the people. lie died, Feb. 4th, 1798, aged 75. Alter 
his dismission, the church remained destitute 26 years ; many candi- 
dates for the ministry were heard, but none invited to settle in the place. 
Religion languished, and the church was brought low. The ministry of 
Mr. McGregore, who studied divinity with Rev. Mr. Morrison, was pros- 
perous and salutary ; sound and orthodox views of religion became pre- 
dominant among the people, and accessions to the church were numer- 
ous. He was the great grand-son of Rev. James McGregore, first min- 
ister of Londonderry, who emigrated from the north of Ireland to 
America, in 1718 ; a man whose memory is still precious ; and the grand 
son of Rev. David McGregore of Londonderry, so distinguished in his 
day as to be invited to the charge of the only Presbyterian church then 
in the city of New York. Mr. McGregore, born March 21st, 1771, after 
his dismission, applied himself chiefly to the business of teaching 
a school, with much success ; and passed the latter years of his life at 
Falmouth, Me. where he died, suddenly, Oct. 18th, 1845, aged 74. Some 
interesting revivals have occurred dming the ministry of Mr. Savage, 
the present pastor. He was born Sept. 2nd, 1793. 

Bennington. The constituent parts of this now town, incorporated in 
1843, are the former Society Land, with adjacent portions of Hancock, 
Greenfield, Francestown, and Deering. The church was organized Ju- 
ly 0th, 1839. The Rev. Ebenezer Column, once of Swanzey, ministered 
to them as stated supply, from 1839 to 1841. Since the ordination of 
Mr. Manson, the first and present pastor, the number of communicants 
has increased to seventy. Located in a thriving manufacturing village, 
the prospects of this church are promising. Mr. Manson was original- 
ly a lawyer, and practiced for four years in Vermont, lie studied divin- 
ity at Gilmanton Theological Seminary, and there graduated in 1841. 

Brooldhie, formerly Rahj. A church was organized, Dec. 10th, 1795. 
Mr. Wadsworth, was a respectable character, though the visible results 
of his labors were not extensive. He was b. Mar. 9th, 1709, d. Nov. 25th, 
1817, aged 48. After his death, a Mr. Warren supplied the desk two 
years ; there was much excitement, but not of the most salutary kind ; 
members were admitted into the church without examination, and with- 
out covenant ; difficulty and disorder ensued. As the only means of ex- 
trication, the church, by advice of neighboring pastors, adopted the mea- 
sure, in 1821, of a renewal ofCovenant, no longer recognizing as mem- 
bers those who refused to subscribe the Covenant. They were desti- 

of Hillsborough County. 


tute of a pastor ten years, till the settlement of Mr. Holt, 1827, who re- 
sides now at ^lerrimack. The short ministry of his successor, Mr. 
Eastman, was unquiet. A majority of the town, being unfriendly to 
the church, deprived them of the use of the Meeting House, and intro- 
duced a preacher of another denomination, instructed to exchange pul- 
pits with Unitarians and Universalists. The church and their associates, 
after a season of deep depression, erected a new Meeting House ; and 
under the efforts of the present pastor, Mr. Goodwin, the religious pros- 
pects of the place have become much improved. The year 1842, was a 
season of special religious interest. Mr. Goodwin was born Jan. 25th., 
180!), and graduated at Andover in 1838. 

Deering was so named in compliment to the lady of John Wentworth, 
the last royal Governor of New Hampshire, whom he married out of an 
English family of this name. The original church, formed Dec. 24th, 
1781), having at first ten male members, was destitute of a pastor forty 
years, till the settlement of Mr. (mild. Though Congregational, sever- 
al of its members preferred the Presbyterian discipline, and procured its 
adoption in 171*3. Additions were somewhat frequent: but as the ma- 
jority of the town were attached to Congregationalism, this form of 
church polity was resumed, Sept. 14th, 175)7. Several candidates were 
invited to the pastoral office, but declined to stay with the people. In 
1801, Mr. Sleigh, an Englishman, came here as a preacher, not with reg- 
ular Ecclesiastical credentials, but an English government license to 
preach ; intended merely as a legal protection from certain penalties, in- 
curred in England by Dissenters, assuming to preach without such a 
document. The church thought him unsound in doctrine, and deficient 
in pastoral qualifications : hut the town insisted on his settlement, and 
convoked a Council, not of a very orthodox cast, who, on the third day of 
their session, alter a great contest, and in despite of the remonstrance of 
the church, organized a new church, and ordained Mr. Sleigh as its pas- 
tor. The new or second church consisted of a few dissentient members 
of the first church, and two or three other individuals. This procedure 
was disastrous to the: interests of order and religion. A Council of 
neighboring pastors and churches condemned itas irregular, and declin- 
ed fellowship with Mr. Sleigh and his church. He was dismissed in 
1807, and alter a few years removed to the city of New York, where he 
died, about 1820, and about (JO years of age. The unhappy effects of 
this transaction, have not even to this day ceased to be visible. The 
second church ceased to sustain Christian ordinances, and gradually be- 
came extinct. A very few of the members returned to the original 
church ; a few joined other denominations; and some stood aloof from 
any religious connection. The Rev. Jabez P. Fisher preached here 
from 1811) to 1824, as stated supply. The ministry of Mr. Child, first 
pastor of the original church, and a graduate at Andover, was active and 
salutary; as were also the labors of Rev. Peter Holt, who officiated as 
stated supply from 1835 to 1841. During ihe ministry of the present 
pastor, Mr. Richardson from Andover Seminary, a revival of religion 
has strengthened the church, and beneficially affected the moral interests 
of the place. He was born March 4th, 1801. 

lYancestoivn was named, like Deering, in compliment to the lady of 
Gov. Wentworth, bearing her given name, I'Vances, as the other hears 
her surname, Deering. The early inhabitants came partly from Dedham, 

188 Notes on the Churches and Ministers 

Ms. and partly from Londonderry and vicinity. The former were Con- 
gregationalists, and with the aid of the Rev. Mr. Cotton of Litchfield, or- 
ganized a Congregational church of 18 members, Jan. 27th, J773. Not far 
from this time, the latter class organized a Presbyterian church, and 
elected ruling Elders. The two churches, though in some respects rival, 
admitted each other's members to communion, and, it is believed, occa- 
sionally united to obtain the services of a minister. So acceptable to 
both were the labors of Mr. Bradford, 1790, that they concurred in invi- 
ting him to become their pastor, and left to his decision, the question 
that had divided them, as to the form of church government. lie decid- 
ed in favor of a somewhat modified Congregationalism: retaining how- 
ever, for the pastor and deacons, the name of church session. His minis- 
try was long and highly useful : no man in the County did more for the 
dissemination of evangelical truth. He was the filth in descent from 
William Bradford, second Governor of Plymouth Colony. His pious 
mother, who survived his birth but an hour, took the infant in ber arms, 
consecrated him to God, and prayed that he might become a good min- 
ister of Christ. That dying prayer from maternal lips, was signally an- 
swered. Himself, and three of his sons became ministers of the gospel. 
The chief cause of his dismission was a controversy in the church, 
growing out of the marriage of a member to his brother's widow : a 
connection, regarded by Mr. Bradford as incestuous. His last years, 
chiefly spent in Montague, Ms. exhibited a decay of mental faculties 
somewhat premature. His salutary influence in Francestown, is still 
seen and felt. Near the close of his life, his children, being assembled 
in his apartment, united in singing a hymn. Roused from a lethargic 
sleep, he thanked them for all their filial attention ; and to a question in 
relation to his eternal prospects, replied with affecting humility, "I have 
a hope." He was b. Aug. 6th, 17(55, and died, Jan. 14th, 1838, aged 73. Mr. 
Richards, though he remained here but a few years, was beloved, and gath- 
ered many into the church. He is now settled in Nashua. Mr.Folsom, 
after two years' service here, became pastor of an orthodox church in 
Providence, It. I. where he soon avowed Unitarian views, and resigned 
his charge. He is now settled at Haverhill, Ms. Mr. Davenport is re- 
settled in the ministry in Cazenovia, N. Y. The present pastor, Mr. Mc 
Gee, formerly in the ministry at Brattleborough, Vt. and at Nashua, en- 
joys pleasing prospects of usefulness and peace. Messrs. Richards, Fol- 
som, and McGee studied theology at Andover, Mr. Davenport at New 
Haven. Mr. Richards was born Feb. 9th, 1800, Mr.Folsom, March 12th, 
1806, and Mr. McGee, 1789. 

Goffstown. Mr. Currier, born March 18th, 1743, was invited to settle 
ra*17b'9, but at that time declined, on account of some difficulty between 
the Congregational and Presbyterian portions of the people. In 1771, 
the call was renewed, and accepted. At that time, if not before, the 
Congregational church was formed. The Presbyterians protested 
against his settlement, and from that time acted under a separate organiz- 
ation. Mr. Currier becoming intemperate, and losing public confidence, 
was dismissed, became a farmer, and died in Vermont, July '24th, 1829, 
aged 86. After his dismission, the moneys raised for the supply of the 
desk, were for some years equally divided between the two denomina- 
tions. Mr. Waters succeeded to the pastoral office over the Congrega- 
tional church in 1781. There was at this time, and not improbably for 

of Hillsborough County. 





some years before, a Presbyterian church also, though the latter never 
had a pastor of their own. Mr. Currier was born March 18th, 1743. 
Mr, Waters? was regarded as being, at first, somewhat lax in his senti- 
ments; but by the good influence of his neighbor, Rev. Dr. Harris of 
Dumbarton, he became more thoroughly orthodox. Alter his departure 
from Goffstown, he became pastor of a church in Ashby, Ms. where he 
died July 30th, 18:24, aged 76. He was born May 20th, 1748. His suc- 
cessor was Rev. David L. Moral, who was born June 10th, 1772. At his 
ordination, the two churches united, adopting a mixed plan of church 
discipline, recognizing some of the distinctive peculiarities both of Pres- 
byterianism and Congregationalism ; and entitled to a representation in 
the Presbytery. This modification existed during the ministry of Mr. 
Morril, and that of his successor, Mr. Pitman ; but has now become 
nearly obsolete, or inoperative; though the church still retains the style 
of " The Presbyterian, Congregational church." Mr. Morril, once a phy- 
sician, left the ministry on account of ill health ; afterwards went into 
civil life, and became Representative in the State Legislature, a Senator 
in Congress, an'd Governor of the State from 1824 to 1827. Mr. Pitman, 
once a Baptist preacher, became after his dismission from Goflstown, 
pastor of a Congregational church in Putney, Vt., and afterwards of 
another in New York, and now resides at Amsterdam, N. Y., without 
a pastoral charge. His successor, Mr. Wood, born April 10th, 1790, be- 
came alter his resignation here, pastor of the church in Haverhill, sub- 
sequently of the church at Dartmouth College, and afterwards editor of 
the Congregational Journal at Concord, which he still conducts witii abil- 
ity and success, and resides at Concord. Mr. Wood studied theology at 
Princeton, N. J. The ministry of Mr. Stowell was short ; on his depart- 
ure hence, he was resettled for a few years at Townsend, Ms. He has 
ceased to officiate as a minister, and now resides at Fitzwilliam. He was 
born Dec. 29th, 1804. The present pastor, Rev. Isaac Willey, was form- 
erly of Rochester, and for some years, Secretary of the New Hampshire 
Missionary Society v Mr. Willey studied divinity with President Tyler 
of Dartmouth College, and was born Sept. 8th, 1793. 

Greenfield. The church was gathered, Sept. 7th, 1791. The first min- 
ister, Mr. Clark, who read divinity with Rev. Dr. Burton of Thetford, Yt. 
though not a man of popular talent, was eminently pious and might 
well be called, from the consistency of his example with his profession, 
and his easy introduction of religion into familiar conversation, "an every 
day preacher." After his resignation here, he labored some } r ears as a 
missionary; then removed his family to Western New York, where In; 
was highly respected for moral excellence, and died 1813, aged 79, 
in, full hope of the mercy of God in Christ. He was born October, 1764. 
During the pastorate of Mr. Walker, in whose first year a considerable 
addition was made to the church, an opposition to him arose, which 
ended in an unhappy division, and led to his dismission. A large mi- 
nority of the church, aggrieved by an opposition to their pastor, whirh 
they regarded as unwarranted, withdrew from the church in Greenfield, 
and united with the Presbyterian church in Peterborough. On leaving 
Greenfield, Mr. Walker labored some years at Chesterfield; then at the 
West ; and now preaches to a Congregation at Tisbury, Ms. Mr. Wal- 
ker read theology with the Rev. Mr. Morrison, and was born Sept. 1784. 
Mr. Danfbrth's mifiistry here was a little less than eight years. He 


Notes on the Churches and Ministers 

studied divinity at Andover, and now resides in the State of New York/ 
lie was born Aug. 28th, 1793. During a part of this period, the Green- 
field portion of tiie Peterborough church, held separate meetings of their 
own, being supplied for a portion of the time by the pastor of the Peter- 
borough church, Rev. Peter Holt, and occasionally by other ministers. 
After Mr. Danforth's resignation, the original Congregational church, and 
the Greenfield branch of Peterborough church united, Jan. 8th, 1834, 
under a mixed plan of government, partly Congregational and partly 
Presbyterian, assuming the style of " the Evangelical Church," and 
soon after invited Mr. Jones to become their pastor. After a short min- 
istry here, he was resettled at Dorset, Vt. Mr. Smith, who was born 
Sept. 20th, 1795, after residing here about six years as stated supply, 
was installed pastor of the Evangelical Church, 1845. lie had been 
previously in the ministry at Sandwich, and at Nevviield in Maine. He 
studied divinity with Rev. Dr. Wood of Boscawen. In consequence of 
a controversy, which arose in the latter part of Mr. Jones' residence 
here, a small Congregational Church was organized, Nov. 19th, 1839, 
and the Rev. Bancroft Fowler, formerly a Professor in the Theological 
Seminary at Bangor, was installed as its pastor. A considerable num- 
ber of the members of the Evangelical Church withdrew from that body, 
and worshipped with the Congregational Church ; and after some years, 
became members of it, by regular dismission from the Evangelical 
Church. On account of deficiency of support, Mr. Fowler resigned his 
charge, April, 1845. 

Hancock. The church was organized, Aug. 28th, 1788. Rev. Reed 
Paige, the first pastor, studied theology with Dr. Emmons, ami embrac- 
ed his distinctive sentiments. On account of his avowal, in his exami- 
nation for ordination, of the sentiment, that God is as really the efficient 
cause of sinful, as of holy volitions, a portion of the council declined to 
assist in the service ; but a majority proceeded to ordain him. He pos- 
sessed quick apprehension, a retentive memory and a logical and com- 
prehensive mind. As a preacher, he -was doctrinal, and attractive. He 
was much respected, and was the Theological Instructor of several re- 
spectable ministers. Several of his last years, he represented the town 
in the Legislature. Being siezed with the typhus t'avcr, he gradually 
sank into the arms of death ; but his mind was calm and placid, and 
sustained by the hopes of the gospel. He was born Aug. 30th, 17(54, and 
died July 22nd, 1816, aged 52. In the progress of the ministry of Mr; 
Uurgess, have occurred seasons of refreshing, and the church has been 
much enlarged. He is the author of an able and useful work on the 
subject of baptism. 

Hillsborough. October 12th, 1769, is the date of the organization of 
the church. A settlement was made here in 1744, and the frame of a 
meeting house erected, and rough boarded. In 1710, an incursion of 
Indians into Hopkinton, so alarmed the few inhabitants of Hillsborough, 
that they abandoned their cabins, and fled to the older towns. In their 
absence, some hunters, either for the plunder of the nails, or for mis- 
chief, burnt the meeting house. The fugitives returned not till 1761. 
Mr. Barns came here in the infancy of the town, when all the people, 
old enough to attend meeting, could find room in a single apartment of 
bis house. Like many of his brethren, he suffered from the deprecia- 
tion of the Continental currency in the Revolutionary War ; which be- 


of Hillsborough County. 


came so nearly worthless, that in one instance he paid his year's salary 
'for a pig of a month old. On his marriage, he brought his wife from 
Sudbury to Amherst, in a chaise ; thence to Hillsborough on horseback, 
there being no practicable carriage road in that direction. A very few 
years before his death, he received a shock by lightning, which some- 
what impaired his mental powers. He was born Oct. (ith, 1741), and 
died Aug. 3rd, 1804, aged 5f>. Rev. Stephen Chapin, who studied divin- 
ity with Dr. Emmons, after a short and faithful ministry, was dismissed 
on account of the opposition of a portion of the people to his theologi- 
cal sentiments, and was resettled at Mont Vernon, lie became a Bap- 
list, and was afterwards President of Columbian College, D. C. Mr 
was bom November 4th, 1778, and died Oct. 1st, 1845, in the District 
of Columbia, aged t>7. Rev. Seth Chapin remained here more than font- 
years ; on leaving ihe place, he sustained the pastoral charge at Hanover, 
Ms., next in New York, and then in West Granville, Ms., and now lives 
in Rhode Island. Mr. Lawton, after his resignation here, labored in the 
gospel for sometime in Illinois. He was born Aug. 14th, 1780, and died 
April 18th, J 842, aged 62. The next minister, Mr. Ward, once a physi- 
cian, soon embraced the Episcopal views of church government, and re-, 
signed his charge at Hillsborough. He studied theology with Rev. Mr. 
Cutler of Windham. He is the author of a volume of Sermons. His 
successor, Mr. Farnsworth, Avas in early life a Universalis!, but at length 
saw and renounced the error. For ten years, he had been the beloved 
pastor of the church in Raymond. On his settlement at Hillsborough, 
he soon acquired a large measure of the confidence of the people : but 
was removed by death, March 2t»th, 1837, aged 42. The death-bed 
scene was a striking exemplification of the excellence of the religion of 
Christ. " He died as sets the morning star." Ueing informed that his 
recovery was doubtful, lie replied, " The will of the Lord be done." At 
one time, altera little repose, he said — "O my God, how sweet is the em- 
ployment of Heaven : blessing and honor, glory and power, be unto 
Him that sitteth on the throne, and to the Lamb, forever." At another 
time, having lain as if listening to the sound of distant music, he ex- 
claimed, " My friends, 1 thought 1 was in glory, I have just come from 
the world of bliss, what happiness to sing with the angels." After a 
farewell to his family, and lying awhile in quiet repose, he said, " What 
views I have had of God ; I have been swimming in an ocean of bliss!" 
Perhaps no departure was ever more sweetened with an antepast of 
Heaven. He studied with President Tyler. He was born June 14th, 
171)5. The next minister, Mr. Tenney, who had been previously in the 
ministry in Vermont, preached alternately, as Mr. Farnsworth had done, 
in the Centre meeting house, and a new meetinghouse that had been 
erected in the Bridge Village. Not long alter his installation, a portion of 
the church were dismissed for the purpose of forming a new church at 
the Bridge. It being more convenient to him to preach to the new 
church, than at the Centre, his relation to the original church was dis- 
solved, and he ministered to the Bridge church as stated supply, till May, 
1843. lie has since been installed at VVardsboro', Vt. His successor ill 
the Centre, Mr. Adams, remained a little more than three years, and has 
since been installed at Dracut, Ms. Mr. Rowe has recently commenced 
his ministry here. He is a grandson of the late Rev. Dr. Thayer of 
Kingston. The present pastor of the church at the Bridge Village, Rev. 


Notes on the Churches and Ministers 

•Mr. Cummings, born Sept. 5th, 1793, was formerly in the ministry at 
Stratham, arfd afterwards at Sharon and Southboro', Ms. He studied di- 
vinity for a time at Andover, and was preceptor of the Academy at At- 

Hollis, originally a part of Dunstable, and known in early times as the 
West Precinct of Dunstable. The settlement of the town commenced in 
1730 ; the first Meeting House was built, 1741 ; and the church gathered, 
it is believed, at the time of the ordination of Mr. Emerson, April 20th, 
1743. He Avas sound in the faith, one of the most acceptable preachers 
of his day, a wise counsellor, a truly good man. Probably he, and Mr. 
Farrar of New Ipswich, were the most thoroughly evangelical of the 
ministers in the County, who were active before the commencement of 
the Revolutionary War. The active portion of his ministry was pro- 
longed to half a century, and was eminently useful. He was born May 
20th, 1716, and died April 30th, 1801, aged 85. The labors of Mr. 
Smith, who was settled as colleague with Mr. Emerson, were blessed, 
and during his pastorate of 37 years, a revival of great power, a truly 
pentecostul season, occurred in 1801 and 1802, adding to the church 
about 1*60 souls. Opposition stood dumb before the power of God's 
Spirit. Mr. Smith still resides in Hollis, at an advanced age. He was 
born Sept. 17th, 1759. Mr. Perry, the next pastor, born July 2(>th, 1798, 
and a graduate at Andover, saw the fruits of his efforts in seasons of re- 
freshing; and he is resettled at Lancaster. The present pastor, is the 
Rev. James Aiken, who graduated at Union Theol. Seminary, N.Y. 

Hudson, formerly Nottingham West. A Congregational church was 
organized at the settlement of the first minister, Mr. Merrill, Nov. 30th, 
1737. A few years afterwards, the establishment of the present State 
line cut off a portion of the territory, and another portion was taken to 
aid in the formation of Pelham. Difficulties arose between some of the 
people and the minister, which proved disastrous. His opponents procur- 
ed the organization^ a Presbyterian church in 1771, over which the 
Rev. John Strickland, formerly of Oakham, Ms. became pastor. He re- 
mained here not many years, and was afterwards employed in the minis- 
try in Maine. He was born April 1st, 1739, and died Oct. 4th, 1823, 
aged 84. 1 ne civil contract with Mr. Merrill with the town was dissolv- 
ed, 1774 : but he retained his relation to the church till his death in 
179(), through a period of 39 years. He was born March 1st, 1713, and 
died at the advanced age of 83 years. The second pastor of the Con- 
gregational church, Rev. Jabez P. Fisher, was dismissed in 1801. He 
was born Oct. 7th, 17(13. Divisions paralized the efforts of the people, 
in, 181(5, the Presbyterian church having been destitute of a pastor ahout 
a third of a century; and the Congregational almost half as long, — the 
state of religion being extremely depressed; — the two churches united 
under the Presbyterian discipline. Not however till nine years after the 
union, did they obtain a pastor, Mr. TalboC The earlier part of his 
short ministry was marked with considerable religious attention ; accom- 
panied however with serious errors, as rebaptizing, and extremely hasty 
admissions. Disorders sprang up, and he left the place. The church 
remained destitute and declining for several years. It has recently 
adopted the Congregational form of government : and under the labors 
of the present pastor, Mr. Page, the state of religion and morals has be- 
come decidedly more prosperous. Mr. Page received his theological ed- 
ucation at the Seminary in Gilmanton. 

of Hillsborough County. 


Litclifield. The church was organized, 174 J. Of the first pastor, Mr. 
Tufts, whose ministry here was short, few memorials remain. Mr. Cot- 
ton, a descendant of the celebrated Rev. John Cotton of Boston, resided 
many years after his resignation at Litchfield, in Claremont, where he 
died in 1819, aged 80 years. A long period of destitution, 2(3 years, en- 
sued, during which, the Lord's supper is not remembered to have been 
administered. Prior to the ordination of Mr. Kennedy in 1809, the 
church adopted the Presbyterian discipline. His ministry here was 
brief and unquiet ; after his departure, he was resettled for a short pe- 
riod at Kensington, whence he removed to Philadelphia, where he suc- 
cessfully followed the profession of a teacher of a school. He died, 1843, 
about 73 years old. Mr. Pillsbury died in the third year of his pastorate, 
Feb. 15th, 1818, aged 30 years, young and much lamented. Altera brief 
■sojourn here, the next minister, Mr. Sherer, was dismissed, and removed 
to New York. Again the church remained long destitute, and became 
almost extinct: most of the lew members attending Christian wor- 
ship and ordinances in neighboring towns. The efforts of Rev. Henry 
Wood of Concord, as stated supply, with other favorable influences, led 
to the erection of a new meeting house, and the reorganization of the 
Presbyterian church, in 1844 : and in the course of this present year, to 
the ordination of Rev. William Henry Porter, under promising auspices. 
At the date of this ordination, the church had existed 104 years, more 
than seventy of which it had been without a pastor. Mr. Porter was 
born Sept. 19th, 1817, was graduated at Yale College, 1841, and studied 
divinity at New Haven and Union Theological Seminary, N. Y. He is 
the author of a work entitled, " Common and Scriptural Proverbs Ex- 
plained." The tabular account of Mr. Porter is incorrect. 

Lyndeborough. The church was formed in 1757, about seven years af- 
ter the first settlement of the place. Mr. Rand, after his resignation, in- 
clined to Episcopalianism, and occasionally ministered to a tew persons 
of that denomination, then resident in Bedford and Goflstown. He rep- 
resented Bedford in the Convention that formed the present Constitu- 
tion of New Hampshire. His death occurred Oct. 12th, 1805, he being 
78 years old. Mr. Goodridge sustained the pastoral relation 40 years, 
and enjoyed the respect of the community till he diedMarch 14lh, 1809, 
aged (i5. He was born July 18th, 1743. The ministry of Mr. Merrill 
was active and successful ; tew men equalled him as a kind and faithful 
pastor; conversions were numerous ; he was beloved at home and 
abroad. To the deep regret of the people, he resigned his charge, 1835, 
and was resettled in Western New York. After a short scene of labor 
there, his health tailed, and he died July, 1839, 53 years old, on a jour- 
ney at Georgetown, Ms. his native place, calmly yielding up his spirit in- 
to the hands of his Redeemer. His memory is embalmed in many a 
heart. He was born Dec. 4th, 1782. He studied theology with Rev. Drs. 
Parish and Spring. Mr. White remained here less than five years, and 
now supplies a Congregation in Barnstable County, Ms. He was an An- 
dover student. The present pastor, Rev. Ivory Kimball, was formerly 
in the ministry atLimiugton, Maine, and read divinity at Bangor. 

Mason. The first meeting house was built about 1752 ; church was 
gathered, 1772. Mr. Searle, after his dismission, resided still in the place, 
and became a magistrate. Not long before his death, he became disaf- 
fected towards the church, and united with a Baptist church. He was born 


194 Notes on the Churches and Ministers 

March 15th, 1744, and died Dec. 7th, 1812, aged 68. Mr. Hill still retains 
his relations to the church, in the fifty-fifth year of his pastorate. Al- 
most 46 years, he performed his ministerial functions without the aid of 
a colleague. He was horn January, 1766. His first colleague, Mr. Reed, 
remained here hut a brief space. His second and present colleague is 
his son, Rev. Joseph B. Hill. The ministry of both father and son has 
been blessed, and the church has flourished. Mr. Hill, senior, still 
preaches, occasionally, in his 80th year, and possesses a large measure 
of public confidence and respect. He read theology with Rev. Dr. Pay- 
son of Rindge, who preached his ordination sermon. 

Merrimack. The church was organized, Sept. 5th, 1771. The Rev. 
Dr. Burnap was highly respectable as a scholar ; peaceable, upright, of 
blameless conversation. His ministry was prolonged into its fiftieth 
year, and marked by a happy talent of adapting bis public exercises to 
emergent occasions and circumstances. He was born Nov. 2nd, 1748, 
and died Dec. 26th, 1821, aged 73. Mr. Morse, who was born Oct. 25th, 
171)3, studied divinity with Rev. Mr. Perry of Bradford, Ms., and remain- 
ed here but three years. He was resettled at Troy, removed thence into 
New York, and is now in Vermont. Under the efforts of the present 
pastor, Mr. Allen, the church, which had become feeble, has flourished, 
and the congregation much enlarged. He graduated atAndover. — Union 
Evangelical Church was formed, Oct. 21st, 182!). Though its place of 
worship is in Merrimack, its original members, 18 in number, all came 
from Hollis. It now embraces members from Merrimack, Hollis, 
Nashville, and Amherst. Its first pastor, Mr. Tolman, who was born 
April 30th, 1781, remained here about live years, and has since been em- 
ployed in various places, lie is now at Weston, Vt. The present pas- 
tor, is Rev. John W. Shepard, who was born April 1st, 1788. 

Manchester was formerly Derryfield. From the unenviable reputation 
of being, with the exception of a narrow stripe on the Merrimack, the 
most barren place in the County, an immense water power has recently 
elevated it to the rank of the most populous and enterprising town in 
the State. Of the earlier inhabitants, many were indifferent to religious 
institutions; the residue, divided in their views. For almost a century 
after the first settlement, no Congregational or Presbyterian church had 
existence here. A small Presbyterian church was organized, May 21st, 
1828; and on the 2nd of December following, a small Congregational 
church at Amoskeag Village, in Goffstown, on the borders of Manches- 
ter. Both were feeble, and neither had a pastor. These little churches 
united, in Congregational form Aug. 15th, 183!), and a few months after- 
wards, the Rev. Cyrus W. Wallace, born March 8th, 1805, and a graduate 
ofGilmanton Tbeologcal Seminary, was ordained as their pastor. Un- 
der his ministry, the church so increased and flourished, that a colony 
issuing from it, was organized into the Second Congregational Church 
in Manchester, May 27th, 1844, and the Rev. Henry M. DcMer, a graduate 
at Andover Seminary, was soon after ordained as Its pastor, lie was 
born Aug. 13th, 1821. The year is wrong in the table. Between the 
two churches subsists a happy fraternal feeling. 

A Unitarian Society was formed a few years since, which has a meet- 
ing house, and has been uniformly supplied with preaching. The fol- 
lowing clergymen have successively officiated, Rev. Messrs. O. 11. Wel- 
lington, A. D. Jones, and Tenney. The Rev. Nathaniel Gage, form- 

of Hillsborough County. 


erly of Nashua, supplies the desk at the present time. The prospects of 
the Society are now better than they have been. 

Milford. This church, organized Nov. 19th, 1788, had no pastor for 
the first 14 years, during which time it received no additions, except by 
letter, and employed for a longer or shorter period each, sixty candidates 
for the ministry. Mr. Moore, after a ministry of about 35 years, resign- 
ed his pastoral office: but still resides here, and has recently represent- 
ed his town in the House of Representatives, and also his District in the 
Senate of New Hampshire. Mr. Moore was born Oct. 19th 1778. In 
the table it is wrongly stated 1777. Mr. Salter, since his departure from 
this place, has been resettled at Douglass, Ms. The church is become 
large, and the services of the present pastor, Mr. Warner, have been ac- 
ceptable, and attended with a blessing from above. Mr. Warner gradu- 
ated at Gihnanton Theological Seminary in 1838. 

Mont Vernon was formerly a part of Amherst, Dissatisfaction with 
the religions services of Mr. Barnard, as well as local convenience, led 
to the formation of this church, September, 1780, after much opposition 
from the people of Amherst. It was then called the second church in 
Amherst. Mr. Bruce, the first minister, was judicious, exemplary, well 
esteemed, and saw among his people the good of Zion. He was born 
Aug. 31st, 1757, studied divinity with the Rev. Mr. Brigham of Fitzwil- 
liam, and died March 11th, 1809, aged 51. Rev. Dr. Chapin, aftera use- 
ful ministry here of some years, became a Baptist, and took charge of a 
Baptist church in Maine, and was called thence to the Presidency of a 
Baptist College in the District of Columbia. His change of sentiment 
in no degree affected the faith of his people in Mont Vernon. He has 
recently deceased ; happily finding, as stated in a letter he wrote not 
long before his anticipated departure, his evidences of fitness for heaven 
becoming, on renewed and strict examination, more and more satisfac- 
tory. (See Hillsborough.) Mr. Cheever, after his resignation here, re- 
ceived a pastoral charge at Newark, New Jersey. He was for some 
years an Agent for the American Education Society. His successor, 
Mr. Kingsbury, born April 8th, 179(i, alter twelve years service here, re- 
signed on account of ill health, and went to the West. Becoming con- 
valescent, he resumed his labors in the gospel, and died in Wiskonsin, 
July 12th, 1843, 47 years of age. On leaving this place, Mr. Jennison, 
alter a voyage to Europe, for the recovery of his health, was resettled at 
Asburnham, Ms. He graduated at Andover. Rev. Bezaleel Smith, the 
present pastor, had been previously in the ministry at Rye. This place 
has enjoyed repeated refreshings from the presence of the Lord. 

Nashua and Nashville were originally Dunstable, which was afterwards 
Nashua, and has recently been divided into Nashua and Nashville. As 
each of the churches here contains members from both towns, their 
Ecclesiastical History cannot be separated. The first church was organ- 
ized, 1685, being the fifth in New Hampshire. From this date to 1813, 
no records of if*are known to exist. Of Mr. Weld, born .June, 1653, the 
first minister, all that is known, chiefly from tradition, is favorable. Ho 
commenced his labors here as early as May, 1079, soon after the settle- 
ment of the place, and preached more than six years beibre his ordina- 
tion. He was a grandson of Rev. Thomas Weld, who came from Eng- 
land in 1632, and was Elliot's predecessor at Roxbury. His death occur- 
red in 1702. Some recent accounts, viz. that in the N. H. Gazetteer, and 


196 Notes on the Churches and Ministers 

, the manuscript account of Nashua, among the papers of the Hillsbor- 
ough County Conference, represent him as having been killed by the In- 
dians. This, probably, is incorrect. The year of his death was not a year 
of war; and it is incredible that the early Historians of New England, 
Mather among the rest, should have been silent on an event, which, had 
it really occurred, must have created a deep sensation in the public 
mind. Till within a period somewhat recent, Mr. Weld's house was 
standing, near the present State line, and the ancient burying ground by 
the great Boston road, in the centre of the territory, constituting the 
then settled portion of Dunstable. In that cemetery his dust sleeps. 
He died June 9th, 1702, aged 49. The character of his son, Rev. Habi- 
jah Weld of Attleborough, Ms., is represented by Dwight as eminently 
holy and venerable. 

The long destitution between Mr. Weld's death and the accession of 
a successor, was doubtless the result of the confusion and impoverish- 
ment incident to Queen Anne's War, in which Dunstable suffered severe- 
ly. Of Mr. Prentice, the second pastor, our knowledge is scanty. He 
died Feb. 27th, J 737, aged 40 years, in the 17th year of his ministry. 
His abode here was the period of the celebrated exploits in Indian war- 
fare of Love well, a principal inhabitant of the place. Mr. Swan was 
dismissed after a ministry of about eight years, in consequence, it has 
been said, of some division occasioned by the running the present State 
line. Afterwards he was long employed as teacher of a school in Lan- 
caster, Ms. where he died about 1777, aged 7(J years. Mr. Bird, who 
came next, was what was then called a " New Light :" — a phrase some- 
what vague, sometimes descriptive of men, who in that day of Armin- 
ian tendencies, were more Evangelical in doctrine than others around 
them ; and sometimes applied to men whose measures were of a fervent 
and impassioned cast. In what precise respect Mr. Bird was a "new light," 
does not appear. Under his preaching the people became divided, and 
his adherents, separating themselves from the majority, built for him a 
new house of worship. He was however dismissed in 1751, and reset- 
tled at New Haven, over White Haven Society, in Connecticut. He de- 
ceased May 3rd, 1784, aged (30, of the small pox. He was born March 
22nd, 1724. Eight years afterwards, by the intervention of a Council, 
this breach was healed, and the two bodies reunited. Mr. Kidder, the 
succeeding pastor, was moderately Calvanistie, courteous in manners, 
and exemplary in his deportment. Though his civil contract with the 
town was annulled in 179(5, he preached some years afterwards, and re- 
tained his pastoral relation to the church till his death, through a period 
of more than 50 years, and which occurred Sept. 6th, 1818, aged nearly 
77.* He was born Nov. 18th, 1741. Mr. Sperry, born June 3rd, 1785, was 
settled as his colleague, and resigned his charge, 1819, soon after Mr. 
Kidder's death. He was resettled at Wenham, Ms., and now resides in 
Ohio. His successor was Mr. Nott, who was born Nov. 10th, 1799, and 
was a native of Saybrook, Ct. He became wavering on baptism, and nt 
length renounced infant baptism. A majority of the church wore dis- 
satisfied with the change, and adhered to Pedobaptist principles ; Mr. 
Nott resigned his charge, October, 1834. Soon afterwards, this majori- 
ty, constituting " The first church in Nashua," commenced worship in a 
separate place, and soon obtained as their pastor, the Rev. Mr. McGee, 
formerly in the ministry at Brattleboro, Vt., and now atFrancestown, As 

of Hillscorough County. 


however those who sympathised with the views of Mr. Nott, at least so 
fur as not to insjst on infant baptism, constituted a majority of the Society, 
they retained the original House of Worship ; and a large minority of 
the original church, who went with them, were organized in the Au- 
tumn of 1835, into a distinct church, called " The first church in Nash- 
ua Village." Its name was changed Feb. 9th, 1846, to Olive St. Cong. 
Chh. Over this body, April Gth, 1836, was installed Mr. Richards, form- 
erly of Francestown, who still remains their pastor. On the resigna- 
tion of Mr. McGee, who was soon resettled at Francestown, he was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. Mathew Hale Smith, once a Universalist preacher; — the 
author of an able and useful book, entitled, " Universalism Examined, 
Exposed, Renounced." In August, 1845, Mr. Smith resigned the charge 
of the " First Church in Nashua/' which is now about to settle a pastor, 
the Rev. Samuel Lamson, a graduate of Brown University. Roth these 
churches are large, and have enjoyed many tokens of the divine blessing. 

The Unitarian Society of Nashua and Nashville had preaching in 1824, 
and from 1825 to 1826, occupied the house erected by the Nashua Com- 
pany. In the winter and spring of 1827, their meeting house was erect- 
ed, and dedicated June 27th, 1827, and Rev. Nathaniel Gage was ordain- 
ed their minister, and remained till 1834. Rev. Henry Emmons was set- 
tled in 1835, left 1837. Rev. Samuel Osgood was ordained May I6th, 
1838, and continued until December, 1841. Rev. A. C. L. Arnold was 
settled in October, 1813, and continued until September, 1844. The 
present minister is the Rev. Stephen G. Bulfinch, installed Sept. 1 7th, 
1845; born in Boston, June 18th, 1809 ; graduated 1826, at Col'dinbkn 
College, D. C; settled in Augusta, Ga.; afterwards in Washington, I). C. 

New Boston. Mr. Moor, the first minister was born in Ireland, and 
educated in Scotland ; was an instructive preacher and a respectable 
man. Falling under suspicion of not favoring the American Revolu- 
tion, the displeasure of many of his people rendered a portion of his 
* ministry uncomfortable. Some of the zealous whigs refused for a time 
to hear him preach. On a charge of disaffection to the cause of the 
country, he was arrested, and taken to Exeter, then the seat of the State 
Government ; and, as it is believed, for a very short time, imprisoned. 
Afterwards, however, he took the oath of allegiance to the State, and 
the latter part of his ministry was comparatively quiet and happy, to the 
time of his death, which occurred May 28th, 1803, being 67 years old. 
Mr. Bradford, his successor, saw among his people the good of Zi- 
on, and peace upon Israel. He was a man of gitted talents, and pos- 
sessed more scholarship than is common in the ministry, especially in 
the languages, and belles lettres. He studied theology with the Rev. Dr. 
LathrOp of West Springfield, Ms., and was generally and greatly belov- 
ed by his people, lie was born Dec, 27th, 1776, and died Dec. 15th 
1845, aged 69. 

New Ipswich. This place began to be settled about 1750. The first 
meeting house was built, 1754, and soon afterwards burnt, when, in the 
last French war, the few inhabitants, alarmed by an incursion of Indians, 
anif the capture of a family within the present limits of Ash by, fled from 
the place. The church was formed, and the first minister, Mr. Farrar, 
ordained, Oct. 21st, 1760. Extending through almost half a century, 
his ministry was useful, peaceful, and happy. He was a man of emi- 
nent gravity and dignity ; evangelical and pathetic as a preacher ; in 

198 Notes on the Churches and Ministers 

his presence, the gay and trifling were awed into decorum and sobriety, 
A revival pf religion, marked with scenes of great power and interest, 
and extending into some neighboring towns, attended his ministry in 
1785-G. Though the cold of the winter of these years, was intense, and 
the snows deep, no obstacle could hinder the people from flocking to re- 
ligious meetings. The results were most auspicious to piety, morals, and 
good order. He died in a fit. His funeral sermon was preached by the 
Rev. Dr. Payson of Rindge, from the appropriate text, " Devout men 
carried Stephen to his burial, and made great lamentation over him." 
The following incident is related of him: Employing a shoemaker to 
make him a pair of shoes, he gave particular directions as to the form 
of the heels. Said the man, '•' I did not think you, Mr. Farrar, quite so 
proud." " Well," lie replied, "if 1 can keep down pride at my heel, 'tis 
not the worst case that might he." In the great, revival, one of his ser- 
mons peculiarly impressive, was from the text, " And a man shall be as 
an hiding place from the wind, and a covert from the tempest; as rivers 
of water in a dry place, as the shadow of a great rock in a weary laud." 
He was born Sept. 8th, 1788, and departed this life June 23rd, 1809, aged 
71 years. Mr. Hall, his successor was a man of decision and energy; 
his labors were abundant, and much blessed ; a revival of great power 
was in progress at the time of his ordination. After some years service, 
the rupture of a hlood vessel in the lungs, induced a decline, which ter- 
minated in his death, in the meridian of his usefulness, July 13th, 1824, 
being 40 years old. Mr.Barbour remained less than a year, and at length 
relinquished the ministry, and now resides at Charlton, Ms. lie was born 
Feb. 14th, 1794. His successor, Mr. Walker, after a pastorate of more 
than eight years, resigned his charge, and has since been engaged in the 
ministry in other places, lie was born Nov. 21st, 1705. The present 
pastor, Mr. Lee, who was born at Berlin, Ct., March 18th, 1803, was set- 
tled in Sherburne, Ms., Nov. 4th, 1830, and dismissed April 27th, 1830. 
He has seen repeated seasons of religious interest among his people. 

Pelham. The first minister, Mr. llobbs, was born June 6th, 1720, was 
ordained in 1751, and died in oflice in the prime of life, June 20th, 1705, 
aged 30. Mr. Moody retained the pastoral relation 27 years, but was 
thought by many to "have a leaning towards Arminianism. He lived 
many years after his dismission. He was born Nov. 10th, 1739, and 
died March 22nd, 1819, aged 79. His successor, Rev. Dr. Church, was 
an able, active, devoted minister of Christ, whose praise was in all the 
churches. His preaching was doctrinal, discriminating and impres 
sive. Of the various Charitable Institutions, which sprang up in New 
Hampshire, early in the present century, he was a prime mover, and 
liiost efficient promoter. He was long the Secretary of the N. H. Gen- 
eral Association; and it is not too much to say, that to the deep interest 
and sweet savor of piety, which especially attended its earlier Anniver- 
saries, no other man so largely contributed. He was a Trustee of Dart- 
mouth College, and a corporate member of the American Hoard of Com- 
missioners for Foreign Missions. His pastoral charge he resigned, 1835 ; 
but he continued to render important aid to The cause of religion till his 
death, which occurred June 12th, 1840, aged 08. He was born March 
17th, 1772. Mr. Keep remained here six years, and has been resettled at 
Dana, Ms. The present pastor is the Rev. Cyrus W. Allen, formerly an 
.Agent of the American Tract Society in Missouri and Illinois. 



i i 

of Hillsborough County. 199 

Peterborough. The settlement of this town was commenced before 
1740, by emigrants from Londonderry, and from Lunenburg, Ms. The 
present Unitarian* Church was originally Presbyterian, and was probably 
gathered at, perhaps before, the ordination of Mr. Morrison in 1700. He 
remained here less than six years ; and his successor, Mr. Annan, not 
quite fourteen. Both were from Scotland. Of neither of these men 
will truth allow a favorable representation: though both were respecta- 
ble in point of talent. They were orthodox in sentiment, but reprehen- 
sible in deportment. Both contributed to beget in the popular mind an 
indifference to Presbyterianism, and a prejudice against orthodoxy, the 
effects of which were lasting and unhappy. Mr. Morrison, after his dis- 
mission, became skeptical and profligate, joined the British Army, and 
died in South Carolina, Dec. J 0th, 1782, aged 39. lie was born May 
22nd, 1743. Such was the conduct of Mr. Annan, that some years af- 
ter his dismission, he was deposed from the ministry by the Presbytery 
of Londonderry. He went to Ireland, and there died in 1802, aged 48. 
He was born April 4th, 1754. The pestilent examples of these two 
men were enough to bring a blight on religion in any place ; the chief 
wonder is, that they were tolerated so long. A tithe of their immorali- 
ties would at this day put down the character of a minister almost be- 
low hope of redemption. At the settlement of Mr. Dunbar, 17i)i), 
the church adopted the Congregational discipline, hi his Theological 
views, he was Anti-Calvinistic. Several members of the church still 
adhered to Presbyterianism, though they generally attended his ministry 
for many years : on condition, however, that the communion be admin- 
istered once in a year in Presbyterian form, at the expense of the town. 
Mr. Dunbar, who was born July 7th, 1773, and who still lives, resigned his 
charge, 18:27, and was succeeded by Rev. Abiel Abbot, D. D., of the Uni- 
tarian connection. In January, 1810, he received as his colleague, the 
Rev. Curtis Cutler. 

A Presbyterian church was organized by the Presbytery of London- 
derry, June 19th, 1822, consisting of several members of the old church, 
who had never adopted Congregational principles, anil dissented from 
the Arminian views of the pastor. This body, with the aid of other in- 
dividuals, erected in 1825, a meeting house, a mile from the Village, 
which was afterwards removed to the Village, and received Rev. Peter 
Holt as their pastor. He saw much fruit of his faithful labors here; and 
alter his resignation, ministered to the church in Deering, as stated sup- 
ply, from 1835, to 1841. This venerable man, formerly of Epping, now 
resides in Greenfield, and preaches, occasionally, and acceptably too, in 
the 82nd year of his age. He was born June 12th, 1703. Mr, Pine, who 
succeeded him, remained here not a year. He is set down in the Tab- 
ular view as dismissed in January, 1837. He ceased from his labors 
here at this date, and left the place, and now resides in New York; 
though the formal act of dismission by Presbytery did not take place till 
some time afterwards. The present pastor is the Rev. James R. French, 
under whose ministrations the church has been much enlarged. He re- 
ceived his theological education at Gilmanton Theological Seminary. 

Temple. The ministry of the first pastor, Mr. Webster, though short, 
left a favorable impression of his piety and worth. Being zealous in 
the cause of his country, he engaged with the consent of his people, as 
a Chaplain in the Northern Army, in 1777. He was soon siezed with 

200 Churches andMznisters of Hillsborough County, 

hemorrhage from the lungs, returned home in a debilitated state, and 
died Nov. 14th, 1777, aged 34. He was horn Sept. Kith, 1743. lie gave 
to the towh a lot of land for the support of the gospel. Soon after the 
accession of Mr. Miles in 1782, the influence of the great revival in 
New Jpswich, extended into Temple, and left precious and durable re- 
sults. Mr. Miles was eccentric in his modes of expression and illus- 
tration, hut was held in high respect for probity, consistency, and deci- 
sion. He died Nov. 20th, 1831, in the 50th year of his ministry, and 80th 
of his age, in full hope of a better life beyond the grave. Mr. Jevvett, 
after eleven years of pastoral service here, resigned his charge, to the 
regret of his people, on account of inadequate health, lie was horn 
Oct. 2nd, 1787, and now resides at Hollis. Mr. Follet, who had previ- 
ously been settled in Massachusetts, the present pastor, is now in the 
second year of his ministry in this place. 

Weare. The great mass of the people of this place were, from the begin- 
ning, of other denominations than Congregational, and no organization 
of this denomination is now found here. A Congregational church 
once existed in the place, over which the Rev. John Cayibrd, a native of 
England, took the pastoral charge in 1802. In a few years he was dis- 
missed, and went to England to recover a legacy. He returned to this 
country, took up his residence in Maine, where, it has been said, he be- 
came a Baptist. He died some years ago and the church is extinct. 

} Villon. A meeting house was built here in 1752, but a church was 
not formed till Dec. 14th, 1703, the day of Mr. Livermore's ordination. 
He was a respectable preacher, of moderately orthodox principles. In 
the course of his ministry, a distressing event attended the raising of a 
new house of worship, Sept. 7th, 1773. Through the negligence of the 
master workman, the middle beam was left inadequately supported. On 
the timbers and planks resting on it, the men were numerously and busi- 
ly at work : when suddenly the beam yielded to the pressure, the frame 
rocked to and fro, then fell with a crash, precipitating fifty three men to 
the ground, amid falling timbers and tools. The crash was heard afar. A 
momentary silence succeeded, followed by outcries and shrieks. Three 
men were killed on the spot; two more soon died; others were crippled 
for life, and most of the men were more or less wounded. At a subse- 
quent Fast, observed by the people, Mr. Livermore preached from the 
text, " Except the Lord build the house, they labor in vain that build it." 
After the resignation of his charge, he lived many years in Wilton, and 
died suddenly in a fit, July 20th, 1809, aged 69. He was born Dec. 7th, 
1739. The second minister, Mr. Fiske, was able, exemplary, and evan- 
gelical, continuing in orfice till his death, which was much lamented, 
and occurred April 21st, 1802, aged 50. He was born May 28th, 1752. 
His successor, Mr. Bedee, was at first Trinitarian in sentiment, but grad- 
ually verged toward views more lax and anti-orthodox. He retained the 
pastoral relation 2G years, till his dismission in 1829, without a council. 
lie was born Nov. 28th, 1771, and still lives in Maine. Messrs. Barnard. 
Jones, and Whitman, who in succession followed him as pastors of this 
church, were of the Unitarian connection. Mr. William A. Whitwell is 
the present pastor. 

In the course of Mr. Bedee's miuistry, the Confession of Faith of the 
church was so modified, as to facilitate the admission of Unitarians, and 
others of anti-orthodox principle^ Dissatisfied with these innovations, 


Holiness of Heart. -201 

and with the sentiments of the pastor, several members of the church 
withdrew themselves from his ministry, and in 1823, were organized by 
a Council into " The Evangelical Church." Over this body, the Rev. 
William Richardson was ordained pastor. After his resignation, 1840, 
he was resettled in Deering, and was succeeded at Wilton, by Rev. 
Charles Whiting in 1843. 

Windsor. This place is small, both in extent and population. As 
stated in the Tabular View, it never had a Congregational church or min- 
ister. Indeed a House of Worship has not yet been built within the 
limits of the town. There are however some occasional religious servi- 
ces, by preachers of various denominations. 

JVbfe. — A mistake occurs on the first page of the Tabular view of this 
Article, in respect to the location of five towns. They should have been 
placed one line lower on the page ; so that Antrim would stand against 
Fullerton, Bedford against Houston, Bennington against Manson, Brook- 
line against Wadsworth, and Deering against Childs. 


By the Rev. EpJiraim N. Hidden of Deerfield. 

"Since there are so many different opinions and apprehensions in the world 
about matters of religion^ and every sect and party does with so much confi- 
dence pretend that they, and they only are in the truth, the great difficulty and 
question is by what means men may be secured from dangerous errors and mis- 
takesin religion." — Archbishop Tillotson. 

Divine truths are essentially different from the truths of natural sci- 
ence — different in kind and degree — different in their origin, nature and 
object. They are taught by the Works, Word and Spirit of God. 
Would it be strange, then, that God should have so ordered it, that we 
must learn these truths differently from the truths of natural science ? In 
natural science, we must understand a truth before we can receive it, or 
feel its appropriate emotion. In this department of knowledge, propo- 
sitions are addressed to the intellect, as in Geometry it is stated, that 
" the three angles of a triangle are equal to two right angles." The stu- 
dent reads the proposition and thinks it may, or may not be so. He sees 
neither its truth nor falsity. But he goes through the demonstration, and 
then aees, that the proposition is true — it must be so. Then, and not till 

202 Holiness of heart essential to a right' 

then, he admits the truth, and feels the emotion, which it is adapted to ex* 
cite ; and with some minds it may be a very pleasant emotion. But the 
truth was addressed to his intellect, and not to his feelings ; and he 
must understand it before he feels the emotion it is adapted to excite. 

But is it so in regard to divine truths ? Addressed as they are to the 
heart of man, as well as to his intellect; intended to affect the sentient 
as well as the intellectual part of man's nature, must we always under- 
stand them before we receive them, and feel their divine influence? 
May not the process, by which we acquire natural science, be reversed 
when we learn as we ought, " the things of the Spirit ?" Is not the 
heart, and the conduct of the Christian often affected by heavenly truths, 
while his intellect perceives that truth, in its bearing and relations, but 
very imperfectly ? It would seem that there is wisdom in this plan of 
God. It is the very way to call into exercise the faith of the Christian. 
lie receives the truths of Holy Writ without demonstration, and without 
human authority, to sustain them. God thus shuts up the soul of the 
Christian to faith in his divine teaching ; and in the exercise of 
this faith and correspondent action, he obtains clearer and more compre- 
hensive views of the great doctrines of the Christian religion. He does 
not understand, and then believe, and act; but he believes, and acts, and 
then understands. Thus God imparts to the humble believing Christian, 
all needed instruction; not indeed independent of the use of means; not 
without thought and study ; not without the Bible ; but in connection 
with a diligent and faithful application of the means within his reach. 
Many truths of the Bible cannot be known till they are felt. They are 
not cold logic ; tney have feeling, have emotion in them. There is a 
philosophy in the truths of the Bible, which the philosophy of human 
reason never yet comprehended. True, it is the glory of man, that he was 
made an intellectual being, capable of perceiving, thinking, and reason- 
ing. He can traverse the starry worlds, and dig deep iutothe bowels of 
the earth ; he can enter the regions of metaphysics, and analyze mind: 
but he forgets, that he has fallen from his high mental, as well as moral 
elevation, and that without holiness, his perceptions, thoughts and emo- 
"tions are low, sensual, earthly. 

The Christian religion is not merely speculative. Its truths are living 
truths ; and to know them, we must feel the life of them. To know the 
things of the kingdom of heaven, we must have that kingdom set up in 
our own souls. " I am the light of the world," saith the Savior ; but 
the natural man has no eyes, with which to see spiritual objects ; and 
until, by the renewing power of the Holy Spirit, 'the scales fall from his 
eyes,' he is in blindness and darkness. Now faith is the eye of the soul, 

understanding of the doctrines of the Bible. 203 

unci when this is clear and strong, " the Light of the world," Jesus 
Christ, shines, and t^e Christian sees, and learns, and feels those spirit- 
ual truths, which he never could have known by the light of science. 
The difficulty with the natural man, is that lie has no sense adapted to 
"the things of the spirit ;" or if he has, it is not available. A man may be 
born blind ; still he may have eyes, but an obstacle, a film, is before 
them which impedes his sight, and which must be removed by surgical 
skill, or he can never see. Let such an one grow up to mature age, and 
then talk to him of the beauties of the rainbow ; will he, can he feel the 
emotions, which those beauties are suited to awaken ? No ; for the very 
reason, that he has not the sense adapted to the objects of sight. Thus 
" the natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God, for they 
are foolishness unto him, neither can he know them, because they are spir- 
itually discerned." " The god of this world hath blinded the minds of 
them which believe not, lest the light of the glorious gospel of Christ, 
who is the image of God, should shine unto them." But when " the 
god of this world" is dethroned from the heart of man, and Christ sets 
up his kingdom there, then the things of the Spirit are felt and begin to 
be understood. 

So that it is by the commencement of the work of holiness in the 
heart, that man begins rightly to understand the truths of the Bible. 
And the more his moral vision is purified, the clearer will be his appre- 
hension of the great doctrines of the Christian religion. Being " made 
a new creature in Christ Jesus," he has now the sense or faculty of dis- 
cerning and comprehending spiritual truth. The principle of holiness, 
implanted in his heart by the Holy Spirit, gave him his first discern- 
ment of the great, sublime and holy truths of the Bible. And, just in 
proportion as he cultivates this principle, will he be preparing himself 
for a stronger grasp upon truth, and a deeper insight into the mysteries 
of the kingdom. Now, to cultivate holiness, one must live a holy life ; 
therefore the more holy we live, the more correct and extensive will be 
our knowledge of the doctrines of the Bible. Agreeable to this was the 
maxim of Luther: " He that has prayed well has studied well." 

Agreeable to this also, are the teachings of the Bible. " If any man 
will do his, (God's,) will, he shall know of the doctrine whether it be of 
God, or whether I speak of myself." "None of the wicked shall under- 
stand, but the wise, (the righteous,) shall understand." "The secret of the 
Lord is with them that fear him, and he will show them his covenant." 
" The meek will he guide in judgment, the meek will he teach his way." 
But proof texts need not be multiplied on this point. 

L We may see from this subject, why men of strong minds and 

204 Holiness of Heart. 

clear heads in matters of natural science, have, often, incorrect and fa- 
tally erroneous views of God, and of their own duties and relations in 
life. They have depraved wicked hearts. Sin darkens reason, and dis- 
torts and debases the intellect, as well as the heart. And the same prov- 
idence which enlightens and consoles the humble Christian pours dark- 
ness and confusion upon the mind of the proud sinner ; as the pillar of 
cloud which guided the Israelites across the Red Sea darkened and 
troubled Pharaoh and his hosts in their pursuit. I would sooner trust 
to the theology of some unlearned simple hearted Christian, who, with 
a teachable and prayerful spirit, sat daily at the feet of Jesus, and re- 
ceived his divine instruction, than to that of the most learned metaphysi- 
cian, destitute of holiness of heart. Let learning be honored, and learn- 
ed titles be won and worn ; but never let the student of the Bible make 
cold intellect, a substitute for indwelling piety. 

2. We may see a reason why many persons of apparently mod- 
erate talents, and limited knowledge in natural science have clear and 
sound views in the great and important doctrines of the Bible. They 
have correct views of the character of God, and of the character, duties, 
relations and final destiny of man. The reason of this is they receive di- 
vine truth into good and honest hearts. They live a holy life ; and in 
" doing the will of God they know of the doctrines." In cultivating the 
heart they find their best safe guard against error. Their union and 
communion with God tends to clear, elevate and invigorate their minds. 
They are under the instruction of the Holy Spirit, who leads into all 
truth. They have a relish for the doctrines of the Bible ; hence they 
love to study them, -and to examine them in all their relations and bear- 
ings. " Putting their shoes from oft' their feet ;" with pure and humble 
hearts, they enter the temple of divine truth and reverently worship 
there ; and by holy living they become so thoroughly imbued with the 
doctrines and spirit of the Bible, that they are " living epistles known 
and read of all men." 



We hear much of a decent pride — a becoming pride — a noble pride 
— a laudable pride ! Can that be decent, of which we ought to he 
ashamed ? — Can that be becoming, of which God has set forth the de- 
formity ? — Can that be noble, which God resists, and is determined to 
debase ? — Can that be laudable, which God calls abominable ?— CeciL 


Memoir of the Hon, Abiel Foster. 205 


The Hon. Abiel Foster was born Aug. 8th, 1735, and was 
the son of Capt. Asa Foster of Andover, Ms. who was born 
June 16th, 1710, and was the son of William Foster, who died 
August, 1755, in the 86th year of his age. The subject of this 
notice, stimulated in early youth by the example of one of his 
relatives, the Hon. Jedidiah Foster, who was the first of the fam- 
ily that acquired a liberal education, and prompted by motives 
of future usefulness, entered Harvard College, and received 
his Bachelor's degree in 1756. Having qualified himself by a. 
course of theological studies for the service of the pulpit, he com- 
menced preaching, and was, after a few years, invited to settle iu 
Canterbury, in this State, where he was ordained, Jan. 21st, 1 76 1, 
about the time when the church was first organized. He sus- 
tained the pastoral office 18 years — till the commencement 
of the year 1779, when, by mutual agreement, this connection 
was dissolved, by an ecclesiastical council, and he retired to 
private life. But he was not destined to remain inactive. Not- 
withstanding his dismission, so strong was his hold upon the es- 
teem and affections of his people, that they soon after chose 
him their Representative to the General Court. This event 
gave a cast to his future life ; and, occuring at a time when able 
and honest men were prized and sought, he immediately entered 
upon public business, and sustained, afterwards till near the 
close of his life, various offices of trust and honor, with reputa- 
tion to himself and usefulness to the community. In 1783, he 
was appointed by the General Court, a Delegate from this State 
to the Continental Congress, and in 1784, was re-appointed to 
the same office. During both of these years, he ably supported 
the interests of his State in that august body, and was the only 
one of the New Hampshire delegation, who witnessed, at An- 
napolis, the solemn and sublime spectacle, when the Commander- 
in-Chief of the armies ot united America, surrendered his com- 
mission into the hands of Congress. 

The service he rendered his country, may be perceived from 
the Journals of the House. An extract from a letter of his, 
dated March 30tb, 1785, will show in some measure the respect 
that was paid to him by Congress. " My duties on the Grand 



206 Memoir of the Hon. Abiel Foster. 

Committee, which sits at nine'in the morning, has put it out of my 

•power to return an earlier answer. The Grand Committee have 

agreed to re'port a requsition to Congress for three millions of dol- 
lars for the current year. The quota of our State will he 105,416 
dollars. You would be surprised to see the revolution in Con- 
gress since last year. Eastward of Virginia, there remain of last 
year's members only myself, Mr. Ellery, Mr. Howell, Mr. Beat- 
ty, and M'Henry, from Virginia, Hardy and Monroe, to the 
Southward of Virginia, Williamson and Spaight. The Prince 
of the South, who used, as you well remember, to speak great 
swelling words has lately retired." 

Under the new State Constitution, adopted in 1784, Mr. Fos- 
ter was appointed a Judge of the Court of Common Pleas for 
Rockingham County, and filled that office more than four years. 
In 1789, he was chosen one of the first Representatives from 
this State, to the first Congress under the present Constitution. 
In 1790, he received the appointment of Justice of the Peace 
and of the Quorum throughout the State. In 1791, being an un- 
successful candidate for the second Congress, his townsmen, 
in liis absence, elected him Representative to the General 
Court, and also a Delegate to revise the Constitution of this 
State, and he was re-elected to the former office in 1792. In 
1793 and 1794, he was elected Senator of the 4th District, and 
was chosen to the office of President of the Senate both these 
years. In 1795, he was again elected Representative to Con- 
gress, and continued a member of that body by successive elec- 
tions until 1803, when in consequence of ill health, he retired to 
private life, and died at Canterbury, Feb. 6th, 1806, in the 71st 
year of his age. Possessing enlightened views and a sound 
judgment, correct principles and liberal sentiments, inflexible in- 
tegrity and gentlemanly deportment, he was deservedly popular, 
and his death was considered a public loss. His funeral sermon 
was preached by the Rev. Dr. McFarland of Concord, from 
Phifippians 1:21. "For me to live is Christ, and to die is gain." 

Judge Foster married for his first wife, Hannah Badger, the 
eldest daughter of General Joseph Badger, senior, of Gilman- 
ton,by whom he had four children, viz : Hannah, who married 
Moses Cogswell, Esq. father of the Hon. Amos Cogswell of 
Canterbury, William, James, and Sarah, who married Col. Da- 
vid Tiltom Mrs. Foster died Jan. 10th, 1768. For his sec- 


Address to Governor Wentworth. 


ond wife, he married Mary Rogers of Ipswich, Ms. by whom he 
had five children, viz : Martha, who married Jeremiah Clough, 
Mary, who married Henry Gerrish, Abiel, Elizabeth, who mar- 
ried Enoch Gerrish, and Nancy, who married John Greenougli, 

Judge Foster had four brothers who lived in Canterbury. For 
many of the above facts, we are indebted to the Rev. Mr. Pat- 
rick's "Historical Sketches of Canterbury." 


The following Poem was written by the Rev. Levi Frisbie, of Ipswich, Ms. 
who graduated at Dartmouth College in the first Class. It is here inserted as a 
relic of olden time, and may be interesting to the Alumni and friends of the 
College. It was printed in volume XV of the " New Hampshire Gazette *V 
Historical Chronicle," January 4th, 1771, and is here printed in the style of 
thecopy from which it is taken. 

" To the Publishers of the NEW HAMPSHIRE GAZETTE. 

The encouraging and promoting the Cultivation of Literature, and solid Lear- 
ning, has always been a principal Object of Attention in all wise and good 
Governments, as Means necessary to the Prosperity and Welfare of the Com- 

The Countenance and Favor of those in Power, is as necessary to the Ad- 
vancement of Learning, as that is to the Prosperity of the State. 

This Province has a fair Prospect now opened by the Commander in Chief, 
for the Encouragement of good Literature, by the Establishment of DART- 
MOUTH-COLLEGE, 6n a very generous Plan, with liberal Endowments — 
This is gratefully acknowledged in the following Address to Him, and is wor- 
thy a Place in your Paper ; you are therefore desired to give it that Mark of your 
Esteem accordingly." 

" To His Excellency, JOHJY WENTWORTH, Esq.; 
Captain-General, GOVEBNOR, and Commander in Chief, in and over His 

Majesty's Province of New-Hampshire, On his Grant of" a very generous 

CHAPTER of Incorporation of DARTMOUTH-COLLEGE." 

" When Persia's King in all his Glory shone, 
And trembling Esther dar'd approach his Throne, 
The Monarch smil'd, and bid the Queen draw near, 
Touch the bright Sceptre and dispel her Fear ; 
Thus Thou, illustrious Patron, Pardon give, 
To my adventrous Muse, and bid her live, 
A Muse, which burns low at thy Feet, to bow, 
And bind a grateful Garland on thy Brow. 

With ardent Thanks I feel my Bosom glow, 
While from my Heart these grateful Numbers flow, 
Yet the bold Flame is damp'd by chilling Fear, 
Lest the rough Verse should wound thy listening Ear. 


Address to Governor Wentworth. 

O could I bid the swelling Numbers roll, 
Great as thy Worth, and lofty as thy Soul, 
Thro' distant Lands I'd sound thy unrival'd Name, 
And Worlds scarce known should wonder at thy Fame. 

Arise, ye Bards ! ye Sons of Learning join, 
Invoke th' Assistance of the tuneful Nine; 
With grateful hearts we'll strike the trembling String, 
While WENT WORTH'S Deeds inspire us as we sing. 

In humble Youth our Seminary smiled \ 
Weak as an Infant, helpless as a Child ; 
Slowly it grew, while Charity from far, 
Shed her mild Beams like some propitious Star. 
Delicious Melons flourish thus by Night, 
And drink new Sweets from Cynthia's borrow'd Light. 
Then thou beheld us with auspicious Eyes, 
As Heaven benign, and bounteous as the Skiea; 
Thy Hand up-rais'd us from our humble State, 
And all thy Soul aspir'd to make us great. 
Thy Wisdom plan'd, thy Goodness then bestow'd, 
A Soil luxuriant for our fix'd Abode. 
To us her Lap the fertile Hampshire spread, 
And on her Bosom bid us rest our Head. 
Thus infant Vines just past their early Birth, 
In humble Silence creep along the Earth, 
'Till some tall elm a stable Prop supplies, 
Round him they twine and with swill Progress rise, 
Grow and expand 'till every tender Shoot, 
Blushes with Grapes, and smiles with purple Fruit. 

To future Times now turn thy wand'ring Eyes, 
View distant Scenes and pleasing Prospects rise ; 
Where late wild Beasts and savage Monsters prowl'd, 
Crouch'd in their Lairs, or thro' dark Desarts hovvl'd, 
There Herds domestic thro' green Pastures stray, 
And round their Dames the sportive Lambkins play, 
Where towering Forests spread their gloomy Shades 
And lofty Pines wav'd their majestic Heads, 
Their golden Harvests nod with ponderous Grain, 
And rich Productions crown the smiling Plain. 

Now pleas'd, behold, our venerable Dome, 
Fair Learning's Mansions and the Muses home ; 
Firm and unmov'd the deep Foundations lie, 
Strong as old Atlas who supports the Sky ; 
Thy Bounty animates each Workman's Soul, 
They bear large Burdens and huge Column's roll ; 
Their busy Aspects wear a cheerful Smile, 
They with redoubled Ardour ply their Toil, 
Th' impending Walls by swifter Progress grow, 
And seem to scorn the humble Earth below, 
Not great, yet noble, tho' not glaring, neat ; 
Fair without Pride, not costly, yet cornpleat ; 
The Boast of Charity, the Miser's Shame, 
And WENTWORTH, thy grand Monument of Fame. 


Address to Governor Wentworth 



Thus Bards relate, when tuneful Amphion sung, 
• The senseless Trees to fashion'd Timber sprung, 

Rooks heard the Muses' life-inspiring Call, 
And Stones collecting danc'd into a Wall ; 
By swift Degrees the tow'ring City grows, 
And to the Clouds the lofly Thebes arose. 

See Learning rears her venerable Head, 
See god-like Virtue rises from the Dead, 
Science no more in Chains of Ign'rance gruanes, 
She and the Muses mount their native thrones, 
Struck by the Beams that sparkle from their Eyes, 
Vice falls, Pride languishes, and Dullness dies. 
Sublime o'er all, in one unclouded Blaze, 
The Gospel pours her bright unsullied Kayo. 
Calm and majestick as the Pomp of Night, 
Yet pure as Day and glorious as the Light, 
On savage Lands she showers her Beams divine, 
Their rugged Passions soften and refine, 
The Vail of Darkness droops from off their Minds, 
And Gospel Truth in awful Glory shines. 
Thus when loud Storms have vex'd the gloomy Night, 
The Sun returns, illustrious Source of Light, 
Pours from the East bright Streams of Golden Day, 
Expells the Clouds and Rolls the Mist's away, 
Above the Hills the curling Vapours rise, 
Spread, and expand and vanish thro' the Skies. 
All Nature Smiles, with Scenes of Pleasure crown'd, 

And one unbounded Beauty shines around. 

When wondering Mortals with Surprize behold, 
Some future Time such vast Events unfold ; 
When Sires shall to their listening Race disclose, 
The Means by which such mighty Wonders rose, 
Their joyful Tongues shall sound abroad thy Fame, 
And add immortal Honours to thy Name. 
But chiefly those to whom thy Bounties flow, 
Their warm Returns of Gratitude shall show ; 
High and more high their thankful strains shall float, 
'Till listening Angels catch the joyful Note. 

May Heaven propitious in one ceaseless Shower, 
Round Thee her richest Store of Blessings pour ; 
To Thee and to the Partner of thy Soul, 
May Happiness in endless Rivers roll, 
May ev'ry Grace your noble Souls inspire, 
A numerous Offspring crown your fond Desire. 
« Beneath thy watchful Care thy People grow, 
And Shame and Silence seize on ev'ry Foe. 
May Peace attend thy Life, and Blissful Rays, 
Gild the calm Evening of thy setting Days. 

May it please your Excellency to accept the preceding Lines, as an Expres- 
sion of the warmest Gratitude of one who begs Liberty to subscribe himself, 
Your Excellency's most obedient humble Servant, 

A Member of Dartmouth-College." 


Sketches of Alumni 


John Smith, D. D., was a native of Newbury, (Byfield Par- 
ish, )Ms. and was born Dec. 21st, 1752. His father's name was 
Joseph. His mother was a descendant of the Sawyer family, 
which came from England to this country in the year 1643, and 
settled in Rowley, Ms., where she was born. Mr. Smith was 
early placed by his father under the instruction of the celebrated 
Master Samuel Moody of Dumoier Academy. His progress in 
the learned languages was such as to lead his Preceptor to pre- 
dict his future eminence in that branch of science. He en- 
tered Dartmouth College,* and graduated in course at the com- 
mencement in 1773. Immediately upon this he was appointed 
Preceptor of Moor's School, and while giving instruction in it, 
he resided in the President's family, and pursued with him the 
study of Divinity. The year following, he was appointed Tutor, 
in which office he continued until 1777. About this time, Mr. 
Smith received an invitation to become Pastor of the Church 
in West Hartford, Ct.; but, owing to his predilection for classical 
studies and his having been elected Professor of Languages in 
the College, he declined the invitation, and accepted the Profes- 
sorship. While he discharged the duties of Professor, he also 
officiated as Tutor ten years, till 1787 .f In the office of Pro- 

* Mr. Smith entered the Junior Class in 1771, at the time of the first Com- 
mencement. He with his distinguished Preceptor, went to Hanover, in compa- 
ny with Gov. Wentworth. On their way they passed through Plymouth, and 
were compelled to encamp one night in the woods. On their arrival at Hanover, 
the occasion excited so much interest, that an ox was roasted whole, at the ex- 
pense of the Governor, on a small cleared spot on the present Green. 

t The following copy of the Agreement, between Dr. Smith and the Trus- 
tees of Dartmouth Collegers here inserted as an interesting curiosity. It was 
furnished by the obliging politeness of Dr. Shattuck, senior, of Boston. 

"An Agreement between the Reverend Doctor Eleazar Wheelock, President 
of Dartmouth College, and Mr. John Smith, late Tutor of the same, with re- 
spect to said Mr. Smith's settlement and salary, in capacity of Professor of the 
languages, in Dartmouth College. 

Mr. Smith agrees to settle as Professor of English, Latin, Greek, Hebrew, 
Chaldee, &o., in Dartmouth College, to teach which and as many other such 
languages as he shall understand, as the Trustees shall judge necessary and 
practicable for one man, and also to read lectures on them, as often as the Presi- 
dent, Tutors, &c, with himself, shall judge profitable for the Seminary. He 
also agrees while he can doit consistently with his office as Professor, annually 

of Dartmouth College. 


fcssor he remained performing his duties with great fidelity, 
till his death. * Professor Smith was Librarian thirty years, from 
1779 to 1809. He delivered Lectures on systematic theology 
on Saturday evenings at the time of prayers in College, for two 
years, and also supplied for some years the pulpit on the 
Plain. He was also a Trustee of the College from 1788 to 
1809. Having regard to his theological and varied learning, 
Brown University in 1803, conferred on him the degree of Doc- 
tor in Divinity. 

Dr. Smith was twice married. His first wife was Mary Cleave- 
land, daughter of Rev. Ebenezer Cleaveland of Gloucester, Ms. 
She lived with him about four years and then died, leaving two 
children. The eldest married Dr. Cyrus Perkins of New York, 
formerly Professor in the Medical Department of Dartmouth 
College, and the youngest married Mr. John Bryant of Boston, 

to serve as Tutor to a class of Students in the College. In consideration of 
which, Doct. Wheelock agrees to give liim the said Air. Smith, one hundred 
pounds lawful money annually, as a salary, to be paid one half in money or such 
necessary articles for a family as wheat, Indian corn, rye, beef, pork, mutton, 
butter, cheese, hay, pasturing, &c: as long as he shall continue professor as 
aforesaid, and that he shall have these articles delivered to him at the same 
prices for which they were usually sold before the commencement of the pres- 
ent war in America, viz. — that he shall have wheat at 5s. per Bushel, fresh beef 
at 3d. lb. salt'd at 4 l-2d. fresh pork 4 l-2d. salt do. Id. fresh beef 18s. per cwt. 
do. pork 25s. Indian corn 2s. 6a. Rye 3s. mutton 'Sd. Butter at tid. cheese at5d. 
Bread at 2d. hay at 3Us per ton, pasturing at per season for horse 30s. for cow 20s- 
Vie other half in money sufficient to purchase the same quantity of provisions, 
and also to give him one* acre of land near the College, for a building spot, a 
deed of which he promises to give him, whenever he shall recpiest the same. 
Doctor Wheelock also agrees that Mr. Smith's salary, viz. one hundred pounds 
annually, shall not be diminished, when his business as Professor shall be so 
great, that it will render it impracticable for him to serve as Tutor to a class in 
College; and that Mr. Smith shall not be removed from his Professorship, ex- 
cept the Trustees of Dartmouth College shall judge him incapacitated therefor, 
and also that Mr. Smith's salary shall begin with the date hereof. Doctor Whee- 
lock also promises to lay this agreement before the Trustees of Dartmouth Col- 
lege, to be confirmed by them at their next meeting. Mr. Smith also promises, 
that whenever he shall have a sufficient support from any fund established for 
the maintenance of a Professor of the languages, he will give up the salary, to 
which this agreement intitles him. 
In testimony whereof, we have hereunto interchangeably affixed our hands 

Eleasak Wheelock, (L. S.) 
John Smith, (L. S.) 

and seals, this 9th day of November, 1777. 
In presence of us, 
Silvanus Ripley, 
Joseph Moltey. 

One line interlined Aug'st 27th, 1778, by agreement between the Trustees of 
the College and said Smith. Attest, B. Woodward, Cl'k of the Trustees." 

P. S. The interlining in this copy, is italicised ; in the original, it is in Mr. 
Woodward's hand writing. 


212 Sketches of Alumni 

•Ms. Dr. Smith's second wife was Susan, daughter of Col. Da- 
vid Mason*of Boston, Ms., by whom he had six children, only 
one of whom, a son, is now living. His daughter Sarah, who 
had a fine taste for poetry, and of whom a memoir is given in 
the Panoplist, Vol. IX. pg. 385, died Aug. 17th, 1812, aged 
23. Mrs. Smith survived her husband many years. She was a 
lady of great excellence of character, possessing superior mental 
endowments, and devoted piety. For several of her last years, 
the promotion of the Redeemer's kingdom was the absorbing ob- 
ject of her thoughts and desires. She retained in a remarkable 
degree the vigor of her mind till the close of life. In the 80th 
year of her age, she wrote a memoir of her father, and of her 
husband, whose Lectures on Theology, she also transcribed for 
her children. She died Dec. 20th, 1845, at the advanced age 
of 82 years. 

Dr. Smith was tall and well proportioned, of light and rath- 
er florid complexion ; and he always exhibited the appear- 
ance of a close student. He was a modest, unassuming man, 
amiable in temper, circumspect and gentlemanly in deportment. 
As a divine he was respectable, and as a linguist he was not sur- 
passed by any in the country in his day. 

Dr. Smith's genius seems peculiarly to have led him to the 
pursuit of knowledge in the languages. The Oriental languages 
particularly attracted his attention, in some of which he early be- 
came an adept. *He prepared a Hebrew Grammar in his Junior 
year in College, which is dated May 14th, 1772, and a revised 
preparation is dated Feb. 11th, 1774. About this time he also 
prepared a Chaldee Grammar. The original manuscripts of these 
Grammars, as also of the greater part of his Lectures on Theol- 
ogy, are now deposited in the Library of the Northern Academy 
of Arts and Sciences at Dartmouth College. He was also well 
acquainted with the Arabic and Samaritan languages. As early 
as' 1779, Dr. Smith prepared his Latin Grammar, which was 
published in 1802 ; three editions of which have been issued. 
In 1803, he published his Hebrew Grammar. In 1804, he 
published an edition of Cicero de Oratore, with Notes, and a 
brief Memoir of Cicero, in English ; and in 1809, his Greek 
Grammar, which was issued about the time of his decease. 
He likewise published several ordination sermons, and one at the 
Dedication of the present meeting house by the College. Such 

of Dartmouth College. .213 

were the abundant and unceasing labors of Dr. Smith, which un- 
doubtedly laid tbe foundation for his premature death, which oc- 
curred April 30th, 1809, in the 57th year of his age, in great 
peace and calmness, and in Christian resignation and hope. His 
funeral sermon was preached by the Rev. Dr. Burroughs of 
Hanover, from Micah ii : 10. "Arise ye and depart; for this 
is not your rest." 

Sylvester Gilbert, M. A., was born at Hebron, Ct. Oct. 
20th, 1755, and received his Bachelor's degree in 1775. His 
parents and grand parents resided in the same town. After grad- 
uating, Mr. Gilbert studied law with the late Judge Root of 
Hartford, Ct. and commenced practice in 1777, in Hartford 
County, Ct. At the age of 25, he was chosen representative of 
the town in the State Legislature, and, subsequently, many times 
under the old Constitution, when the sessions were biennial, and 
once under the new Constitution. He held the office of State's 
Attorney for the County of Tolland from 1786 to 1807, when 
he was appointed Chief Justice of the County Court, and Judge 
of Probate. He held these offices till he was 70 years of age, 
excepting the time when he was a member of the 15th Congress 
of the United States. Fifty-six different persons studied Law 
under his tuition, of whom were Hon. Daniel Buck, late of 
Vermont, who was older than himself, Hon. Erastus 
Root of the State of New York, Judge Jedidiah P. Bucking- 
bam of Vermont, Andrew Judson, Judge of the District Court 
of the United States for Connecticut, and Philo C. Fuller and 
Samuel Ingham. Five of these individuals have been members 
of Congress. 

Judge Gilbert married the daughter of the late David Barber, 
Esq. of Hebron, and she died May, 1838, at the age of 81 years. 
They have had 13 children ; 10 lived to adult age, and five of 
them were born deaf, but were sensible and active. Of the 
deaf children, three have families, and children who can hear. 

Judge Gilbert still resides at Hebron, Ct. and is the oldest 
graduate of Dartmouth College now living, being in the 91st 
year of his age, yet active, venerable in person and character, 
waiting with Christian patience till his change come. The Rev. 
David Kellogg, D. D., of Framingham, Ms. was a class mate 
of his, and died as late as Aug. 13th, 1843, aged 87 years. 

Dudley Chase, M. A., late of Randolph, Vt., was born at 




Cornish, N. H. Dec. 30th, 1771. His father, whose name was 
Dudley, married Alice Corbet, and his grand father, whose 
name was Samuel, married Mary Dudley. Samuel's father's name 
was Daniel. Daniel was the son of Moses, and Moses was the 
son of Aquila, the first of the name of Chase who came to this 
country. He was born in Cornish, England, in 1618, and 
came to this country in 1640, and located himself at Hampton, 
N. H., and five years afterwards removed to Newbury, Ms. with 
his wife Anne, who was a Follansbee. 

Judge Chase, the subject of this sketch, prepared for College 
at Moor's Charity School, Hanover, entered Dartmouth College 
and graduated in 1791. Some of the more distinguished per- 
sons of his Class were Prof. Ebenezer Adams of Dartmouth 
College, the late Rev. Dr. Ball of Rutland, Vt., and the Rev. 
Drs. John Fiskof New Braintree, Ms. Eliphalet Gillet of Hal- 
lowell, Me., and Seth Williston, Durham, N. Y., still living. He 
read law with Judge Lot Hall of Westminster, Vt., and was ad- 
mitted to the bar, Sept., 1793. He was a member and Speaker 
of the House of Representatives in the Legislature of Vermont for 
a number of years ; member of the United States Senate from 
1812 to 1817. He was then appointed Chief Justice of the 
Supreme Court of the State, which office he held four years, 
and then resigned it, and returned to the bar. Afterwards he 
was elected Senator in Congress for six years. At the close of 
this public service, he retired to his residence in Randolph, 
where he spent the remainder of his days in peace, tranquility, 
and affluence. His death occurred Feb. 23rd, 1846, in the 75th 
year of his age. 

Judge Chase married Olivia Brown, who was born in Nor- 
wich, Ct., and is supposed to be living still. They had no child- 
ren. He was a brother of Bishop Chase of Illinois, now senior 
Bishop in the United States, and of the late Baruch Chase of 
Hppkinton, who was for three years Solicitor for the County of 
Hillsborough. Five brothers of this family were educated at 
Dartmouth College. 


History has been called "A key to the knowledge of human nature;" — 
" Philosophy, teaching by examples." "Geography and chronology are 
the two eyes of History." Biography, which is an account of tbe Uvea 
of individuals, is an interesting and important part of History. 

Notices of Physicians in Hillsborough. ■, 215 


[For the account of the following medical gentlemen, we are indebted to Dr. 
B. H. Phillips, who obtained the facts respecting most of them from an 
Address published by Charles J. Smith, Esq.] 

The Physicians who have been settled in Hillsborough, are 
William Little, Joseph Munroe, Benjamin Stearns, Joshua 
Crain, Luther Smith, Reuben Hatch, Mason Hatch, Thomas 
Preston, Simeon J. Bard, Nahum P. Foster, Elisha Hatch, Abel 
C. Burnham and Butler H. Phillips. 

Dr. William Little was a native of Shirley, Ms., and removed 
to Peterborough, N. H., in childhood, with his parents. He 
studied medicine with Dr. Young of Peterborough, practised a 
short time in Washington, N. H., and in Dracut, Ms., and estab- 
lished himself in Hillsborough in 1782, where he resided until his 
death. He was accidentally drowned, Nov. 7th, 1807, aged 55. 

Dr. Joseph Munroe was a native of Carlisle, Ms., and acquired 
his professional education with Dr. Francis Kittredge of Tewks- 
bury, Ms. He commenced the practice of medicine in Hillsbor- 
ough in 1784, and died Feb. 24th, 1798, aged 41. He married 
Azubah Henry of Carlisle, who is yet living. 

Dr. Benjamin Stearns was born in Walpole in this State, about 
the year 1770, and received his medical education under the di- 
rection of Dr. Johnson of Walpole. He located himself in 
Hillsborough in 1797, and in 1804, removed to Truro, Nova- 
Scotia. He yet resides in that Province if living. 

Dr. Joshua Grain was bom in Alstead, in this State, in 1776. 
He studied medicine with Dr. Jessaniah Kittredge of Walpole, 
commenced practice in Hillsborough in 1802, and acquired the 
reputation of an able practitioner in his profession, and a useful 
and worthy citizen. He died in 1811, aged 34. 

Dr. Luther Smith, son of James Smith of Mont Vernon, N. 
H. was born Dec. 27th, 1786. He studied medicine with his 
brother, Dr. Rogers Smith, then at Mont Vernon, and settled as 
a physician at the Bridge Village in Hillsborough in 1809, where 
he remained until his death, Aug. 5th, 1824, in the 38th year of 
his age. He left a wife and two children. The son, Charles 
James Smith, is now in the practice of law. Dr. Smith was a 
man of superior mental endowments. In his judgment of char- 

216 Biographical No tices of 

acter, he was especially keen and discriminating, and in his prin- 
ciples firm, manly and independent. As a physician he acquired 
the confidence of the community in his skill and judgment ; for 
he was seldom mistaken in his decisions after his strong [mind 
had investigated a case. He died much lamented. 

Dr. Reuben Hatch, son of Reuhen Hatch, was born in Al- 
stead, in 1785. His medical instructors were Dr. Joshua Crain 
of Hillsborough, and Dr. Eber Carpenter of Alstead. He com- 
menced the practice of medicine in Newport, in this State, and 
removed to this town in 1811, where he remained till 1835, 
when he removed to Illinois. He returned to New Hampshire 
in 1843, and is now in practice at Marlow. 

Dr. Mason Hatch was born in Alstead, 1792, and studied 
his profession with Dr. T. D. Brooks of Alstead, and with his 
kinsman, Dr. Reuben Hatch. He commenced practice in Hills- 
borough in 1817, and continued till 1837, when he removed to 
Bradford, arid thence to Newport, N. II., in 1838, where he now 

Dr. Thomas Prezton was born m Hillsborough in 1781, and 
studied medicine with Dr. Luther Smith. He commenced prac- 
tice in Deering, and removed to Hillsborough in 1824, soon after 
the death of Dr. Smith, and still pursues his profession in this 

Dr. Simeon J. Bard was born in Nelson in this State, in 
1797. He graduated at Middlebury College, 1816, and was 
employed for several years as an instructor. He studied medi- 
cine with Dr. Aaron Bard of Fitchburg, Ms., Dr. Peter Tuttle 
of Hancock, N. H., and attended Lectures at Hanover. He com- 
menced practice at Weare, 1824, and removed to this town the 
same year. In 1829, he left here and established himself in 

Dr. Nahum P. Foster, a native of Westmoreland, N. H., stud- 
ied medicine with Dr. George F. Dunbar of that town, and at 
the Medical Institution in Hanover, where he graduated in 1834, 
and immediately commenced practice in Hillsborough, remained 
here about two years and removed to Unity, N. H. 

Dr. Elisha Hatch, son of Azel Hatch, Esq. of Alstead, was 
born July 17th, 1796. He studied medicine with Drs. Twitch- 
ell and Adams ofKeene, attended the medical Lectures at Dart- 
mouth College, where he graduated in 1824, was in successful 

Physicians in Marlborough. 217 

practice in his native town for eleven years, when he removed to 
Hillsborough, to succeed his uncle Reuben Hatch, where he is 
now in practice. 

Dr. Abraham Hazen Robinson, a native of Concord, resided 
in this town, from November, 1839, to March, 1840, when he 
removed to Salisbury, where he is now in practice. 

Dr. Abel C. Burnham t son of Thomas Burnham, Esq. was 
born in Milford, N. H., May 2nd, 1812. He pursued his profes- 
sional studies with Dr. Twitchell of Keene, and Dr. Elisha 
Hatch of Hillsborough, and attended Lectures at the Medical In- 
stitutions at Woodstock, Vt., and Hanover, N. H., at the latter 
of which, he graduated in 1839. He began to practise atj the 
Centre Village in Hillsborough in 1840, and removed to the 
Bridge Village in 1841, where he still resides. 

Dr. Butler H. Phillips was born in Loudon, Aug. 15th, 1817, 
removed to Gilmanton, early in life with his parents, pursued his 
preparatory studies at Gilmanton Academy, and studied medicine 
with Dr. Wight of Gilmanton, and attended the Medical Lec- 
tures at Hanover, Boston, and at Brunswick, Me., where he grad- 
uated in 1841. He came to this town in December of the same 
year, and settled at the Centre Village, where he is now in prac- 

Furnished by Mr. William C. Whitcomb. 

Dr. Justus Perry was the first physician who became perma- 
nently established in Marlborough. Before him, however, a Dr. 
Lilly practised in the place for a short time. Dr. Perry studied with 
Dr. Stephen Batcheller of Royalston, Ms., and came to this town 
not far from 1784, where he practised about 12 years. He mar- 
ried in 1786, a Miss Frost, by whom he had four children. He 
held the office of town clerk for several years, and, as a physi- 
cian, was accounted one of the first in his time. He died at Bar- 
re, Ms., Aug. 30th, 1800, aged 40. 

Dr. David Carter was born at Leominster, Ms., in 1770, stud- 
ied medicine with Dr. Peter Snow of Fitchburg, Ms., and came 
to ^Marlborough in 1794. He had a much better library than 



218 Biographical Notices of 

physicians generally possessed in that day. A large number of 
'medical students were under his instruction, while he practised in 
Marlborough — sometimes five at the same time, and eight during 
a season. Dr. Amos Twitchell, now of Keene, studied with him a 
part of two years, and was in partnership with him from 1808 
to 1810. Dr. Carter was a Colonel in the militia. He married 
a sister of Dr. Twitchell, by whom he had one child, Eliza, who 
is still living. He left Marlborough in January, 1813, practised 
in Peterborough a few years, and died at Dublin in 1828. His 
widow and daughter are now keeping an Infirmary for the sick at 

Dr. Ephraim K. Frost, a native of JafFrey, studied with Dr. 
Carter, and commenced practice in Marlborough in 1813. He 
left the place in the year 1819. 

Dr. James Batcheller was born at Royalston, Ms., June 5th, 
1791, and was a son of Dr. Stephen Batcheller. The latter 
was born in Grafton, Ms., and commenced the practice of physic 
in Royalston, when the town was almost an entire wilderness. 
His practice was extensive. For many years he had to ride to dis- 
tant places by marked trees. An unusual sympathy for the poor, 
and a neglect to collect his just demands, were among the pecu- 
liar traits of his character. He was never known to decline vis- 
iting a sick person on account of the darkness of the night, the 
severity of the weather, or the poverty of the patient. He and 
his partner made an early profession of religion by uniting with 
the Congregational church, under the pastoral care of the late 
lamented Joseph Lee. A large number of medical students were 
instructed by him. He died Feb. 10th, 1829, aged 84. His 
eldest son, Stephen Batcheller, Jr. studied medicine with his fath- 
er, and became associated with him in business, and is still active 
in his profession in his native town. 

James Batcheller, the particular subject of this notice, received 
his English education at New Salem Academy. During the lat- 
ter years of his minority, he was engaged in teaching school. 
Before he was 20, he went to New York, and taught school one 
year. In April, 1812, he, with some of his school associates, 
started for Pennsylvania, having heard flattering accounts in re- 
gard to school-keeping in that State. They pursued their jour- 
ney to theSusquehannah river in New York, and then descended 
it 160 miles into the State of Pennsylvania. They then direct- 

Physicians in Marlborough. 219 

ed their course towards the centre of the State, where meeting 
with good encouragement, they engaged schools, though many 
of their scholars were Germans, who could not speak the Eng- 
lish lauguage. He continued there nearly two years. At this 
period his brother urged him to return and study medicine, and 
become associated with him in practice in their native place. 
Having always had a partiality for the profession, he returned, and 
attended to the study of Latin and Greek with the late Rev. 
John Sabin of Fitzwilliam. In 1815, he commenced the study 
of medicine with his brother. The last part of his pupilage was 
spent with Prof. Nathan Smith in the Medical Department of 
Dartmouth College. He attended two courses of Lectures at 
Hanover, and received his degree of M. D. in 1819. He in- 
tended to commence the practice of physic with his brother, but 
in May, 1818, the Rev. H. Fish of Marlborough, visited Roy- 
alston, with the express purpose of inviting him to come 
to that place. Accordingly he commenced the practice of med- 
icine there on the 20th of May, 1818, and married in 1821, 
Persis Sweetser, daughter of Philip Svveetser, Esq. of Marlbo- 
rough. Several young gentlemen have studied the profession 
under his instruction, who are now successful practitioners. His 
practice for twenty eight years has been very extensive, not on- 
ly in Marlborough, but in adjoining places. And he has been 
distinguished, not only as a skilful physician, but as a warm and 
ardent friend of many of the benevolent enterprises of the day, 
particularly those which relate to Temperance, Involuntary Ser- 
vitude, and Common School Education. The town and 
County Societies for the promotion of these causes, as well as 
the County Medical Society, have delighted in clothing him with 
office and honor. In the State Legislature, he represented Marl- 
borough in 1840, 1841, and 1845, and his Senatorial District in 
1842. He was elected a Fellow of the New Hampshire Medi- 
cal Society in 1824, and was President of it two years, 1843 
and 1844. 

Dr. Batcheller prepared a brief Memoir of the late Luke 
Howe, M. D. of Jaffrey, which was read before the New Hamp- 
shire Medical Society, and by their order printed in the Boston 
Medical and Surgical Journal. Several of his reports and 
speeches while in the Legislature were also published. 

220 University Education in England. 



Taken from a London University Calender. 

A large number of the youth of England, and especially those resi- 
dent in London, whose future professional duties rendered a university 
education very desirable, were, owing to various causes, deprived of 
that most important privilege. None, but members of the Established 
Church, as is well known, are admitted to the universities of Oxford and 
Cambridge, while there is a large number of individuals in opulent cir- 
cumstances, out of the pale of the National Hierarchy. The expenses, 
also, of a residence at those universities, are such as to preclude many 
worthy young men from making application for admission. It is also to 
be observed, that a professional course of study in law and medicine 
does not really rank among the leading objects of education at Oxford 
and Cambridge ; and independently of that circumstance, there are lo- 
cal advantages in the metropolis, ibr connecting the theoretical with the 
practical parts of those branches of knowledge, which cannot equally 
be enjoyed in any provincial situation. In law and in medicine, at Ox- 
ford, the only requisite, beyond the degree of M. A., is the time during 
which the name of the candidate must he on the university register, and 
the discharge of the appointed fees. 

It has been stated that about one hundred, only, of all the physicians 
now practising in England, have been educated at Oxford and Cam- 
bridge, while there are more than 300 licentiates of the College of Phy- 
sicians, besides many hundreds of country practitioners, who have nev- 
er been candidates for the privileges of the licentiate. 

There are now G,000 members of the College of Surgeons, not six of 
whom, it has been stated, have graduated at the universities. In the 
higher branchof the law, a veiy considerable proportion have graduated 
at Oxford and Cambridge ; but among those, who belong to a very im- 
portant branch of the profession — the attorneys, of whom there are not 
less than eight thousand in England, it is believed that scarcely one in a 
thousand has had the advantages of a university education. Those, 
who hold places in the offices of government, a class that ought to enjoy 
the benefits of a liberal education, are also unable to avail themselves of 
the facilities afforded at Oxford and Cambridge, because they usually 
enter such offices at or before the age of the youngest under-graduates 
of those universities. 

The universities of Oxford and Cambridge supply ample opportuni- 
ties for the education of the clergy of the Established Church.* It is 
manifestly impossible to provide a course of professional education for 
the ministry of the dissenters. It is equally impossible to institute theo- 
logical lectures for the instruction of lay students of different religious 
persuasions, which would not be liable to grave objections. 

* This remark needs qualification. Neither of the universities have mad* 
arrangements for the study of theology, which promise much good. 

Meteorological Journal. 


Colleges for the education of the ministers of different bodies of Dis- 
inters had long existed; but leading persons of some of the more nu- 
merous sects, Especially among the Baptists, had formed a design for the 
establishment of an institution where not ministers only, but the sons 
generally of those members of their congregations, who were in easy 
circumstances, might obtain a complete literary and scientific education 
without being called upon to take oaths, or subscribe articles of reli- 

The above considerations are assigned as reasons for the establish- 
ment of the London University, which is founded on liberal principles. 


[The following account is extracted from a manuscript letter of Gov. 
Pluraer to the late Dr. Farmer of Concord, dated Epping, Jan. 28th, 

"My meteorological journal commenced the first of January, 1796, and 
continued for two years. January 1st, 1802, I again commenced my 
journal, and continued it till March 16th, 1805. The 29th of May, 1808, 
I again re-commmenced it, and have continued it to the present time, 

The greatest degrees of cold, mentioned in my journal, are as follows, 
each of them are below zero. 







of cold. 

of cold. 

of cold. 

1810, Jan. 19. 


1811, Jan. 24. 

811812, Jan. 18. 
9,1815, Jan. 31. 


1813, Jan. 30. 


1814, Dec. 26. 


1816, Feb. 15. 


1817, Feb. 15. 


1818, Feb. 11. 


1819, Jan. 29. 


1820, Feb. 1. 


1821, Jan. 25. 




1823, Jan. 7. 


1824, Feb. 5. 


1825, Dec. 13. 


1826, Feb. 1. 


1827, Jan. 21. 


1828, Jan. 22. 


1829, Jan. 3. 


1830, Jan. 31. 


1831, Jan. 24. 


1832, Jan. 27. 


18133, Jan. 19. 


1834, Dec. 15. 


1835, Jan. 4. 


The thermometer on the 4th of January, 1835, varied more, in differ- 
ent towns and places, than I ever noticed ou any former occasion. Mv 
aon William's thermometer, (he lives about eighty rods north of mej) 
agreed with mine; but two thermometers near the south side of the riv- 
er, about a fourth of a mile on an air line, south of my house, stood one 
at twenty-six, and the other at twenty-eight, below zero. The one was 
near the river, and the other on sandy land." 


Brief View of German Universities. 


Extracted from the American Quarterly Register, Vol. XIV, p. 412. 
I Students in 1830. Students in 1840. 


Theol.\Law \Mcd. \Phil.\ Total. 









5091 258 











146 101 
98 112 






118 109 241 50 518 













Theol . | Law. \Mcd. | Phil . I Total. 


























































































It thus appears, that the whole number of students in the German Uni- 
versities in 1840, with the exception of Griefswald, was 10,727 ; includ- 
ing that university, it may be stated at 11,000. The whole number in 
1830, including the four universities of Erlangen, Griefswald, Rostock, 
and Tubingen, may be stated at 13,300. Consequently there has been a 
diminution in ten years of 2,300 students. The changes in the different 
classes of students will be about as follows. / 

Year. Theol. Law. Med. Philos. 

1830, 3,059 3,215 1,900 1,420 

. 1840, 2,159 2,543 1,839 1,774 

Thus in ten years, the number of theological students has been diminish- 
ed 41 per cent.; legal about 20 per cent.; medical about 4 per cent.; the 
number of philosophical students has increased about 24 per cent. Un- 
der* the term medical, are included those who are studying surgery and 
pharmacy ; under philosophical students are reckoned philologists, polit- 
ical economists, etc. In the last named department, the increase baa 
been in the branches of engineering, surveying, natural history, political 
economy, etc., and not in philology and philosophy. The number of 
teachers in all the universities in 1840, with the exception of Freiberg, 
Gottingen, Munich and Wurtzburg, was 890 ; of whom 141 were inpthe 
theological faculties ; 154 in the law ; 205 in the medical ; and 396jn 
the philosophical. 



Notices of New Publications. 



Family History. Notices of the Life of John Upham, the first inhabitant of 
New England, who bore that name : together with an Account of such of his 
descendants as were the Ancestors of Hon. Nathaniel Upham of Rochester, 
New Hampshire : ivith a short Sketch of the Life of the Latter. By Albert 
G. Upham, A. M., M. D. Concord, N. H. printed by Asa McFarland, 
1845, pages 92. 

" The genealogical researches of this book relate chiefly to persons of the 
name of Upham, who have lived in this country." The Author commences 
with giving the origin of the name Upham. lie first speaks of the origin of 
this name as asitrname, and secondly as a local name. From much historical 
investigation, he concludes that Upham became a surname as early, at least, as 
1140, about the time when surnames, if of Saxon origin, were first assumed, and 
that the name is derived from the name of the possessions, or territory of the in- 
dividual to whom they belonged, as "Campis de Upham," (Upham tields.) The 
name Upham is of local designation, and is applied to a parish, and a village. 

Dr. Upham then gives an account of John Upham, the first of the name, who 
came to this country about 1635, and settled in Weymouth, Ms., and from 
whom have descended the Upliams of New England. He traces the line of 
Uphams through Lieut. Phinehas Upham, son of John, Deacon Phinehas, eld- 
est son of Lieut. Phinehas, and Phinehas, eldest son of Deacon Phinehas, who 
married Tamzen Hill. Their son Timothy, was the father of Rev. Timothy 
Upham of Deerfield, who married Hannah, daughter of the Rev. Nathanie*! 
Gookin of North Hampton, N. H. These last individuals were the parents of 
the Hon. Nathaniel Upham, Gen. Timothy Upham, and Miss Hannah Upham 
of New York, much celebrated as an instructress. The latter part of the work 
is occupied in giving a particular account of the Hon. Nathaniel Upham of 
Rochester, and the members of his family, who have deceased, together with a 
brief genealogical account of some other families with which the Upham fami- 
ly is connected. The work evinces great labor and care — such as none but one 
of antiquarian taste would bestow. Dr. Upham is now a practising Physician 
in Boston. 

Annals of Salem. By Joseph B. Felt. Salem Condita, A. D. 1626. 
Civitatis Regiminc Donata, A. D. 1836. Divitis Indite usqne ad Ultimiim 
Sinuia. Omnia antiquitatis monumenta colligo. — Cicero de Sencctute. Hanc 
vieritam esse, ut memor esses sui. — Tcrentii Andria. Vol. I. Second Edition. 
Salem : Published by W. & »S. B. Ives. Boston : James Monroe &. Co. 
J 845. 536 pp. 12mo. 

The Rev. Mr. Felt has for many years been engaged in historical and antiqua- 
rian pursuits, and is probably better acquainted with the minutiae or details of 
the history of this country, than any other individual. The greater proportion 
■of the last thirty years, he has devoted to studies of this nature. His History 
of Ipswich, Essex, and Hamilton, comprised in a volume of 1304 pp. 8vo. hie 
Historical Account of Massachusetts Currency, making a volume of 260 pp. 
Hvo, together with his Annals of Salem, and other antiquarian publications, are 
works of accurate and indefatigable research. His opportunities for acquiring 
historical knowledge have been great. He has had free access to the Libraries 
of Salem and Boston, was for some years employed by the Government of Mas- 
sachusetts in assorting and arranging for binding the vast quantity of ancient 
manuscript papers in their possession, and has recently visited England, with a 

224 Notices of New Publications. 

view toperfect his historical knowledge of our country. He is now zealously 
engaged in preparing an Ecclesiastical History of the United States, which he 
expects sooji to publish. Mr. Felt's Annals of Salem is what the work purports 
to he. It notices the more important events and transactions from year to year, 
which have taken place in the city from its settlement to the present time. 
These are arranged under suitable Heads, and presented in a way, adapted to 
interest the reader. The work is embellished with a likeness of John Endicott, 
who laid the foundation of the first permanent town within the Massachusetts 
patent, and was also Governor of Massachusetts. 

Review of the Past. A Sermon delivered in Dorchester, December 7th, 
1845, being the Thirty-seventh Anniversary of the Author's Ordination. By 
John Codman, D. D., Pastor of the Second Church in Dorchester. Boston : 
Press of T. R. Marvin, 24 Congress Street, 1846. 

The text selected for the occasion, is from Deuteronomy iv. 32. " Ask now 
of the days that are past." After a short introduction, Dr. Codman proposes to 
take a brief view of the past history; the present state ; and the future pros- 
pects, of his Church and Society. This plan of a delicate nature, he executes 
in his usual felicitous manner. He has uniformity been happy in his occasional 
Sermons and Addresses, which have been many. A number of them were,iu 
1834, reprinted and bound together, making a volume of 430 pages. The pres- 
ent sermon is peculiarly appropriate, and must have been deeply interesting to 
his Church and Society, between whom and their Pastor, there subsists great 
mutual attachment. Dr. Codman's ministry has been longer, it is believed, 
than that of any other Pastor in the vicinity of Dorchester, including Boston, 
who has sustained the sole charge of the same congregation, except that of the 
Rev. Dr. Pierce of Brookline, who has been settled over his flock 49 years, 
March 15th, of the present year. 

Tlve Theory of Missions to the Heathen. A Sermon at the Ordination of 
Mr. Edward JFehh, as a Missionary to the Heathen. Ware, Mass., Oct. 23rd, 
1845. By Rufus Anderson, one of the Secretaries of the American Board of 
Commissioners for Foreign Missions. Boston: Press of Crocker & Brew- 
ster, 47, Washington Street, 1845. 

This Sermon is founded upon 2 Corinthians v : 20. "Now then we are am- 
bassadors for Christ ; as though God did beseech you by us, we pray you in 
Christ's stead be ye reconciled to God." The object of the discourse is " to in- 
vite attention to what is conceived to be our true a?id only office and work in 
missions to the heathen,'' viz. "to proclaim abroad the fact, history, design and 
effect of Christ's atonement, and bring its renovating power to bear, as widely 
as possible upon the human race." This view of the enterprise of Foreign 
Missions, Dr. Anderson illustrates by the consideration of a number of particu- 
lars, and shows that it is wholly in accordance with Scripture. This method of 
conducting Missions he then endeavors to support by other considerations. "1. 
It is the only method that, as a system of measures, will commend itself strong- 
ly to the consciences and respect of mankind ;" "2. The only one, on which 
missionaries can be obtained in large numbers, and kept cheerfully in the field ;" 
"3. The only one, that will subjugate the heathen world to Got I ;*' " Pinall), 
The only one, that will unite in this work the energies of the churches at home.' 1 
The Sermon is not only correct in sentiment, and appropriate to the occasion, 
but particularly adapted to be useful at the present time. 




Vol. I. JULY, 1846. No. 4. 


By the Rev. Isaac Robinson of Stoddard. 
( Concluded from page 108.J 

4. That the Apostle is here describing his experience after 
lie was renewed in the spirit of his mind, I argue from the fact, 
that he has represented his spiritual nature as serving the law of 
God, and his fleshly^ or corrupt nature as serving the law of sin. 
The conclusion, which he draws from the whole that he had 
said, is. " wherefore I, the same person, with my mind serve the 
law of God ; but with my flesh, the law of sin." The flesh and 
mind are here set in opposition to each other ; and if we can as- 
certain what is meant by flesh, we can easily determine what is 
meant by mind. By flesh here, it is universally admitted, that 
the A'postle means his fleshly or corrupt nature, in which he had 
before declared, ' there dwelt no good thing ;' and of course, by 
his mind, which he here contradistinguishes from his flesh, he 
must mean his spiritual nature, or the " inner man," in respect to 
which he delighted in the law of God. The supposition that he 
means the unrenewed mind, involves a contradiction of all that 
he has elsewhere said of such a mind. In Rom. i: 28, he has 

226 An Inquiry into the 

called it, " a reprobate mind," that is, " a wicked or vile mind* 
deservingfof condemnation or execration." In Eph. iv : 17, 18, 
he has represented it as " a mind of vanity," and those who are 
under its influence, as " alienated from the life of God." In 
1 Tim. vi : 5, he has pronounced the unrenewed mind "corrupt;" 
in Titus i: 15, "defiled," and in Colos. ii : 18, " a fleshly 
mind," where it is plain that o vofc <r% tfa£xo3 is the same |with,;<ro 
9^ov7],aa <i% tfa^xog in Rom. viii : 7, "the mind of the flesh," or "car- 
nal mind, which is enmity against God, not subject to the law oj 
God neither indeed can be." With such a mind how could 
Paul, or any other man serve the law of God ? 1 cannot, 
therefore, resist the conviction, that he means serving the law of 
God with his renewed mind, or spiritual nature ; which is the 
same as delighting in it after the inner man. 

Accordingly from the fact that with his mind he served the 
law of God, he draws the inference, chapter viii : 1, that "there 
is therefore now no condemnation to them, which are in Christ 
Jesus." That this is an inference drawn from what the Apostle 
had before said, the ablest critics admit.* And in my view it is 
plain, that the inference is drawn, not from the fourth, but from 
the last, verse of chapter vii. For there is a manifest corres- 
pondence, and an indissoluble connection, between a^a ouv in the 
last verse of chapter vii, and agu vuv in the first verse of chapter 
viii. The note of Doddridge, no incompetent judge in such a 
case, is worthy of attention. " I think," says he, " there is not 
in the whole New Testament, a more unhappy division of two 
chapters than is here made, not only in the midst of an argument, 
but even of a sentence. A^a ouv and afa vuv so evidently an- 
swer to each other, that I think ii plain that the for- 
mer should be rendered whereas." Though I would not un- 
dertake to defend his rendering of ugu ouv, which he acknowledges 
is an uncommon sense of the phrase ; yet I think it evident, that 

* Soe Doddridge, Macknight, Stuart, and IJIoomfield in loco. 

Meaning of Rom. vii : 14 — 25. 2'27 

the chapters are divided in the midst of the Apostle's argument, 
and that the inference in the first verse of chapter viii, is drawn 
from the fact stated in the last verse of chapter vii, that with 
his mind he served the law of God. And if so, he must mean 
serving it with a sincere and evangelical, though imperfect, obe- 
dience. And such obedience is uniformly represented in the Bi- 
ble, as a proof of union with Christ and freedom from condem- 

5. That the Apostle is here describing his experience as a 
Christian, I argue from its exact correspondence with the descrip- 
tion, which in Gal. v: 17, he has given of the experience of 
Christians in general. "For the flesh lusteth against the spirit, 
and the spirit against the flesh; and these are contrary the one 
to the other, so that ye cannot do the things that ye would." Jv« 
\).v\ a u\> Sfs'X^Ts, ravra vtofifrs-} literally, " so that ye do not do the 
things which ye desire." The note of Doddridge on this passage, 
so exactly accords with my own views, that I beg leave to intro- 
duce here the substance of it. " As it is certain that by jlesh in 
this text, which is the same, that the Apostle has elsewhere called 
the old man and the body of sin, we are to understand that nat- 
ural corruption, which is. the ruling principle in the state of na- 
ture ; and with the remains of which the regenerate are still 
troubled ; so by the sphit, which is here set in opposition to it, 
we are to understand that supernatural principle of grace, which 
is imparted to the renewed soul, and which, being communicated 
by the Holy Spirit, has frequently the title of Spirit given to it. 
For " that which is born of the Spirit is spirit." And there is 
such a contrariety between these two principles, that they are 
constantly opposing one another in their desires and tendency ; 
so that, as the Apostle adds, " ye do not do any of the things 
that ye desire ;" for so it is expressed in the original ; and not, 
" ye cannot do the things ye would ;" that is, ye do them, not 
without doing violence to the contrary principle, which would be 
drawing you another way, which is agreeable to what the Apos- 

228 An Inquiry into the 


tie elsewhere says, Rom. vii : 19." Now if the view which 
Doddridge *has given of this passage is correct ; does it not con- 
lain the substance of what the Apostle said of himself in the text 
under review ? In the passage from Galatians, he teaches us that 
there are in the regenerate two principles, which he calls flesh 
and spirit, and which continually oppose each other : and does 
he not teach the same in the text, calling one of these principles 
flesh, and the other " the inner man" one " the law in the mem- 
bers," and the other " the law of the mind ?" In the passage 
from Galatians, he says, that Christians "do not do the things 
which they desire ;" and what more does he say of himself in 
the text ? The good which 1 desire I do not, but the evil which 
I desire not, that 1 do." Why then should we suppose that the 
experience, which he describes in the text, must be his experi- 
ence before he became a Christian, when in Gal. v: 17, he has 
given a perfectly similar descriptor of Christian experience ? 
Might we not as consistently deny, that he describes Christian ex- 
perience in the passage cited from Galatians, as to deny that he 
describes such experience in the text under examination ? 

But it is time to attend to the objections which have been 
urged against that .view of the text, which I have been endeav- 
oring to support. 

I. It is objected that the general complexion of the text is 
wholly inconsistent with the view, which I have given of it. 
For though the Apostle represents himself as desiring to do 
good ; yet he is never able to carry his desires into execution. 
Though he speaks of himself as hating sin, yet he " habitually 
practises it at all times, and under all circumstances." Though 
he struggles against it, yet " in every contest here, the sinful car- 
nal mind comes off victorious." I cannot think this representa- 
tion just. True, the Apostle complains that he did not do the 
good, which he desired, but did the evil which he desired to 
avoid ; yet he declares that he hated it, makes no excuse for com- 
mitting it ; utters no complaint against the law that condemns 

Meaning of Rom. mi: 14 — 25. 


him, but declares that "the lawJs holy, just and good," "that he 
delights in it after the inner man," "and serves it with his mind." 
At the same time, he expresses the most earnest desires for de- 
liverance from sin, that dwelleth in him, and breaks into an 
ascription of praise to God in prospect of complete and final de- 
liverance. Does this look like voluntarily yielding to the dominion 
of sin ? Or does the picture which the writer has here drawn 
of himself bear a nearer resemblance to Saul, the Pharisee, than 
to Paul, the Apostle of Jesus Christ? \{ President Edwards, 
Mr. Brainerd, and Dr. Payson had never seen this text, and 
known nothing of the dispute respecting its meaning ; and it had 
been submitted to thejji to examine it, and then decide whether 
it agreed best with their experience before, or after, their conver- 
sion ; would they not have said that it accorded exactly with 
their experience after, they hoped they were renewed by divine 
grace ? 

2. It is objected tk$t the text in addition to its general com- 
plexion, contains a number of particular expressions, which 
clearly prove that tho Apostle is here speaking of himself as 
an impenitent sinner. Before I proceed to examin-e these ex- 
pressions, I would reraark thai strong feelings always dictate 
strong language. And on no subject perhaps, are the feelings 
of Christians, who have made high attainments in grace, so strong 
as on the subject of their own imperfections. They see so clear- 
ly the purity of the law tuid what they ought to be, feel so sen- 
sibly their immense obligations to God, and so earnestly desire 
to be perfect, that their own attainments seem, as it were, nothing, 
and their imperfections appear in such dark and appalling colors, 
that they feel as though language had no terms sufficiently 
strong, by which to express their abhorrence of themselves. 
Hence wefind eminent Christians, when speaking on this subject 
always employing the most forcible and abasing language ; lan- 
guage which if rigidly interpreted, would perhaps prove them 
the worst of men. Passing over the language of good men on 

230 An Inquiry into the 

this subject as recorded in the Bible, I shall select a few expres- 
sions from eminent Christians of later ages. Augustine, speaking 
of the sins, which he felt in his heart after his conversion, says, 
" My life is full of these evils, and even my prayers are often 
disturbed; and when I apply myself to thine ears, I am over- 
whelmed with a torrent of vanities." And much more he says 
to the same purpose ; and, feelingly, exclaims, " Mourn with 
me, ye who are conscious of any inward feelings of godliness; 
1 cannot expect the sympathy of those who are not." 

Bishop Beveridge speaks of himself as sinning in every thing, 
not excepting his most spiritual and devotional exercises. "I 
sin, and I repent ; and I sin in my very repentance." 

Dr. Payson says, " My heart seems to be a soil so bad that all 
labor is thrown away upon it ; for instead of growing better, it 
grows worse and worse. O what a dreadful, what an inconceiv- 
eable abyss of corruption is my heart 1" And again, " The fast 
was the day in which I had the most dreadful proofs of more 
than diabolical depravity of heart." (Life, pages 91, 211.) 
Language of similar import might be quoted from the life of 
Brainerd, Edwards, Hopkins, and other eminent Christians. And 
now, how much stronger than this language, is the strongest of 
those expressions of Paul in the text, which have been consider- 
ed by some, as rendering it certain that he is speaking of him- 
self as an impenitent sinner ? 

In the first place, he complains of himself as being " carnal," 
which, we are told, is a proof that he was in the flesh, or unre- 
generate. But he applies the same epithet to the Corinthians ; 
whom, he nevertheless represents as " washed and justified and 
sanctified, in the name of the Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of 
our God." 

In the second place, he complains of himself as " sold under 
sin ;" which, we are told, is the description of one of the worst 
men mentioned in the Old Testament. But the difference in 
the form of expression is very material. Ahab is represented as 


Meaning of Rom. vii: 14 — 25. 231 

having voluntarily sold himself, -and as delighting in his bondage. 
Paul speaks in the passive voice ; complains of the bondage as 
grievous, and Tongs for deliverance. Let any Christian of Paul's 
attainments compare himself with the holy law of God, and I 
am inclined to think that his feelings will dictate similar language. 
" I know," he will be ready to say, " that the law is spiritual, 
but alas ! I am carnal, sold under sin. Compared with what the 
law requires, with what I ought to be, and with what I desire to 
he, my life is but bondage." If any Christians at the present 
day are strangers to such abasing views of themselves, it is, I ap- 
prehend, to be ascribed principally to their want of a more 
thorough acquaintance with their own hearts. Clear views of 
the holiness of God, of the purity of his law, and of their own 
remaining sinfulness would constrain them to exclaim with Job, 
" I have heard of thee by the hearing of the ear ; hut 7iow my 
eye seeth thee ; wherefore I abhor myself, and repent in dust 
and ashes." 

In the thjrd place, Paul complains that he " found a law that 
when he would do good, evil was present with him ;" which is 
adduced as further proof that he is speaking of himself as impeni- 
tent. But. if he were speaking of himself as a Christian, who 
had sin dwelling in him, what but this could he say consistent 
with truth ? If when desirous to do good, evil had not been 
present with him ; how could there have been any warfare, 
which it is certain from the Bible there is, and which all Chris- 
tians experience ? 

In the fourth place, the Apostle complains of " a law in his 
members warring against the law of his mind, and bringing him 
into captivity to the law of sin in his members." " The mean- 
ing," we have been told, " is that the law of sin had an entire 
rule or control over him." But is this indeed so ? When u the 
man after God's own heart" complained, Ps. lxv : 3, K in- 
iquities prevail against me" no judicious commentator ever 
thought of explaining the language to mean that his iniquities 


An Inquiry into the 

" had the entire rule or control over him," or that they habitual- 
ly prevailed against him ; but only that they did this, at some 
particular times. And why may we not explain the language 
of the Apostle now under consideration in the same manner? 
Can any valid objection be alleged against such an explanation ? 
And if he only meant that in the warfare between the law in his 
members, and the law of his mind, the former was sometimes 
victorious so as to bring him into captivity to the law of sin, no 
one, I presume, would regard this as a proof that he was not de- 
scribing his experience as a Christian. For it is a truth amply 
supported both by Scripture, and by facts, that " Christians have 
many a conflict, in which they are overcome by sin." 

3. It is objected, that such a view, as I have given of the 
text, is inconsistent with the design of the Apostle, which was to 
show that the law is wholly insufficient for the sanctification of 
men But where is the evidence of such inconsistency ? If 
those, who have embraced the gospel are, notwithstanding all the 
advantages, and all the assistance, which it affords them, still im- 
perfect, and have such a painful conflict with sin, as is here de- 
scribed, how could it be supposed that the law is sufficient for 
their sanctification ? It has been often remarked by judicious 
divines, that nothing sets the strength of sin, and the absolute 
necessity of divine grace to subdue it, in such a clear and con- 
vincing point of light, as the remains of corrupt nature in be- 
lievers, the warfare which they have with it ; and the great dif- 
ficulty which they find in mortifying and subduing it. I am un- 
able to perceive, therefore, why it does not accord as well with 
the Apostle's design, to suppose that he describes the warfare, 
which he experienced after he became a Christian, as to suppose 
that he describes the warfare, which he experienced before his 
conversion. 1 agree with Dr. Scott, that the Apostle's " avowed 
object is to show that the law can do nothing for a sinner, either 
to justify or sanctify him; and that the believer feels this daily, 
as long as he lives.'' And if the exposition, which I have given, 

Meaning of Rom. vii: 14 — 25. 233 

is inconsistent with this, I am reaidy to admit that it must be in- 
correct. % 

4. It is objected that " upon the usual exegesis there is an 
irreconcileable opposition between the latter part of chapter vii, 
find the former part of chapter viii." In my view, however, 
the opposite " exegesis" is much more liable to such an objec- 
tion. For this represents the Apostle as being in the tlesh, and 
under the dominion of the carnal mind, when in Rom. vii: 22 
and 25, he says "I delight in the law of God after the inner 
man ; and with my mind I serve the law of God ;" and yet in 
chapter viii : 7 and 8, he declares " the carnal mind is enmity 
against God ; for it is not subject to the law of God, neither in- 
deed can be : so then they that are in the flesh cannot please 
God." Now is there no " opposition" between these different 
declaration*, on supposition they relate to the same character ? 
Can the person whose mind is enmity against God, and of course 
against his law, which is a transcript of his character, delight in 
it after the inner man ? Can he serve the law of God with his 
mind, and yet " cannot please God ?" 

Those who adopt "the usual exegesis" apply the same prin- 
ciples of interpretation to both the paragraphs referred to in the 
objection ; and thus, as they think, render them consistent with 
each other. When the Apostle, chapter vii : 23, speaks of him- 
self as being brought " into captivity to the law of sin," they 
understand his language in the qualified sense already explained : 
that is, they consider him as meaning, not an habitual, but an 
occasional captivity to sin. And when, chapter viii : 2, he 
speaks of himself as " made (rea from the law of sin and death," 
they understand his language in the same qualified sense ; not as 
teaching that the Christian is sinlessly perfect, but that he is 
made free from the reigning power of sin ; not that it never 
prevails against him, and leads him captive, but that he is no 
longer its voluntary and devoted slave, no longer willingly " obeys 
it in the lusts thereof." And thus, though they consider the 

234 An Inquiry into the 

Apostle, in both these verses, as speaking of himself as a Chris- 
tian, yet by understanding his language in both of them, in a 
qualified sense, they render them, so far as I am able to perceive, 
perfectly harmonious. In the same qualified sense they under- 
stand his language in the 3rd and 4th verses of chapter viii. 
" For what the law could not do, because it was weak through 
the flesh, God has done by sending his own Son in the likeness of 
sinful flesh, and by an offering for sin has doomed to death sin in 
the flesh; that the righteousness of the law might be fulfilled 
in us, who walk not after the flesh but after the spirit.'' God 
has pronounced against sin in the Christian a sentence of utter 
extirpation; and the execution of the sentence has already 
commenced, and the conflict with sin, which the believer now 
experiences, as described in the preceding chapter, is but the dy- 
ing struggles of this monster, under the gradual execution of this 
divine sentence. And until the execution is finished, and sin en- 
tirely destroyed in believers, the design of God in sending his 
Son to be an offering for sin will not be fully accomplished. 
Then, and not till then, will the perfect righteousness, which the 
law demands, be completely fulfilled by believers. As Scott has 
justly remarked " the completion of sanctification seems here 
especially intended." Still it is true that in a qualified sense 
Christians fulfill the righteousness of the law in this world ; that 
is, " they keep, in some good measure, the precepts of the 

Again, when it is said, chapter viii : 9, that Christians "are not 
in the flesh, but in the spirit, and that the Spirit of God dwelleth 
in them," those who adopt "the usual exegesis," understand the 
meaning to be, not that Christians are perfectly holy ; but that 
they have a spiritual, as well as a carnal or corrupt nature, 
which lays a foundation for the Christian warfare. And of 
course, they regard this as perfectly consistent with what Paul 
says of himself in chapter vii, as being "carnal" and as having 
" no good thing dwelling in his flesh ;" and yet as " delighting 

Meaning of Rom. vii: 14-— 25. .. 235 

in the law of God after the inner man." As has been already 
remarked, the Corinthians are called "carnal," who were "sanc- 
tified by the Spirit of our God," and who had " the Spirit of 
God dwelling in them." " Know ye not that your body is the 
temple of the Holy Ghost, which is in you, and which ye have 
of God ?" Where then is the direct antithesis between the latter 
part of chapter vii, and the former part of chapter viii ? The 
application of the same principles of interpretation to both these 
paragraphs removes, I apprehend, all appearance of opposition 
between them. And is it not more consistent to apply the same 
principles of interpretation to both, than to explain the language 
of the former in an unqualified sense, as teaching an entire de- 
votedness to sin ; and the language of the latter in a qualified 
sense as teaching not a perfect, but only a partial deliverance 
from sin in the present world ? 

Finally, it is objected that it is derogatory to the character of 
Paul to suppose that he is here speaking of himself as a Chris- 
tian. For such language, as he here employs, is altogether in- 
consistent with those high attainments in holiness, which he had 
made. But how does this appear? The nearer the Christian 
arrives to perfection, the more clearly he discovers his remaining 
imperfections, and the more deeply his heart is affected with 
them, and the more earnestly he desires to be delivered from them. 
The longer he lives in the world, the more thorough is the knowl- 
edge which he gains of his own heart as naturally " deceitful 
above all things and desperately wicked ;" and the lower he sinks 
in his own esteem, and the deeper his conviction becomes that if 
saved at all, he must be "saved freely by the grace of God, 
through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus." Conse- 
quently the higher his admiration of this grace arises, and the more 
entirely all his hopes are built upon it. The language of the text 
therefore, is such as might be reasonably expected from one^of 
Paul's distinguished piety, who felt that he had not yet " already 
attained, either were already perfect." 

236 Sovereignty of God. 

By the Rev. Abraham Burnham of Pembroke. 

God is a Sovereign. Here is a proposition to be explained 
and proved. 

I. To be explained. When we speak of any doctrine, re- 
lating to the being and perfections of God, we desire to feel, 
that it becomes us to speak with profound reverence. When we 
undertake to explain any doctrine of the Bible, we would divest 
ourselves of all prejudice, and rely upon the guidance of the 
Spirit of all grace and truth. 

Now, when we say, God is a Sovereign, we attach to the term 
Sovereign, none of those ideas, which the common mind attach- 
es to human sovereigns. We very naturally connect with hu- 
man sovereigns, the idea of ambition, despotism, tyranny, op- 
pression and cruelty. No earthly potentate is perfect either 
in intelligence, or integrity. But as for the Holy Sovereign of 
the Universe, his understanding is infinite, and his heart is love. 
His entire character is clothed with absolute perfection. His 
Sovereignty is connected with infinite wisdom and benevolence. 
In explaining the proposition before us, it seems rather immateri- 
al to our purpose whether we consider the Sovereignty of God a 
perfection of his nature, or a state or condition of all his perfec- 
tions as a whole, or only a mode of the Divine operation. If it 
should be said, that Sovereignty belongs to all the divine per- 
fections, they being absolutely supreme, transcending every thing 
of the kind in the universe ; this would not alter the case. 
Our definition is, that the Sovereignty of God is that in Him, 
whereby he does, just what he is pleased to do ; making his own 
will, which is perfectly holy, just and good, the rule of all his 

And in the exercise of his own most wise and infinitely good 


Sovereignty of God. 237 

pleasure, God does not infringe upon the free moral agency, and 
responsibilty, of men or angels. Whatever benevolent design 
and holy agency God may have had, in the revolt of angels and 
of man, neither his design nor his agency prevented them from 
being free, and of course, responsible, and blame-worthy for re- 
volting. And this remark will apply, with equal truth and pro- 
priety to every subsequent transgression. 

Let it also be remembered, that in the exercise of his wise and 
holy Sovereignty, God does no injustice to angels, or men. By 
preserving his elect angels in perfect holiness and happiness, 
God did no injustice to those whom he cast out of heaven, for 
they freely sinned before they were banished from that blessed 

In providing a Savior for fallen man, God did no injustice to 
fallen angels. Fallen angels are the objects of strict, impartial 
justice ; man, of Sovereign mercy. And both these perfec- 
tions, justice and mercy, are essential to the Godhead, and, of 
course, must be displayed. 

By saving some sinners of this apostate world, and not others, 
God does no injustice to those who are lost, because they violate 
a law, which is holy, just and good, and reject the offers of life 
and salvation, made to them in the gospel ; and besides, they 
suffer in the world of despair, no more than the due reward of 
their deeds. Whenever God exercises his glorious Sovereignty 
towards moral agents, he does it in a manner perfectly consistent 
with the freedom of the will, and with strict justice. To have 
any thing like a full view of the import of the Sovereignty of 
God, it may be necessary to glance at the means, by which he 
has displayed his wise and holy Sovereignty. Has God created 
unnumbered worlds, and bid them revolve in the regions of im- 
mensity ? He has done it, because he was pleased to doit. He 
took counsel of none of his creatures. Has he made one planet, in 
the solar system, differ from another, in magnitude and splendor? 
It is because he was pleased so to do. Does God bestow 

238 Sovereignty of God. 

his grace and salvation on some of our fallen race, and not on 
others ? In this essential difference in the character and condi- 
tion of his rational and accountable creatures, God manifests 
himself an absolute Sovereign. He shows himself disposed to do 
what seemeth good in his holy sight. And this is what we mean 
by the Sovereignty of God. 

God is a Sovereign. This doctrine is now, 

II. To be proved. And it may be proved, 

1. By the very nature of his being. God exists of necessity, 
and, consequently, all his natural and moral perfections which 
constitute his nature and character, exist of necessity. And his 
infinite perfections set Him upon the throne of the universe, 
clothe him with absolute supremacy and Sovereignty, with infi- 
nite majesty and eternal glory. Now, to show, that God is 
necessarily a Sovereign, let us suppose that God is not Almighty ; 
then, some other being may be more powerful than He, and that 
other being is God. If we suppose that God does not possess 
infinite wisdom ; then, some other being may be wiser than 
He, and that other being is God. Suppose that God is not 
infinitely good, then some other being may be better than 
He, and that other being is God. For according to all 
rational ideas of God, he is the best Being in the universe. 
If we suppose that God is not absolutely independent, then 
he may be controlled by some other being, and that other be* 
ing is God. And if God were not absolutely Sovereign, doing 
all his pleasure, some other being might be, and that other 
being is God, is the Supreme Being. Absolute Sovereignty is 
essential to absolute Supremacy ; and both may be attributed to 
the Godhead. 

Take another view of this source of proof. To act of choice, 
is essential to moral agency. God is a moral agent ; of course, 
he acts of choice. Every moral agent will act as he chooses to 
act, if he be able. If, therefore, God were not to act just as he 
pleases, he would show himself deficient in power. Besides, 

Sovereignty of God. " 239 

God would be unhappy, if he were not to act as he pleases. 
This must be* admitted. But, who can believe, that there is any 
want of happiness in the Supreme Being ? From the very na- 
ture of the case, the proof is conclusive, that God is a Sove- 
reign, of necessity, uncaused, eternal, and absolutely independ- 

2. By the great diversity among the creatures which God has 
made. If we go back in our thoughts to a period, in past eter- 
nity, when nothing existed but God, must it not have depended 
on his Sovereign pleasure, whether any creatures should have 
existence, or not ? If any, what ? and how many kinds ? 
Therefore, the very existence of creation proves the Sovereignty 
of the Creator. Still more clearly does the great diversity in the 
creation, prove the Sovereignty of the Creator. Look at this 
great globe. Why such diversity of soil, of roots, of herbs, of 
flowers, plants, trees and animals? Cast an eye at the visible 
heavens. Why does one star differ from another star in glory ? 
Why such diversity among God's rational creatures ? Men, An- 
gels, Cherubim and Seraphim ? Because their glorious Creator 
is a Sovereign, and was pleased in this way to show his sovereign 
pleasure. On the face of creation, the Sovereignty of the 
Creator is inscribed in capitals, as large, fair, and legible, as his 

3. By the vast variety, which God has been pleased to make 
in the circumstances of his creatures. With respect to the angels 
of light, what an amazing difference ! Some of them, preserved 
unto eternal glory, others cast out of heaven, and reserved in 
everlasting chains, under darkness unto the judgment of the 
great day. 

Now, it appears to be utterly in vain, to deny the Sovereign 
agency of God in the fall of angels. We may admit one of 
three suppositions on the subject, either, l.That God designed a 
certain number of the angels should fall ; or, 2. That he de- 
signed they should not fall ; or, 3. That he had no design about 

240 Sovereignty of God. 

it. But, to suppose that God had no design about the revolt of 
the angels*, is to suppose them, for a time at least, independent of 
their Maker ; for if they were constantly dependent on their 
Maker, they could not have fallen without his designing that 
event. And to suppose any creature independent for a single 
moment, is to suppose that creature possessed of an incommuni- 
cable perfection of the Godhead. And to suppose that God de- 
signed the angels, who have actually fallen, should not fall, is to 
admit that he is not able to accomplish his designs, of course 
that he is capable of being disappointed and unhappy. But, 
who can admit such an idea of the Supreme Being? It only 
remains, therefore, that we admit, that God, in his holy, wise, 
and benevolent Sovereignty, actually designed, and effected the 
difference between the elect, and the fallen angels. And these 
observations apply, with equal truth, propriety and force to the 
fall of man. 

God was pleased to create man in his own image, and to place 
hirn in the garden of innocence and joy ; but not to keep him 
there. And what an awful difference between our first parents, 
in Eden, holy and happy, and the same guilty pair attempting to 
hide themselves among the trees of the garden from the presence 
of the Lord ! And yet, had it not pleased the Lord that such a 
difference should exist, he certainly would have prevented it. 
But, agreeably to his eternal and sovereign purpose to distinguish 
men from the angels that fell, Jehovah soon revealed his designs 
of mercy in the promise of a Savior. And in all his subse- 
quent dealings with mankind, God has most wonderfully dis- 
played his absolute Sovereignty. 

The old world, he swept away with the flood, except Noah 
and his family. Sodom and Gomorrah, and the other cities of the 
plain, God destroyed with a shower of fire and brimstone from 
heaven, but saved, as by an angel's hand, Lot and his two daugh- 

And if we trace the footsteps of divine Providence under the 

Sovereignly of God. 


Gospel dispensation, we see the Sovereignty of God at every 
step. While some nations are favored with the light of the Gos- 
pel, others are covered with the darkness and horrors of heathen- 
ism. And when the Gospel is preached, it is foolishness, and a 
stumbling block to some, to others, in the same nation, state, 
town, neighborhood, and even in the same family, it is the wis- 
dom of God, and the power of God unto salvation. This vast 
variety in the condition of creatures, demonstrates the Sovereign- 
ty of the Creator. And the same sentiment is decidedly, and 
authoritatively, settled, 

4. By the Sacred Scriptures. When God condescends to de- 
scribe his own character to his servant Moses, he does it in those 
emphatic words ; " I will be gracious to whom I will be gra- 
cious, and I will show mercy on whom I will show mercy." Ex. 
xxxiii : 19. When Jehovah would distinguish himself from all 
the dumb idols of the nations, he does it in this remarkable dec- 
laration, " My counsels shall stand, and I will do all my plea- 
sure." Isa. xlvi : 10. And the Great Teacher from heaven as- 
serted the doctrine under consideration, when he rejoiced inspir- 
it, and said, " 1 thank thee, O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, 
that thou hast hid these things from the wise and prudent, and hast 
revealed them unto babes ; even so, father, for so it seemed good 
in thy sight." Luke x : 21. And according to the vision of the 
beloved John, Rev. iv : 11, the redeemed in glory ascribe to God 
the very attribute of the Godhead, which is our theme. " They 
cast their crowns before the throne, saying, Thou art worthy, O 
Lord, to receive glory, and honor, and power ; for thou hast cre- 
ated all things, and for thy pleasure they are and were created." 
We only add the testimony of the sweet singer of ancient Israel, 
Ps. cxxxv : 6, " Whatsoever the Lord pleased, that did he in 
heaven and in earth, in the seas and all deep places." 



Modern Non- Resistance. 


By the Rev. John M. Whiton of Antrim. 

A class of men, the Modern Non-Resistants, affirm that war, even tcr 
repel invasion, is unlawful ; that in no case, not even that of the mur- 
derer, may human life be taken j that self-defence, by other means than 
moral suasion or flight, is wrong ; that punishment is inadmissible ; that 
men must yield up their property on demand \ that civil government is 
a violation of human liberty, and has no rightful existence. Some would 
modify these views in part, while others assert them in all their length 
and breadth. One of the main supports they claim from the Bible, is the 
passage, Matt. v. 38 — 42. " Ye have heard that it hath been said, An 
eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth. But I say unto you, that ye resist 
not evil : but whosoever shall smite thee on thy right cheek, turn to him 
the other also. And if any man will sue thee at the law, and take away 
thy coat, let him have thy cloak also. And whosoever shall compel 
thee to go a mile, go with liim twain. Give to him that askcth of thee, 
and from him that would borrow of thee, turn not thou away." Is their 
interpretation of these precepts right or wrong ? Are they to l>e under- 
stood literally and strictly, or with limitation ? 

As in other books, so in the Bible, many things, general and absolute 
in torm, must be restricted in the interpretation : otherwise they clash 
widi other passages, and with the nature of things. " Thou shall not 
kill." Shall we understand a limitation ? Or say that we must not kill 
animals for food ; must not kill the noxious insect, the poisonous serpent, 
the rabid dog ? " Owe no man any thing." Shall we restrain the pro- 
hibition to needless, foolish, dishonest debts, or hold that a man may not 
incur a debt of a single dollar, even to feed a starving family ? " Pray 
without ceasing." Shall we limit the sense to regular and stated acts of 
devotion, or affirm that men must pray without sleep or intermission ? 
Clear instances these, of the necessity of supplying restrictions to some 
rreneral precepts. Of course, the passage first cited, may be subject to 
the same law. Is it so ? 

It may aid our enquiry to trace the results of a literal ami rigorous 
interpretation. " If a man smite thee on the one cheek, turn to him the 
other also." Permit, yea, court the second blow, by presenting the other 
cheek. " If a man will sue thee at law, and take away thy coat, let him 
have thy cloak also:" — and by parity of reasoning, thy horse, thy whole 
estate. " Give to him that asketh of thee." If a man, ixbl *,, work, 

Modem Non-Resistance, 


prefer to live by begging ; if he a3k money to spend in intoxication or 
grfmbling, deny him not. " From him that would borrow of thee, turn 
not thou away. If a madman would borrow a deadly weapon ; or a 
swindler, money never to be repaid, refuse him not. Such are the ab- 
surdities of a strictly literal interpretation. There must be a limitation, 
drawn from good sense, from the nature of things, and from other parts 
of the word of God. 

But where are the limits to be drawn ? Guided by the light of Scrip- 
ture, it will not be difficult to ascertain. The occasion of the prohibition 
was the precept of the Jewish law, " An eye for an eye, and a tooth for 
a tooth." Had a man wilfully maimed another, by putting out his eye, 
or striking out his tooth, he should himself be punished with the same 
inlliction. It was a rule to guide the Jewish Courts, a part of their 
criminal Jurisprudence ; but never intended to authorize private retalia- 
tion, or allow men, when injured, to take the law into their own lwmds, 
and avenge their own wrongs. But the Scribes and Pharisees had- per- 
verted the precept from the intention of a Judicial rule to the magistrate, 
in the due execution of justice, into an allowance of private revenge. 
In a similar manner had they perverted other parts of the divine law,- 
as the prohibitions of murder and adultery, into an implied allowance of 
inferior outrage, or mental impurity ; and the requisition of love to our 
neighbor, into a tacit permission of hating an enemy. Christ exposes 
and condemns these perversions. Aiming his censure, not against the- 
original permission to the Magistrate to punish the evil doer, but against, 
the perversion of that rule into an allowance of private retaliation, he 
says, " Resist not evil" — it may mean, the evil or injurious person. Re- 
pel not one outrage by another. Be not judge in your own case ; take 
not the work of punishment into your own hand ; but if redress be ne- 
cessary, seek it from the law of the land. The thing really forbidden, 
is, not the administration of penal justice by government, but 2 )er sonal 

In the passage, plead by Non-Resistants, are specified three kinds of 
injuries : injuries of the person, as smiting on the cheek ; injuries of 
property, as taking a coat by an unjust lawsuit ; injuries of personal' 
liberty, as in pressing or compelling one to go a mile, or perforin some 
other labor. 

As to the first class, injuries of the person, he says, "If any one smite thee 
on the one cheek, turn to him the other also." A strictly literal con- 
struction would involve the absurdity of inviting the second blow. 
Rather than do this, by presenting the other cheek, the most ultra Non- 
Resistant would admit the lawfulness of flight, or inducing by moral 

244 Modern Non- Resistance. 

suasion the assailant to desist. The question is still open, May evil iti 
any case be resisted by force ? If not, the Father may not correct the 
rebellious son*; the traveller may not defend his life against the robber ; 
nor the parent, his family against the midnight assassin. The murderer 
may be neither executed nor imprisoned. The sailor may not repel the 
pirate, who attacks a vessel with intent to butcher every soul on board. 
Laws must have no penalties, society no prisons. The most strictly 
defensive war, forced upon a peaceable, reluctant nation, would be wick- 
ed. Can a construction, so repugnant to other parts of Scripture, so de- 
structive to all social order and safety, so fitted to fill the world with 
anarchy and violence, be other than wrong ? Had God intended to for- 
bid any defence by force, on the part both of individuals and nations, 
certainly he would have expressed the prohibition, as Doddridge well 
observes, in terms not to be misunderstood or misconstrued. 

The ancient statute, " Whoso sheddeth man's blood, by man shall his 
blood be shed" — is not a dictate of the Jewish law oidy, but was enacted 
centuries before the Jewish nation existed, or the Jewish law was pro- 
mulgated. It is a part of the law of nature. The reason of the statute 
is express in the next clause : " For in the image of God made he man." 
Man's dignity in the scale of being, his resemblance of God in intelli- 
gence and immortality, render the shedding of human blood, a crime of 
deep dye. Is human life less worthy of protection now, than in the 
days of Noah ? If the legal maxim, " while the reason remains, the law 
holds good^ 1 be sound ; the law, subjecting the murderer to capital pun- 
ishment, must remain valid to the end of the word ; for the necessities 
of humanity require such a law. To abolish it, would subserve, not, as 
is pretended, the cause of humanity, but of inhumanity. The " inviola- 
bility of human life," when urged as a dissuasive from cruelty, oppres- 
sion, and murder, is a just and important doctrine. But when the 
phrase is employed to screen the murderer, delusion lurks under it. It 
becomes a perversion of truth, a nullification of the law of God. 

What is the legitimate design of civil government ? To protect men 
in the enjoyment of life, liberty, and property. In consideration of re- 
ceiving from its subjects, allegiance and tribute, it engages to render 
this protection. How can it be made effectual, or more than a mere 
pretence, without the application of the force, necessary to repel or 
punish the lawless and violent ? 

That the New Testament recognizes the authority of government to 
defend the peace and safety of society by force, is plain from its repre- 
senting it as a terror to evil doers, and as bearing not the sword in vain. 
Of what use were a sword, never to be wielded 1 

Modern Non-Resistance. 245 

In some cases then, it is right to 'resist outrage by force. Right, for 
the parent to chastise the disobedient son ; for the sailor to repel the 
pirate ; for the government to punish the murderer with death, and to 
maintain by necessary penal inflictions, the order and peace of Socie- 

If it be asked, what are the precise limits of this right of resistance ? 
How far may we go ? Where must we stop ? We cannot expect to 
Hud in the Bible specific directions for each of the millions of varying 
cases; for the world could not contain the hooks, necessary, on this sup- 
position, to be written. We must recur to the general principles of the 
gospel, and, in applying them to particular cases, an honest conscience 
is the best casuist. Clear it is, that private revenge is always wrong : 
that in case of appeal to the law, it must never be with retaliatory feel- 
ings, but for the general good : ever with a forgiving spirit, otherwise 
we exclude ourselves from the mercy of God. Personal injuries, when 
slight and transient, when the public good would not be compromised 
by silence, are to be passed by and forgiven. In extreme cases, the Chris- 
tian must exhaust the power of moral suasion ; if that fail, to flee, if 
possible ; to delay resort to force, to the last moment compatible with 
self-preservation. Not only the false honor or revenge, which employs 
deadly weapons in the duel or street-fight, but the intemperate wrath 
which returns word for word, insult for insult, blow for blow, are ab- 
horrent to the spirit of Christ. 

We come to injuries of property. The Christian precepts to pay debts ; 
to work, that we may have wherewith to give ; to distribute; liberally ; 
to lay by in store for charity — all imply the right of property. In pre- 
serving and defending it, how far is Non-Resistance a duty ? " If a 
man sue thee at law, and take away thy coat, let him have thy cloak al- 
so." Observe, the property here specified is not of great value — one or 
two articles of apparel. The rule certainly requires submission to 
small losses, rather than incur the evils and temptations of litigation. 
In such cases, better yield, than contend. Better loose a coat, than 
plunge into a lawsuit. 

But ie this rule meant to extend to cases vitally important? If an un- 
just litigant would take away, not a man's coat, but his house, his farm, 
his living; is he bound to yield ? Has he not paramount duties to his 
creditors, his family, and to Society ? Must he surrender the means of 
usefulness and charity ; perhaps too of preventing himself from becorn- 
inga burden on society in sickness or age ? That would be injustice to 
others. Such a construction clashes with particular precepts, and the 
general tenor of Holy Scripture. It would indeed leave the industrious 


Modern Non-Resistance. 

and honest at the mercy of plunderers and idlers. Beyond a doubt, the 
Christian may, if no other assurance of justice remain, protect impor- 
tant rights by appeal to the law. It is vain to plead, that the Apostle 
condemned lawsuits among the Corinthians. His censure was aimed at 
two points : the one, that these suits were against their own Christian 
brethren, with whom they ought to have adjusted their disputes by friend- 
ly reference, or arbitration ; the other, that their controversies were 
carried before Heathen tribunals, to the scandal of religion. Such law- 
suits as those of the Corinthians, are ever to be reprobated. The cen- 
sure of such, implies however, that some lawsuits may be lawful, even to 
Christians. More than once, or twice, either for the prevention or re- 
dress of injuries, Paul appealed to the Roman Jaw. But never should 
the Christian do this, except in affairs of adequate importance, in a right 
spirit, and under a conviction that the general good requires it. From 
trifling lawsuits, from needless lawsuits, from rash and passionate law- 
suits, from vindictive lawsuits, he must keep far distant ; otherwise, 
he shews himself destitute of the spirit of Christ. 

In matters of property, there is another class of impositions, intended 
not to be enforced by legal coercion, but to be effected simply by request 
or importunity — by solicitations to give or lend. Must we always yield, 
or may we in some cases refuse ? 

" Give to him that asketh of thee, and from him that would borrow of 
thee, turn not thou away." We have already adverted to the impropri- 
ety of .giving to him, who prefers to live by begging rather than work- 
ing ; or of lending a deadly weapon to a madman, who might destroy 
life. To give to a profligate, however urgently he might solicit, what he 
would be sure to spend in vice ; or lend money to him who intends 
never to repay, or to apply the loan to bad purposes ; would be to vio- 
late other Scriptural injunctions, and lay the wealth of the world at the 
disposal of the unprincipled and reckless. These precepts plainly have 
their limitations. Improper solicitations to give or lend, may and ought 
to be resisted. But whenever giving, or lending, would be a real kind- 
ness, alleviative of human suffering or need, and promotive of the gen- 
eral gopd ; then must we, according to our ability, give to him that 
asketh, and from him who would borrow, turn not away. If we shew 
not ourselves pitiful and merciful, we may not expect mercy from God. 
" He shall have judgment, without mercy, that showed no mercy." 

In injuries of personal liberty, how far is Non-Resistance a duty ? " If 
any will compel thee to go a mile, go with him twain." Here is an allu- 
sion to the oppressions of Oriental governments, in the transmission of 
orders to remote portions of their dominions. Having no mail establish- 

! •» 


Modern Non-Resistance. -. 247 

inent, they despatch a courier, who travels post haste, till his animal is 
tmable to go further. He then " compels" or impresses the first man he 
meets, to furnish another animal, and accompany him as far as that an- 
imal can go, and so on to the end of the route. He makes the demand 
under the authority of government ; and the man, thus " compelled," 
niust comply, or fare worse. Such is now the practice in Turkey, Per- 
sia, and other Asiatic regions. The rule requires the Christian, living 
under a despotic government, to submit to such invasions of liberty, 
when submission is a less public evil thau resistance. If a magistrate 
or governmental courier impresses thee to go on public business a mile, 
go with him two, rather than rebel, or disturb the public peace. 

Be it remembered, however, that even in submission to governmental 
authority, there are limits, not to be overpast. Should the civil power 
require its agents or subjects to desecrate the Sabbath, to abet oppress 
sion, to sustain idolatrous worship, or engage in a war palpably unjust, 
they may and ought to refuse compliance. The three young Jews did 
right, to resist the command of Nebuchadnezzar to worship the golden 
image on the plain of Dura ; Daniel, to resist the ordinance of Darius, 
suspending the worship of the God of Heaven ; the Apostles, to resist 
the order of the Jewish Sanhedrim, to preach no more in the name of 
Jesus. In all similar cases, the inferior authority of man must be resist- 
ed, in deference to the superior authority of God. A citizen, unjustly 
imprisoned, has a right to escape. Without determining the precise 
limil of the slave's right to resist oppression, he has, at the very least, a 
right to run away : and every other man has a right, and is under a 
moral obligation, to 'befriend the fugitive by all lawful means in his 

Need we further proof that the strict and rigorous interpretation of 
the precept, Resist not evil, is indefensible and absurd ? There is in- 
deed a modified and sober sense, in which the word Non-Resistance 
may be used, not conflicting with reason or Scripture. The qualified 
Non-Resistance of the Friends and Mennonites, is quite a different thing 
from the error we are opposing. Modern Non-Resistance conflicts with 
Scripture, and with the order, peace, and safety of society. It goes to 
overthrow an Institution, Civil Government, which the Bible declares to 
be "ordained of God." 

To other pernicious results, Modern Non-Resistance has strong tenden- 
cies. From the no-government doctrine in State, the transition is easy to 
no-governinent in church ; and hence, by easy gradations, to anti-church, 
anti-ministry, anti-Sabbath views. Often is the whole brood found congre- 
gated in the same breast. If a church be admitted, it is but in name ; it is 



a sort of abstraction, without organization, and almost without visibility — 
a body, without limbs, organs, or head. It tends to the denial of future ret- 
ribution. If wan ought to be absolutely Non-Resistant, why not God ? If* 
prisons and punishments ought to have no place here, why not so here- 
after ? Such a principle goes far towards universal disorganization ! 
How contrary to fact ! God does in this world resist the proud ; con- 
demning, threatning, frowning upon evil, and making it productive of 
wretchedness. Will he not do the same in the world to come ? Ac- 
cording to Christ, there is a Hell, into which the soul may be cast, after 
the body has been killed. 

While we repudiate Non-Resistance in the wild and disorganizing 
sense, let it not be forgotten that, in the sober and scriptural sense, Chris- 
tians should be non-resistant, in a far greater degree than too many have 
been. To a far greater degree, men of patience, men of meekness, 
men of long suffering, men of peace and love, men of forgiveness, 
men who eschew railing for railing, men of the same mind which was 
in Christ Jesus, men, who more decidedly imitate that God, who mak- 
eth his sun to rise on the evil and on the good, and sendeth rain on the 
just and on the unjust; that God, who is slow to anger, and, in the case 
of the truly penitent, forgiving iniquity, transgression, and sin. 


The subject of Statistics, is the investigation and exposition of the ac- 
tual condition of states and nations, in regard to their internal organiza- 
tion and foreign relations. It embraces literature, science, political econ- 
omy, art, trade, morals, religion, and in fact all the subjects of human 
knowledge. Schlozer, as quoted in the American Encyclopedia, says, 
" History is statistics in a state of progression ; statistics is history at a 
stand." It differs from geography in this respect, that though many par- 
ticular facts belong equally to both, yet geography arranges them al- 
ways on the principle of locality, but statistics with reference to their ef- 
fect on the general condition of a nation. Statistics was first treated 
scientifically in Germany. Achenwall gave it, in 1749, its name and sys- 
tematic form. The principal writers on this subject are Schlozer, Hasse), 
Niemann, Stein, Balbi, Gioja, Dupin, a French writer of the first order, 
Meusel, Staudlin, Colquhoun, Von Hammer, Pitkin, Seybert, Holmes, 
Darby, &c. &e. 

Thoughts on Pulpit Eloquence. - £49 

By the Rev. Daniel Dana, D. D., of Newburyport 

It is readily admitted, that if eloquence were what some have imag- 
ined it to be, it could claim but little praise. If it were a mere play on 
the ear, or the fancy, or the passions ; if it were the art of giving im- 
portance to trifles, or to falsehood the garb and respect of truth ; then 
it would well deserve to be banished, not only from the pulpit, but from 
the world. But genuine eloquence is a very different thing. Its first 
homage is evermore paid to the reason, and the judgment. Its first law 
requires, that every object be treated according to its real and relative 
importance. Its first and fundamental principle is, that nothing is beau- 
tiful which is not true. 

The existing state and circumstances of our country, though not un- 
favorable to eloquence, have doubtless occasioned, in many minds, 
strong prejudices against it. We are a nation of societies. Societies re- 
quire speeches; and speeches require orators. As first-rate orators are 
rare, their places must be supplied from the inferior ranks. As originals 
are scarce, copies, and even copies of copies arc indefinitely multiplied. 
Thus ambition, vanity, self-sufficiency, affectation, extravagance, and ab- 
surdity itself usurp the name and honors of eloquence. The consequence 
is, that reflecting minds are vexed and repelled ; and, not unfrequently, 
that suspicion and disgust which are due oidy to the mockery of elo- 
quence, are insensibly transferred to eloquence itself. 

This is a great and dangerous mistake. Indeed, the facts at which 
we have glanced, would lead, if rightly considered, to the very opposite 
conclusion. If eloquence be, as it undeniably is, an instrument of great 
power, and of frequent use, it is neither to be neglected, nor cast away. 
If its very semblance can accomplish something, what great effect may 
not be expected from its reality ? Is it not important to ascertain its na- 
ture and characteristics, to explore its sources, to detect its counterfeits, 
and to brand with just censure its opposites? 

The proper design of the art of eloquence is, to bring man back to 
nature. As this is its chief aim, and its highest perfection, so likewise 
is it its grand difficulty. An eminent teacher of music, in ancient time, 
was accustomed to exact of those pupils who had been previously 
taught by an inferior musician, twice the compensation which he de- 
manded of those who had received no instruction at all. Teachers of 
eloquence, could they receive their pupils fresh lrom the hand of na- 
ture, untaught and unspoiled, would find their task comparatively easy. 

£50 Thoughts on Pulpit Eloquence. 

But to counteract and overcome the combined influence of bad instruct 
tion, bad example, and bad habit ; to witeach, if the term may be allow- 
ed, what ought never to have been learned ; this is difficult indeed. 

But we quit the field of general remark, and proceed directly to offer 
some thoughts on the eloquence of the pulpit. 

Of the eloquence which is proper to the sacred desk, the first and 
most indispensable requisite is gravity, or seriousness. Of all employ- 
ments, that of the Christian preacher is most powerfully adapted to in- 
spire the soul with awe ; I might have said, to crush a tender spirit with 
an overwhelming weight. He speaks as the ambassador of God. lie 
speaks under the most appalling responsibilities, lie addresses hearers 
hastening, with himself, to the last tribunal, and the retributions of eter- 
nity, lie handles subjects the most profound, the most sublime, and the 
most interesting which can occupy human thought — the omniscient and 
eternal Being — his perfections and government — the soul — the Savior— * 
death — judgment — eternity — joys which never expire — woes which know 
no end. lie delivers no sermon, he utters not even a sentence, which 
may not, under God, stamp the final destiny of some hearer ; nay, of 
many hearers. In such circumstances, can he trifle ? Yes ; with a 
heart of adamant, he may ; but not with a heart oi'jlesh, 

Let it be remembered, too, that a preacher rarely renders his auditory 
more serious than himself. And let it be remembered, that if he effects 
not seriousness, he effects nothing — absolutely nothing. h\ how many 
tlumsand instances have talents, and learning, and taste, and fluency, and 
elegance, and even orthodoxy been lost, or Avorse than lost, upon an au- 
dience, while the simple earnestness of some plain, devoted preacher 
has accomplished wonders. 

With the example of many admired preachers against us, we must 
seriously doubt, whether any thing properly styled pleasantry ; anything 
litted to provoke a smile, ought ever to find admission to the Christian 
pulpit. Most certainly, its appearance then, if tolerated at all, should be 
rare — about as rare as lightning in winter. The preacher with whom 
such things are habitual, or familiar, degrades the desk, wastes his own 
influence, and trifles with the souls of men. How wretchedly do we 
mistake, if, for the amusement of our hearers, or the mere display of 
our own talents, we can consent to lose any portion of that short and 
precious hour, which should be sacred to God, and to eternity. " I love 
a serious preacher," says the good Fenelon, in his own style of inimita- 
ble simplicity ; I love a serious preacher, " who speaks for my sake, and 
not for his own ; who seeks my salvation, and not his own vain glory." 
It was remarked by a certain king, of a preacher whom he often heard, 
that he always preached before him as if death stood at his elbow. And if 


Thoughts on Pulpit Eloquence. . 251 

death really stands at the elbow of every preacher, should he not aim, at 
least,* to preach as a dying man to dying men. 

It may be remarked, in the second place, that the eloquence of the 
pulpit should be eminently characterized by simplicity. This is a pre- 
dominant feature in almost all those great writers, ancient and modern, 
whose works are stamped with immortality. Of the eloquence of the 
pulpit, it is a constituent absolutely essential. Even as it regards deliv- 
ery, it possesses an importance which can scarce be adequately appre- 
ciated. Is there not a mode of utterance, so true to nature ; so devoid 
of all constraint, and artifice, and affectation ; so faithful to all the sen- 
timents and emotions of the soul, as to give universal delight ? It is 
such a manner, which sometimes raises the bare reading of a passage of 
Scripture to the dignity of exposition, and actually imparts to one who 
lias heard or perused it, perhaps scores of times, ideas which never oc- 
curred before, ft is such a manner, which, in an audience of a thou- 
sand, makes every hearer feel as if he were the only person addressed. 
And where, it may be asked, shall this inestimable manner be found ? 
Alas ! we miss of it because it is so near, and so obvious. We shall 
seek it in vain of many a philosopher, and many a rhetorician. But the 
child of four years old will teach it us, if we will have the wisdom, and 
the humility to learn. His untaught, unsophisticated emphasis, and 
tones, and inflections will tell us what it is. 

The simplicity of which we speak, absolutely forbids all obscurities and 
involutions of style. There is a style which is below no one, and above 
no one ; neither vulgar, nor excessively refined ; and this is the style for 
the pulpit. A species of elevated conversation is the highest point at 
which we should ordinarily aim. Why should we weary ourselves in 
pursuit of niceties of phrase, when the very drapery in which our 
thoughts first clothe themselves, is usually the fittest and the best. To 
enlighten the mind, to save the soul of the very meanest of our hearers, 
is it not an object to be prized infinitely above all the boasted elegancies 
of Greece or Rome ? 

Extreme and laborious ornaments of every kind are to be avoided. 
They may please the ear, and dazzle the imagination ; but they starve 
the mind. The sermons in which they most abound, may attract the 
admiration of the injudicious and unthinking ; but ordinarily, they save 
no soul. And their authors, if they profit of their hearers to their ap- 
plause, would often do well to avail themselves of the advice once given 
by a learned professor to a young and florid writer, who had submitted 
a composition to his criticisms. " Take your pen," said he ; " carefully 
re-peruse your piece ; and wherever you find a passage which seems re- 
markably j\ne,strike it out." 

252 Preparation for hearing the Gospel. . 

In a word, the simplicity which we inculcate, is at war with all philo- 
sophical abstractions and refinements. With such, our holy and heaven- 
descended religion holds no communion. If it embraces certain truths 
which are profound and mysterious, still they are truths which reason 
and science have never yet illustrated, and never will. An honest, pious 
heart, with the aid of humility and prayer, has penetrated further into 
these depths in an hour, than philosophy, with all its proud and empty 
boastings, in a century. As to those religious truths which are most 
practically interesting, most intimately connected with the comfort and 
sanetification of the soul, they are plain. And it is much to be regret- 
ted, that they should be involved in so needless obscurity. To agitate a 
plain subject, till it begin to be encompassed with a mist, is one of the 
least enviable achievements of reason and philosophy. To discuss and 
illustrate points in which all are agreed, till many begin to doubt, or to 
disbelieve ; and discord and collision take the place of peace and love; 
is to inflict one of the greatest possible evils upon the Christian church. 

The subject is fruitful •> and will be resumed in a future number. 


1. Cultivate, day by day, a simplicity of heart and humility, and prop- 
er regard for the precious word of God. 

2. Compose your mind on Saturday evening, or night, for the solemn 
exercises of the holy Sabbath. 

3. On Sabbath morning rise early. Let secret prayer and meditation 
be your first exercise. 

4. Keep in a still and uniform frame all the Sabbath. Read little ex- 
cept the Bible : relish and digest what you read. But, 

5. Take care that this is all done in a sweet and easy way. Make no 
toil or task of the service of God. Do all freely and cheerfully, without 
violent effort. 

G. Keep your heart with all diligence as you go to the house of God ; 
look not hither and thither unnecessarily, lest your mind be distracted and 
your devotion lost. Much less look about in the sanctuary, — for this is a 
mark of disregard. 

7. Ask, either at home or in the sanctuary, for God's blessing upon 
yourself, the preacher, and all the hearers. 

8. When you retire, after service, remember your obligation to God 
for having heard his Word, and your responsibility for its improvement. 
Remember the perishing heathen, and ask that the gospel may speedily 
be preached unto every creature. 

9. During the Sabbath, refrain from remarks of any kind on the 
preaching ; and from censorious remarks refrain always, except when 
and where duty may call for them. 

10. Digest what you hear, and do that which will be the best prepar- 
ation for the next Sabbath, if you should live to see it, — Schat^er, 

Sketch of Preshyterianism in Maine, 253 


By the Rev. Charles Freeman of Limerick, Me.* 

Until 1820, there were still existing in Maine, some meeting houses 
adapted to Presbyterian, or to ancient Congregational principles and 
modes. The pulpit with its appendages occupied a considerable space. 
The house was divided into square pews ; and the pulpit with its 
appurtenances, occupied the depth of two rows of pews against the back 
wall. As you entered the pulpit you came first to the deacons' seat, el- 
evated like the pews, about six inches from the floor of the aisles or 
passages. In the deacons' narrow slip, I sometimes saw in my youth, 
two venerable men, one at each end. Back of the deacons' seat, and 
elevated six or twelve inches higher, was the pew of the Ruling Elders, 
larger than that of the deacons, and about square. But though my rec- 
ollection reaches back about forty years, I never saw but once any per- 
son sit in an elders' pew as an elder ; and he was the only person I ev- 
er heard called elder on account of this office. Back of the elders' pew, 
and a foot or two higher, and against the wall, was the pulpit. Whether 
this arrangement grew out of pure Congregationalism, or out of Pres- 
hyterianism, 1 am not able to say. 1 could judge better of this matter, 
had I been less confined to my native State, and had I been better ac- 
quainted with the more Puritan parts of New England. The Congre- 
gational Platform provides for Ruling Elders in each church, as does 
" The Form of Government of the Presbyterian Church in the United 
States." But Ruling Elders have never been common in Congregation- 
al churches. Prof. Upham, in his Ratio Discipline, says on this subject, 
" Ruling Elders are fully recognized in the Cambridge Platform, and 
the duties, pertaining to them, are particularly pointed out. But it was 
questioned by some even from the beginning, as no other passage of ev- 
ident weight was brought forward, whether the office was Jure Divino, 
that is, appointed and required by the Scriptures. It was early object- 
ed, that the last clause of the passage in Timothy, [1 Tim. v. 17.,] might 

* For many of the facts, and much of the langunge, of this article, we are in- 
debted to Greenleaf's " Sketches of the Ecclesiastical History of the State of 



Sketch of Presbyterianism in Maine. 

be rendered thus ; Especially they laboring in ivord and doctrine ; or in this 
way, Espeically as they labor in word and doctrine ; which gives very essen- 
tially"^ new turn to the passage. At any rate, the office, and the reasons, 
by which it was supported, were not generally satisfactory. That there 
were great doubts in regard to it,. and that it was never at any period 
fully sanctioned and approved by the churches, is fully evident from the 
ecclesiastical history of the country."* 

The Presbyterianism, therefore, that existed in Maine, might have in- 
troduced this construction of the pulpit. It is not trifling to attend to 
the arrangements in meeting houses, and the forms of dress. They are 
material forms of human society, and exhibit to us the minds, the mor- 
als and the manners of mankind. The ancient pulpit was a type of the 
existing social state. " Distinctions of rank among different classes of 
the community, — a part of the old system, — prevailed very much before 
the Revolution, and were preserved in the dress as well as in the forms 
of society."f " In the circle of our little town, [Portland,] the lines 
were drawn witli much strictness. The higher classes were called the 
quality, and were composed of persons not engaged in mechanic em- 

The envied marks of distinction were the cocked hat, the bush wig 
and the red cloak. This will explain the portraits of some eminent di- 
vines of the period under review. These bush wigs that amplified their 
heads, seemed to be put on to make them look grave and venerable, and 
becoming their serious office ; but they were in fact mere tokens of 
fashion and respectability, as much as a rich gold seal, or an ivory head- 
ed cane now. All the people of quality, the genteel and fashionable 
wore them. Meeting houses were constructed to suit, in some degree, 
the existing state of society. Presbyterianism corresponded with this 
state of society ; and Congregationalism conformed to it also in some 
degree, as in the principle of having Ruling Elders. 

The Presbyterianism that existed once in Maine, came in part from 
the North of Ireland and Scotland, and in part from other slates in New 
England. We may first look at that which came from the North of Ire- 
land acid Scotland. Robert Temple says, that he contracted for a pas- 
sage for himself and family to come to this country from Ireland, Sep- 
tember, 1717. On his arrival, he first went to Connecticut, to look out 
a farm ; and on his return, he went to Kennebec, with Col. Winthrop, 
Dr.Noj'es, and Col. Minot. lie liked the country, and concluded to settle 

* Ratio Discipline, or the Constitution of the Congregational Church, 
t History of Portland by William Willis, Esq. 

m i 

I' i 



Sketch of Presbyterianism in Maine. . 255 

there. The same year, lie was concerned in the charter of two large 
ships, and the ,next year, three more, to bring families from Ireland ; in 
consequence of which several hundred people were landed at Kenne- 
bec, some of whom or their descendants, are there to this day ; but 
the greatest part removed to Pennsylvania, and a considerable part to 
Londonderry* for fear of the Indians.f 

" In the autumn of 1718, a vessel arrived in the harbor of Falmouth, 
now Portland, with twenty families of emigrants from Ireland. They 
were descendants of a colony which went from Argyleshire in Scotland, 
and settled in the North of Ireland, about the middle of the 17th centu- 
ry. They were rigid Presbyterians, and fled from Scotland, to avoid 
the persecutions of Charles I. They suffered severely during the win- 
ter here ; their provisions failed, and our inhabitants had neither shelter 
nor food sufficient for so large an accession to the population. In De- 
cember, the inhabitants petitioned the General Court at Boston, for re- 
lief; they stated their grievances as follows : That there are now in the 
town about 300 souls, most of whom are arrived from Ireland, of which 
not one half have provisions enough to live upon over winter, and so 
poor that they are not able to buy any, and none of the first inhabitants 
so well furnished as that they are able to supply them;" and they prayed 
that the Court would consider their desolate circumstances by reason of 
the great company of poor strangers arrived among them, and take 
speedy and effectual care of their supply. On this application, the 
Court ordered, " that 100 bushels of Indian meal be allowed and paid 
for out of the treasury for the poor Irish people mentioned in the peti- 

In the spring, most of these people embarked, sailed for Newburyport, 
and readied Haverhill, April 2nd. They soon established themselves at 
the place to which they gave the name of Londonderry. Several fami- 
lies, however, remained here, [Portland,] and became valuable inhabi- 

Lincoln county received nearly all the Scottish Irish emigrants, who 
settled in Maine. We have seen that about 1718, some of these emi- 
grants 'settled near the mouth of Kennebec river. In 1734, George- 
town, which lay at the mouth of this river, had Presbyterian preaching. 
Part of the people were Presbyterians and part were Congregational- 



* James McKean, the grand-father of the first president of Bowdoin College, 
is of this company, and the agent who selected the land on which they set- 

d . 

t Willis's History of Portland. 

256 Sketch of Presbyterianism in Maine. . 

ists ; but about the year 1765, the church became Congregational. 
This township originally included Bath and Phippsburg. 

Thomaston was early supplied witli Presbyterian preaching. The 
Kev. Robert Rutherford, whose name indicates his Scottish origin, took 
up his abode in the settlement around the fort in Thomaston ; but it 
does not appear that he had a pastors! charge there, or that any church 
was gathered there during his life. He died there in 1756, aged 68 
years, and was buried near the seat of the late Gen. Knox. The settle- 
ment in Thomaston, was made about 1741. 

In 1736, about thirty Irish and Scottish Presbyterian families, who 
had emigrated from the North of Ireland, to different parts of America, 
collected and entered into a contract to settle in Warren, on condition 
of having land given them, a meeting-house built, a road made, and 
three lots appropriated for the ministry and a free school. In 1753, this 
town had an accession of seventy emigrants from Sterling in Scotland, 
who settled in a cluster toward the western part of the township. 

In 1763, the families in Warren, had increased to between 40 and 
50. The Rev. John Urquhart, who had been licensed to preach by 
the Presbytery of Allon in North Britain, came first to this country in 
1774, and was soon employed to preach at Warren. He was considered 
the minister of the town for nearly eight years ; and was at last regular- 
ly removed by the Presbytery, convened at Salem, Ms., in September, 
1783. It is not certainly known whether Mr. Urquhart gathered a 
church at Warren. From some circumstances it is most probable, that 
he did, but no record of the transaction is now to be found, and if such 
an event took place, the church was scattered as soon as he left the town. 
In 1795, a Congregational church was gathered ; and the Rev. Jonathan 
Huse was ordained. 

In Brunswick, the first minister settled was the Rev. Robert Dunlap, 
a native of the Province of Ulster, Ireland, and educated at the Univer- 
sity of Edinburgh, Scotland. He was ordained in Boston, Ms., by a 
Presbytery there, as pastor of the church in Brunswick. Of this 
church Mr. Greenleaf says, " It was originally established on Presbyte- 
rian principles, and so continued during the ministry of Mr. Dunlap. 
Alter the settlement of Mr. Miller, [1762,] it assumed a mixed character 
lor about seven years. The number of church members were then 
about seventy, among whom were seven deacons. In the year 1769, Mr. 
Miller declared himself a Congregationalist. Some few difficultiei 
arose in the church on this account, but they were soon amicably ad- 
justed, and it appears that the church consented to the alteration without 
a formal vote." 


Sketch of Presbyterianism in Maine. 257 

Boothbay. In 1767, a church was organized in Boothbay on Presby- 
terian principles, under the labors of the Rev. John Murray, a native of 
Ireland. He was a popular and successful preacher ; and after a minis- 
try here of 13 years, he removed to Newbury port. In 1797, the Rev. John 
Sawyer was invited to settle in this place. Of this period, Mr. Green- 
leaf says, " The church was Presbyterian, but was in a declining state. 
No revival of religion had marked its history since the ministry of Mr. 
Murray, thirty years before, and the Lord's supper had not been admin- 
istered there for twenty years. It may well be supposed, therefore, that 
the church was in a scattered state. There was no Presbytery in Maine, 
with which they could unite, and it was proposed that they should re- 
linquish Presbyterianism, and become a Congregational church. Ac- 
cordingly in September, 1798, William McCobb and seven others, mem- 
bers of the ancient Presbyterian church, addressed the Lincoln Associa- 
tion, representing their disordered state, and requesting their aid in re- 
organizing them as a Congregational church. Agreeably to this request, 
.he Association assembled at Boothbay, and having examined a num- 
ber of the members of the Presbyterian church, embodied them as a 
Congregational church. This took place, September 20th, 1798, and in 
the following month, the Rev. Mr. Sawyer was installed." 

Bristol. In the latter part of the year 1766, a meeting house was 
built, and the selectmen were empowered to procure a minister, and in 
June following, the town appointed a committee, " to take measures to 
have a church organized in the town on the Westminster Confession and 
Presbyterian rules." During the year, a church was organized by Mr. 
Murray of Boothbay, but no minister was as yet found for the people." 
The Rev. Alexander McLean, a native of Scotland, was recommended 
to them, on their application, by the Rev. Dr. Witherspoon of New 
Jersey, in 1773. In August, 1796, they settled Rev. William Riddel with 
him, as his colleague. "Until this time the church had been Presbyte- 
rian. Rev. Mr. McLean was educated in that way, and had belonged to 
the " Salem Presbytery." For some reasons he had taken his dismis- 
sion from that body about twelve years before, and previous to the ordi- 
nation of Mr. Riddel, the church, with Mr. McLean as moderator, voted 
unanimously to change their form to a Congregational church." 

In 1754, the people of Newcastle chose the Presbyterian form of Gov- 
ernment, and put themselves under the care of the " Boston Presbytery," 
and the Rev. Alexander Boyd was settled as a Presbyterian preacher, 
but some who called themselves Congregationulists objected. " The 
town had hitherto been accustomed to Presbyterian forms, but previous 
to the ordination of Mr. Whiting, [1776,] the inhabitants voted, to adorn 


Sketch of Prcsbyterianism in Maine. 

any form that should be most agreeable to him. He was a Congrega- 
tionalism and at the time of the ordination a small church of that name, 
was gathered." 

Topsham. " In the year 1771, a Presbyterian church was organized 
there by Rev. Mr. Murray, then of Boothbay, and Rev. Joseph Prince. 
Jt consisted of twenty-seven members. The church and town were oc- 
casionally supplied with preaching, but no minister was settled with 
them for eighteen years. At length in September, 1789, Rev. Jonathan 
Ellis was ordained at Topsharn. The old church had dwindled away, 
and at the ordination of Mr. Ellis it was reorganized ou Congregationul 

All the towns mentioned above, in which Presbyterian churches were 
gathered by means of Scottish Irish emigrants, are in the County of 
Lincoln, except Brunswick, in the County of Cumberland. 

Beside the Presbyterian churches, thus formed by emigrants from Ire- 
land and Scotland, there were a few others, which originated from other 
parts of New England. 

The Rev. Nathaniel Whitaker, D. D., a Presbyterian minister, remov- 
ed from Salem, Ms., to Canaan, how Bloomfield, or Skowhegan Falls, on 
the Kennebec, and in September, 1784, the people gave him a formal 
invitation to become their minister, and at the same time, as there was 
no church in the town, the people invited the Salem Presbytery to come 
and organize one. This body being then in session in Gray, for the in- 
stallation of Mr. Perley, immediately adjourned to Canaan, and installed 
Dr. Whitaker, Sept. 10th, 1784. In January following, Dr. Whitaker 
and twenty two other males subscribed the usual covenant engagements. 
Toward the close of *the year 1789, Dr. Whitaker was dismissed, and 
left the town. When the Rev. Jonathan Calef was ordained, June, 1794, 
" the church formerly renounced Presbyterianism, and became Congre- 

The Rev. Samuel Perley, another member of the Salem Presbytery, 
settled in Gray. A Congregational church had been embodied there 
August, 1774. In June, 1775, Rev. Samuel Nash was ordained its pas- 
tor, and after little more than seven years, his ministerial relation was 
dissolved. In 1784, the people after hearing Mr. Perley, gave him a 
call. The church saw fit to adopt the Presbyterian form of government; 
and Mr. Perley was installed its pastor, Sept. 8th, of that year. Mr. Per- 
ley by mutual agreement with the people, ceased to preach in 1791 ; 
and they remained in a broken state to 1803, when a council was called. 
After due examination, the council were of opinion, that the church was 
extinct, and they proceeded to embody one anew on Congregational 


Sketch of Presbyterianism in Maine. • 259 

principles. The two male members who remained, with eight others 
constituted the new church. To these ten the council gave the right 
hand of fellowship, and greeted them as a sister church. The next day 
Rev. Daniel Weston was ordained to the pastoral care of the new 

The first family settled in Turner, in 1775. In 1784, this place, then 
called Sylvester, was visited by Rev. John Strickland, formerly of Oak- 
ham, Ms., and afterwards of Nottingham West, N. II., and a member of 
the Salem Presbytery. Not long after Mr. Strickland came to the place, 
measures were taken to organize a church, which was done in the Pres- 
byterian form, Aug. 16th, 1784 ; and the next month, Sept. 20th, he was 
installed pastor by the Salem Presbytery, consisting of Rev. Nathaniel 
Whitaker, D. D., Rev. Samuel Perley, and Rev. John Urquhart. Mr. 
Strickland was dismissed May 18th, 1797. In 1803, there being serious 
difficulties, and some considering the church to be extinct, " A council, 
as requested, assembled on the 18th of October, 1803, and after attend- 
ing to a representation of the state of things, gave it as their unanimous 
opinion that the church was not extinct. The church then in presence 
of the council, voted to change their form to that of a Congregational 
church, and several members subscribed a confession of faith and cov- 

In Ellsworth, a settlement was made about 17C3. In the autumn of 
1784, Rev. John Urquhart, a Presbyterian clergyman, visited the place, 
and preached there. The Salem Presbytery being about to meet at 
Topsham, Capt. Matthew Patten came on from the people at Ellsworth, 
to present a call to Mr. Urquhart, then in Topsham, and to request the 
Presbytery to install him. He was accordingly installed at Topsham, 
September 5th, as the minister of Ellsworth. Mr. Urquhart now 
proceeded to Ellsworth, and commenced his stated labors ; but diffi- 
culties soon appeared. The character of Mr. Urquhart was suspi- 
cious ; the people became dissatisfied with him, and he was dismissed 
from them in the early part of the year 171)0. Probably no church was 
organized at Ellsworth during Mr. Urquhart's ministry. 

We have thus seen the rise, the progress, the decline, and the extinc- 
tion of Presbyterianism in Maine. 

In 1780, according to Williamson's History of Maine, there were in 
the State, then District of Maine, 31 settled ministers of the gospel : 28 
Congregationalists, two Presbyterians, one or two Baptists, and in Kit- 
tery, n small Society of Friends.* Not many years after no Presbyte- 
rian church in the State remained. 

* The Society in Kittery, here referred to, was in that part of Kittery, now 

260 Sketch oj Preshyterianism in Maine. 

The religious influence of the early Presbyterian emigration from the 
North of Ireland, and from Scotland, may be distinctly traced yet. 
Some of these emigrants were eminently pious. Some of them had 
suffered from Roman Catholic invaders, when James IL. with the aid of 
France, endeavored to regain the kingdom he had lost ; and some of 
them probably had been in the celebrated siege of Londonderry, when 
the protestants held out with such extraordinary patience, until they 
were happily relieved. The " Rev. Matthew Clark, second minister of 
Londonderry, N. II., was a native of Ireland, who had in early life been 
an officer in the army, and distinguished himself in the defence of the 
city of Londonderry, when besieged by the army of James II., A. D., 
1688-9. He afterwards relinquished a military life for the clerical pro- 
fession. He possessed a strong mind, marked by a considerable degree 
of eccentricity. He died January 25th, 1735, and was borne to the 
grave, at his particular request, by his former companions in arms, of 
whom there were a considerable number among the early settlers of 
this town ; several of whom had been made free from taxes throughout 
the British dominions by King William, for their bravery in that mem- 
orable siege."* 

It is not strange, that the descendants of such men felt a strong at- 
tachment to the Presbyterian faith, for which their fathers had hazarded 
their lives. 

The places in Maine, which have been mentioned as the scenes of the 
labors of Presbyterian preachers have now firm and flourishing Congre- 
gational churches. The Presbyterians were zealous for their faith, not 
in opposition to Congregationalism, but in opposition to prelacy, and 
Romanism, and anti-evangelical principles of every kind. Lincoln 
County, where the labors of the early Presbyterian ministers were 
chiefly expended, is the only County in the State now, except Cumber- 
land, which contributes to the Maine Missionary Society, more than it 
receives in aid to its churches. The early efforts of both Congregation- 
al and Presbyterian churches in Maine, were greatly embarrassed. The 
state of religion was low ; the management of religious affairs was in 
worldly corporations — parishes or towns ; the nature of experimental 
religion was by many little understood, and personal piety was not duly 
required in candidates for the ministry. Yet the preaching was ortho- 

called Elliot, and was near Berwick, and is now merged in the Friends' Soci- 
ety in South Berwick. There were however in 17d0, two other Friends' Meet- 
ings in Maine, viz: one in Falmouth, and one in Durham, or one Society, meet- 
ing alternately in the two places. 

* Hayward's New England Gazetteer. 

Sketch of Presbyterianism in Maine. 26 L 

dox ; and religion made some advance. But the forms of society were 
to undergo a great change. Knowledge was becoming more general, 
die condition of the people was growing more equal, and civil liberty 
was making progress. The influence of the general state of society 
reached religion and the house of God. The Elders' pews were cut 
down ; then the deacons' seats were removed ; and then, in country par- 
ishes, the galleries were taken away. The people all wished to be on a 
level. This did not favor Presbyterianism, nor even Congregationalism. 
For when all got on one floor, they wished to be more equal still ; and 
they who thought themselves below the general and respectable level, 
gathered into another house, where they might be equal ; and then as 
the level of this assembly was raised, there came a similar secession 

But some general view may now be given of Presbyterianism in New 
England; for it had, for some time, close connections with Maine. 

" The first Presbytery in New England, was constituted in London- 
derry, April 1 6th, 1745, by Rev. John Moorhead of Boston, Rev. David 
McGregore of Londonderry, and Rev. Robert Abercrombie of Pelham, 
with James McKean, Alexander Conky, and James Heughs, elders. It 
was called the " Boston Presbytery." In three years, they were joined 
by Rev. Jonathan Parsons of Newburyport, and after that by one or two 
others, and so continued for nearly ten years. There were a considera- 
ble number of Presbyterian churches lying on both sides of the Merri- 
mack in Massachusetts and New Hampshire, and a few in Maine." 
These churches along the Merrimack, and in Londonderry and vicinity, 
were probably formed in« consequence of the removal of the Scotch- 
Irish emigrants from Portland, and the Kennebec, to the Merrimack, 
about 1718. 

"The Presbyterian records appear to have been regularly kept until 
the close of the year 1754. A chasm then appears, and nothing is record- 
ed in the original book until October 24th, 1770. The Presbytery at this 
time consisted of twelve congregations under the following ministers ; 
viz. John Moorhead, Boston, Ms., David McGregore, Londonderry, Jon- 
athan Parsons, Newburyport, Ms., Daniel Mitchel, Pembroke, N.H., John 
Huston, Bedford, N. II., Moses Baldwin, Kingston, N. H., Richard Gra- 
ham, Pelham, N. H., Samuel Perley, Seabrook, N. H., Thomas Pierce, 
Scarborough, Me., John Morrison, Peterborough, N. H., Simon Williams, 
Windham, N. II., and John Strickland, Oakham, Ms. The Presbytery 
appears now to have been revived, and measures were taken for divid- 
ing it into three, and forming a Synod. After more than four years, dur- 
ing which time some others were added to the number, at a meeting 



262 Sketch of Presbyterianism in Maine, • 

held at Seabrook, May 31st, 1775, a division was amicably agreed on, as 
follows : that Messrs. Jonathan Parsons of Newbury port, Nathaniel 
Whitaker, D. D., of Salem, Samuel Perley of Seabrook, Alexander Me 
Lean of Bristol, Me., and the Congregation at Boston, then vacant by 
the death of Mr. Moorhead, together with Rev. Benjamin Balch, and the 
vacancies within their bounds, be "the eastern Presbytery," called " the 
Presbytery of Salem." That Messrs David McGregore of Londonderry, 
Daniel Mitchel of Pembroke, Simon Williams of Windham, and John 
Strickland of Oakham, with the Congregation at Peterborough, and the 
other vacancies within their bounds, be " the middle Presbytery," called 
" the Presbytery of Londonderry." That Messrs. John Huston and Mo- 
ses Baldwin with their Congregations at Bedford and Kingston, the va- 
cant congregations of Blandford, Pelham, and Coleraiu, with Aaron 
Hutchinson, Nathan Merrill, George Gilmore, and Joseph Patrick, can- 
didates, be the " Western Presbytery," called " the Presbytery of Palm- 
er." Rev. Mr. Perley was appointed Moderator of the Salem Presbyte- 
ry, Rev. Mr. McGregore of that of Londonderry, and Rev. Mr. Huston 
of that of Palmer. The three Presbyteries, being thus organized, were 
then formed into one body called " the Synod of New England," and 
held their first meeting at Londonderry, September 4th, 1776." 

The Synod continued to hold regular meetings annually, usually at 
Londonderry, for five years. At length in September, 1782, some diffi- 
culties having arisen, and their number being considerably reduced, the 
Synod agreed to dissolve, and form themselves into one Presbytery, by 
the name of the Presbytery of Salem. For two succeeding years, this 
Presbytery held meetings regularly in various parts of Massachusetts 
proper. The principal active members were Dr. Whitaker, Mr. Perley, 
Mr. Strickland, Mr. Merrill, and Mr. Urquhart, who were all at that time 
dismissed ; and, except Mr. Merrill, had all been preaching as candidates 
in the then District of Maine. The last meeting of this Presbytery ever 
held in Massachusetts, was held at Groton, in June, 1784, at the house of 
Capt. Shiple, from which they adjourned to meet at Gray, in Maine. 
Four members attended this meeting, viz., Dr. Whitaker, Mr. Perley, Mr. 
Strickland, and Mr. Urquhart. None of the former members ever at- 
tended again, and although the Presbytery retained its original name, 
nil the subsequent meetings were held in Maine. 

The meeting at Gray, was attended on the 8th of September, 1784. 
On that day, Mr. Perley was installed pastor of the church in Gray. 
Having attended to some other business, the Presbytery adjourned to 
meet in Canaan on the 15th of the same month, when they installed Dr. 
Whitaker. From Canaan, the Presbytery proceeded to Sylvester, now 

Sir Matthew Hale's Resolutions. 263 

Turner, and on the 20th of September, they installed Mr. Strickland, pas- 
tor mere. The farmer members of this body, who lived in Massachu- 
setts and New Hampshire, and some of the vacant congregations, occa- 
sionally withdrew their connections from the Presbytery, and no new 
members were added. In September, 1785, the Presbytery met at Tops- 
ham, and installed Rev. John Urquhart, as minister for the plantation at 
Union River, now Ellsworth. "For six years, the Presbytery held regu- 
lar meetings, viz. twice at Turner, once at Winthrop, and three times at 
Gray. A meeting was appointed to be held at Canaan, but no record 
appears. The meeting at Winthrop, was held in October, 1789. It 
was probably a matter of convenience, as the church in that town, was 
never Presbyterian, and was at that time, destitute of a minister. 

The last meeting of the Salem Presbytery was held at Gray, Septem- 
ber 14th, 1791. Dr. Whitaker, Mr. Perley, and Mr. Strickland attended, 
but no elders from their churches." The ministers of this Ecclesiastical 
body were soon dismissed. Mr. Perley remained in Gray, and did not 
enter the ministry again. Dr. Whitaker and Mr. Urquhart left the State ; 
and Mr. Strickland settled in East Andover, now Andover, in Oxford 
County, as a Congregationalist ; while the churches with winch they 
were connected either dwindled away and sunk into non-existence, or 
assumed the Congregational form under the next minister. And in 
1821, there was not a Presbyterian church in the State. 


Morning. 1. To lift up the heart to God, in thankfulness, for renewing mv 
life. 2. To renew my covenant with God in Christ, by renewed acta of faith 
receiving Christ, and rejoicing in the height of that relation, and by resolution 
of being one of his people, doing him allegiance. 3. Adoration and prayer. 4. 
Setting a watch over my own infirmities and passions, over the snares laid in our 
way. Day Employment. There must bean employment of two kinds. I. 
Our ordinary calling: to serve God in it. It is a service to Christ, though ever 
so mean. Here faithfulness, diligence, cheerfulness. Not to overlay myself 
with more business than I can bear. 2. Our spiritual employments : mingh: 
somewhat of God's immediate service in this day. Refreshments. 1. Meat 
and drink : moderation seasoned with somewhat of God. 2. Recreations: J. 
Not our business. 2. Suitable. No games if given to covetousness or passion. 
If alone. 1. Beware of wandering, vain, and lustful thoughts; Hy from thyself 
rather than entertain these. 2. Let thy solitary thoughts be profitable ; view 
the evidences of thy salvation ; the state of thy soul ; the coming of Christ, 
thy own mortality ; it will make thee humble and watchful. Company. Do 
good to them. Use God's name reverently. Beware of leaving an ill impres- 
sion by ill example. Receive good from them if more knowing. Evening. 
Cast up the accounts of the day. If aught be amiss beg pardon. Gather reso- 
lution of more vigilance. If well, bless the mercy and grace of God that hath 
supported thee. 

264 Sketches of Alumni 


Samuel Bell, LL. D., was born at Londonderry, N. H., on 
the 9th of February, 1770. The most remote of his ancestors of 
whom any account is preserved in the family, was an inhabitant 
of the western coast of Scotland, who with a considerable com- 
pany ofhis friends, (Scotch Presbyterians,) emigrated, in 1612, 
to the opposite shores of Ireland, and settled in the vicinity of 
the city of Londonderry. The little colony were mostly culti- 
vators of the soil. John Bell, the grandfather of Gov. Bell, 
was born in Ireland, in 1678 ; and in 1722, attracted by the 
flattering accounts received from the American colonies, he emi- 
grated with his family, then consisting of one son and four daugh- 
ters, to the Province of New Hampshire, and settled in the 
town of Londonderry. A number of families from the same 
neighborhood in Ireland, had preceded him, and commenced a 
settlement at Londonderry as early as 1719. Mr. Bell brought 
with him property sufficient to purchase three hundred acres of 
land, and to erect such buildings and make such improvements as 
placed the family in comfortable circumstances. He died in 1742. 
John Bell, his son, and the father of Governor Bell, was born at 
Londonderry, in 1730, received such advantages of education as 
the common schools afforded, inherited the homestead farm of 
his father, and pursued the business of a farmer through life. In 
1758, he married Mary Ann Gilmore, daughter of James Gil- 
more, one of the original settlers of Londonderry, by whom he 
had twelve children, nine of whom, both parents survived. In 
the Revolutionary contest, Mr. Bell took an active part in favor 
of freedom, and was a member of the Provincial Legislature from 
the commencement to the close of the Revolution. After the 
peaoe of 1783, he was during several years a member of the 
House of Representatives, and subsequently a member of the 
Senate. He was a man of sound, discriminating and intelligent 
mind, of unaffected piety and the highest integrity. Few men 
in his sphere of life, have received so generally the confidence of 
the society to which he belonged, or retained it so long. He 
died in December, 1825, at the age of 95. His wife died in 
1822, at the age of 86 years. 

of Dartmouth College. - 265 

Samuel Bell, the particular subject of this sketch, until the 
age of eighteen, remained employed upon his father's farm, at- 
tending the common schools during the winter season. Having 
a strong desireHo acquire a collegiate education, his father at 
length yielded to his entreaties, and in April, 1788, he com^ 
menced the study of Latin, with John Ewins, a graduate of Har- 
vard College, who at that time taught school in Londonderry. 
He subsequently attended the academy in New Ipswich, under 
the supervision of the Hon. John Hubbard, afterwards professor 
in Dartmouth College. From October, 1790, to April, 1791, he 
taught school in his native village ; and, in May following, en- 
tered the sophomore class of Dartmouth College. He gradua- 
ted in 1793 ; studied law with the Hon. Samuel Dana, of Am- 
herst, and was admitted to practice at the Hillsborough bar in 
September, 1796. He immediately rose to distinction in his 

His public career, as a legislator, commenced in 1804, when 
he was elected a member of the House of Representatives. He 
was re-elected in the two following years, during both of which 
he filled the office of Speaker of the House. In 1807, he was 
appointed Attorney-General of the State; but the salary attach- 
ed to the office at that period being entirely inadequate, Mr. Bell 
declined accepting the appointment, preferring his professional 
pursuits. In 1807, and the year following, he was elected a 
member of the Senate, during both of which years, he presided 
in that body. In 1809, Mr. Bell was elected one of the five 
members constituting .the Executive Council of the State. In 
all these various offices, he was distinguished for his dignified 
character, sound constitutional views, and zealous devotion to 
the public welfare. 

During the succeeding year, having been seized with a severe 
affection of the lungs, accompanied by the common symptoms 
of consumption, Mr. Bell was advised by his physicians to relin- 
quish his profession, and resort to travelling for the benefit of his 
health.* He adopted that course, and spent portions of several 
succeeding years in distant journeyings, principally on horseback, 
by which he gradually regained his former health. 

On the re-organization of the State Judiciary, in 1816, Mr. 
Bell was appointed associate justice of the Superior Court; 
an office for which he possessed eminent qualifications, and 


266 Sketches of Atumni 

the duties of which he discharged with great ability. He re- 
mained upon the bench until~May, 1819, when he resigned the 
station, having been called to the chief magistracy of the State. 
During four years, from June, 1819, to June, 1823, Governor 
Bell discharged the duties of that office with universal sat- 
isfaction to the people. Indeed, such was the confidence in his 
patriotism and character, that there was scarcely a show of an 
opposing party during his administration, except on his first elec- 
tion, when, out of 24,265 votes, he received 13,751. In 1822, 
the whole number of votes cast was 23,980, of which Gov. Bell 
received 22,934,shovvingthe smallest minority ever thrown against 
any candidate, under the Constitution, except in 1795, when John 
Taylor Gilman received 9,340 out of 9,440, all the votes given. 
In June, 1822, having declined a re-nomination for the office of 
governor, Mr. Bell was elected to the Senate of the United 
States ; an office to which he was again chosen in 1828. With 
the expiration of this latter term of office, in 1835, Governor 
Bell retired from public life, to a farm in Chester, which he had 
purchased in 1813, and continued to improve, when not engaged 
in the public service. Here he passes the evening of life, in the 
bosom of his family, between his books and the cultivation of his 

Governor Bell has been twice married. His first wife was Me- 
hitable Bowen Dana, daughter of Judge Dana, to whom he was 
married in November, 1797. She died in August, 1810, leav- 
ing six children, four sons and two daughters. His eldest son, 
Samuel Dana, was'born 9th of Oct, 1798 ; graduated at Harvard 
College in 1816 ; studied law with the late Attorney-General 
Sullivan at Exeter ; was admitted to the bar in 1820 ; settled 
in Chester, where he became a member of the Legislature ; was 
during five years solicitor of Rockingham County; was one of 
the commissioners to revise the Statutes of this State in 1841 
and 1842; and is now in the practice of his profession, at 
Manchester. In 1826, he married Mary H. Healy, the only 
daughter of the late Hon. Newell Healy of Kensington. John, 
born 5th of November, 1800, was graduated at Union College, 
Schenectady, N. Y. in 1818; studied medicine with Dr. George 
C. Shattuck of Boston, and subsequently one year with the cele- 
brated Laennec, at Paris. He attended the medical Lectures at 
Harvard and Bowdoin Colleges, and took the degree of M. D. at 

of Dartmouth College. 267 

the latter in 1823, and commenced the practice of medicine in the 
city of New York, in 1823, with flattering prospects of success. 
He remained two years in the city, during which he became one 
of the editors o*f the Medical and Physical Journal. He was 
appointed Professor of Anatomy and Physiology in the Univer- 
sity of Vermont ; but being about this time afflicted with a se- 
vere haemorrhage of the lungs, he removed to Natchez, Mississip- 
pi, in 1825, and subsequently to Louisiana, where he died un- 
married, 27th November, 1830, at the age of 30. Mary Ann 
was born 26th of Oct. 1802 ; was married to John Nesmith, 
Esq., now of Lowell, in 1825, and died in 1830. The youngest 
daughter of Gov. B. died in infancy. James, born 13th of No- 
vember, 1804, graduated at Bowdoin College in 1822 ; studied 
law at the Law School of Judge Gould of Litchfield, Ct., after- 
wards with his brother, Samuel D., at Chester, was admitted to 
the bar in 1825, and is now in the practice of his profession at 
Exeter. He married Judith, daughter of the late Hon. Nathan- 
iel Uphamof Rochester. Luther V., born 20th of December, 
1806; was graduated at Bowdoin College in 1823; studied 
medicine with his brother John ; attended medical Lectures at 
Dartmouth College, where he received his degree of Doctor of 
Medicine in 1825 ; settled at Deny, where he continued in prac- 
tice until January, 1837, when, having been appointed Physi- 
cian and Superintendent of theM'Lean Asylum for the insane, at 
Charlestown, Ms., he entered upon the discharge of his duties, 
where he still remains. His wife Frances C. is the daughter of 
James Pinkerton, Esq/, of Londonderry. 

In July, 1828, Governor Bell married his present wife, Lucy 
Smith, daughter of the late Jonathan Smith, Esq., of Amherst, 
and a niece of his former wife, by whom he has four sons, — 
George, born June 1829, John, born July, 1831, Charles, born 
August, 1833, and Louis, born March, 1837. The three eldest 
are now members of Gilmanton Academy. 

Governor Bell was elected a Trustee of Dartmouth College 
in 1808, and was honored with the degree of Doctor of Laws 
from the Trustees of Bowdoin College in 1821. He is also 
an Honorary Member of the Northern Academy of Arts and 
Sciences. — See American Quarterly Register Vol. XIV. p. 

268 Sketches of Alumni 

John Vose, M. A., was the son of Samuel Vose of Bedford, 
and was born July 10th, 1766. His grand father, whose name 
was Robert, lived in Milton, Ms., where also his father lived, 
whose name was Henry. The father of Henry was Thomas of 
Milton, whose father's name was Robert. This Robert with his 
wife Jane,* from whom have descended all who bear the name 
of Vose in this country, came from Lancashire, England, about 
the year 1633, with a company who settled in Dorchester, Ms. 
In 1640, he purchased a farm in that part of Dorchester, which 
is now Milton. This is according to the account given in the 
year 1816, by Lieut. Governor Robbins of Milton. The late 
Rev. Dr. Harris of Dorchester, says, that " the Voses came 
originally from Germany, the name being then spelt Voose, af- 
terwards Voseius, from which comes the present name Vose." 

Mr. Vose, the subject of this notice, fitted for College at At- 
kinson Academy, and graduated at Dartmouth College in the 
year 1795, one of the best scholars in his class, though it con- 
tained such men as Heman Allen, Abijah Bigelow, Luther Jew- 
ett, John Noyes, members of Congress, Judah Dana, senator in 
Congress, Judge Nicholas Emery, and the Rev. Drs. Samuel 
Worcester and Thomas Snell. His commencement exercise was 
a " Philosophic Oration on Thunder Storms." He excelled in 
Mathematics and Philosophy. After graduating, he immediate- 
ly became Preceptor of the Academy at Atkinson. He had 
charge for 21 years of that Institution, which is one of the old- 
est, and has been one of the most respectable in the State. In 
1820, he remo'ved to Pembroke, and became the Principal of 
the Academy in that place, and continued in the employment of 
teaching eleven years. He returned to Atkinson in 1831, where 
he remained until his decease, which occurred after gradual de- 
cline, April 3rd, 1840, in the 74th year of his age. It is believ- 
ed that this veteran teacher instructed longer in an Academy, 
than any other man in this State, except Dr. Abbot of Exeter. 

* Robert Vose and Jane his wife were the parents of Henry, Edward, Thom- 
as, Elizabeth and Martha. The children of Thomas were llmry, Thomas, 
Elizabeth and Jane. The children of Henry second, were Robert, Joshua, 
Thomas, Wait-Still, Mary, Elizabeth, Martha, Abigail, Hepzibah and Heulali. 
The children of Robert second, were Othniel, Robert, William, Samuel, Wil- 
liam, James, Thomas, Joshua, Benjamin, Wait-Still, Elizabeth and Abigail. 
And the children of Samuel were Thomas, Samuel, Robert, Francis, John, 
Roger, Phebe and Mercy. 

of Dartmouth College. 


Mr. Vose was appointed justice of the peace in 1801, and 
justice 'of the peace and of the quorum in 1815, and continued 
in office till his death. He was Senator in the General Court 
from the third senatorial district in 1816, and Representative 
from the town of Pembroke in the Legislature in 1828. He 
was also for many years a Deacon of the church in Atkinson, and 
at his decease, President of the Board of Trustees of the Acad- 
emy in that place. He was President of Merrimack County 
Temperance Society from its formation, until he left the county, 
in 1831 ; for many years, a Vice President of the " American 
Sunday School Union :" and at the time of his death, Superin- 
tendent of the Sabbath School in Atkinson. All these trusts, he 
fulfilled with great propriety, faithfulness and acceptance. 

Mr. Vose published in 1805, an oration, delivered before the 
Phi Beta Kappa Society, established at Dartmouth College, an 
oration on the 4th of July, 1809, an address before the Rocking- 
ham Agricultural Society at Londonderry, (now Deny,) in 1813. 
He published in 1827, " A System of Astronomy," containing 
252 pages of octavo size, and also in 1832, " A Compendium 
of Astronomy, for Common Schools," of duodecimo form. 
These are not mere compilations, as many in the present day are, 
but original and valuable works. He also, for a few months, ed- 
ited a news-paper, published in Concord. 

Mr. Vose married in the year 1800, Lydia Webster, daughter 
of Capt. Stephen Webster of Haverhill, Ms., who commanded 
a company in the RevoluVionary war, and sister to the late Hon. 
Stephen Peabody Webster of Haverhill, N. H. They had eight 
children, all of them daughters. Two died in early life. The 
eldest, named Elizabeth, married Francis Vose, Esq., a grad- 
uate of Dartmouth College, for many years an Instructor, 
and now resident in Pembroke ; Maria married Mr. Ezekiel Lit- 
tle of Atkinson; Sarah married Mr. Nathaniel Grover, a graduate 
of Dartmouth College, a teacher of youth, now resident at 
Rochester, N. Y.; Martha married Rev. Norman Hazen, settled 
in the ministry in Vermont. The other two, Abigail and Priscil- 
la, reside with their mother, who still survives. 

As a man and a Christian, Mr. Vose was consistent. He was 
devout, modest, and exemplary, kind and affectionate as a hus- 
band and a father. To his pupils he used to say, u Never let down 

270 Sketches of Alumni 

your dignity." In family government, his motto was, "Sweet in 
the manuer, but determined in the thing." 

At his funeral, a very appropriate discourse was delivered by 
the Rev. John Kelly of Hampstead, from Acts viii : 2. And de- 
vout men carried Stephen to his burial, and made great lamen- 
tation over him. 

Mills Olcott, M. A., was born in Norwich, in the State of 
Vermont, on the 21st day of May, A. D. 1774. His father was 
the Hon. Peter Olcott, who removed from Bolton, in the State of 
Connecticut, to Vermont in 1773, was a Brigadier General of the 
Militia in that State, for many years a member of the Council, 
and Lieutenant Governor. He was also a member of the Board 
of Trustees of Dartmouth College. His mother was Sarah Mills 
of Wintonbury, Ct., whose father was a lawyer. 

Mr. Olcott prepared for College at an Academy in Norwich, 
Vt., under the instruction of Mr. Ashur Hatch, and entered 
Dartmouth College in 1786. He graduated therein 1790, being 
only sixteen years of age. At seventeen, he was appointed 
Deputy Marshal by the Hon. Lewis R. Morris, then Marshal of 
the State of Vermont, and took the first census in 1791, from 
Fairlee to Canada line, on Connecticut river, and west as far as 
Montpelier, and on the west line of the then county of Orange 
to Canada. He continued in various employments for his father 
till the year 1794, when he entered the office of the Hon. Ste- 
phen Jacob of Windsor, Vt., and completed his studies in the 
law with the Hon. Benjamin West of Charlestown, N. H. He 
was admitted to the bar in 1798, and opened an office in Hano- 
ver, N. H. in May, 1800. 

Mr. Olcott held the office of justice of the peace, of the quo- 
rum and of the quorum throughout the State. He was appoint- 
ed Secretary and Treasurer of Dartmouth College in 1816, and 
in 1821, a Trustee, which office he held till his death. He re- 
peatedly represented the town in the Legislature, and in the 
year 1809, was appointed Aid-de-Camp, with the rank of Col- 
onel to his Excellency Jeremiah Smith, then Governor of the 
State. He was also a member of the Hartford Convention, so 
called, in connection with the Hon. Benjamin West of Charles- 
town, as delegates from this State. For more than twenty years, 
he was a Director of the Grafton Bank, and was also its Presi- 
dent. Being of a commanding appearance, and understanding 

of Dartmouth College. 


the proprieties of large public meetings, he was often called to 
preside on such occasions, as the 4th of July, President Monroe's 
visit to Dartmouth College, and a public Dinner given at Hano- 
ver to Governor Clinton on his reconnoisance of Connecticut riv- 
er for a water communication with the sea-board. 

In November, 1800, Mr. Olcott married Sarah Porter, daugh- 
ter of Col. Asa Porter of Haverhill, N. H., sister of Mrs. Judge 
Farrand of Vermont, and Mrs. Thomas W. Thompson of Con- 
cord, N. H. They had nine children, eight of them are 
now living, viz., Catharine, married to Hon. Joseph Bell of Bos- 
ton ; Helen, married to Hon. Rufus Choate of Boston also ; 
Charles Henry, a physician now at Hanover; Jane, married to 
the late William T. Heydock, Esq., of Lowell, Ms.; Edward 
Rufus, a practitioner of law, and married to Charlotte A. Burns 
of Gilmanton, and now living in New Orleans; William, educa- 
ted to the law, married to Harriet A. Hinsdale, now living in 
Rochester, N. Y.; Sarah, married to William H. Duncan, Esq., 
of Hanover, and Mary, married to Charles E. Thompson, Esq., 
of Haverhill. The sons and sons-in-law, have all received de- 
grees at Dartmouth College. 

Having experienced religion as he hoped, Mr. Olcott united 
with the church in 1820. He was President of the Grafton 
County Bible Society, a Corporate Member of the American 
Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, and an Honora- 
ry member of the Northern Academy of Arts of Sciences. 

July 11th, 1845, after a long and distressing illness, Mr. Ol- 
cott departed this life, aged 71. He was a man of modesty, 
judgment, integrity, benevolence, urbanity, and great moral worth. 


For the following account of medical Gentlemen, we are indebted to 
James B. Abbott, M. D. 

Dr. Hugh March, son of Joshua March, was born at New- 
bury, Ms. He commenced the practice of medicine at Sanborn- 
ton, in 1777, being the first physician that settled in the town. 
He continued to practice there with success, highly esteemed and 

272 Biographical Noticet of 

.beloved by all who knew him, until 1781, when he was obliged 
to quit the^practice on account of ill health, and returned to 
Newbury ; and died, probably, in 1782. He was well educated 
and skilful in practice. He never married. 

Dr. Benaiah Sanborn was born at North Hampton, June 5th, 
1757, and was son of Daniel Sanborn, Esq., and a descendant 
of the sixth generation from John Sanborn, who emigrated from 
Derbyshire, England, and settled at Hampton, in 1636. Esquire 
Sanborn moved with his family to Sanbornton, in February, 
1766, and was among the early settlers of the town. Benaiah 
gave his attention to medicine, and read with Dr. Moore of Bol- 
ton, Ms., commenced practice at Sanbornton in 1779, and con- 
tinued in the active duties of his profession for upwards of half 
a century. 

He married Huldah Smith of North Hampton, by whom he 
had 12 children, only four of whom survive. Col. Daniel San- 
born, the only surviving son, still inhabits the paternal mansion at 
Sanbornton Square, whose children are protected by the same 
roof, which sheltered their great-grand-father, Daniel Sanborn, 

In 1833, Dr. Sanborn visited his last patient ; and in August, 
1841, he departed this life. His widow still survives at the ad- 
vanced age of 84, hale and active, and in possession of her men- 
tal faculties in an uncommon degree. 

Dr. ChicJcering came to Sanbornton, about the year 

1782, and practised in town one or two years. He then remov- 
ed to Berwick, Me. He is said to have been a man of good 

Dr. Daniel Jacobs. [See Notices of Physicians in Gilman- 
ton,No. 1, p. 67.] 

Dr. Samuel Gerrish, son of Dea. Enoch Gerrish, was bom at 
Boscawen, July, 1773. He was of a slender constitution, and 
therefore designated by his parents for a learned profession. He 
pursued his studies preparatory to entering College under the 
superintendence of Rev. Samuel Wood, D. D., of Boscawen. 
entered Dartmouth College, and graduated in 1793, at the age of 
twenty years. He commenced the study of medicine with Dr. 
Lerned of Hopkinton, with whom he continued two years. He 
then went to Salem, Ms., and became a student of the celebra- 
ted Dr. Holyoke, and attended Medical Lectures at Cambridge. 

Physicians in Sanbornton. 273 

He commenced the practice of his* profession in Sanbornton in 
1797 of '98, and continued in the business, until prevented by the 
sickness, which terminated in his death. He died at Sanbornton, in 
October, 1809, aged 36, of a pulmonary disorder. In his death, 
not only his friends, but the community at large, and the cause 
of humanity and of Science experienced a loss. He was not a 
professor of religion, but a firm supporter of religious order and 
institutions, and a constant attendant upon religious worship, 
when not prevented by professional business. He was mild and 
obliging, honest and upright in all his dealings, and universally 
beloved. He never entered into the marriage state. 

Dr. Colby came to Sanbornton, probably about 1800, 

and coritinued in town a year or two. From Sanbornton, he 
went to Salisbury, and established a hospital for the treatment of 
the small pox, in the northwest part of Boscawen. His history 
after this, and prior to his coming to Sanbornton, is not known. 

Dr. Alexander T. Clark was born in Londonderry, in 1769, 
and was son of John Clark, who emigrated from Londonderry in 
Ireland. He studied medicine with Dr. Ebenezer Lerned of 
Hopkinton, and commenced practice in Adolphuston, Upper 
Canada. He continued there two or three years, and removed 
to Sanbornton, in 1801. He remained there a year, and remov- 
ed to Northfield, where he pursued the business of his profession 
until his death, which occurred in 1821. 

He married Sarah Stinson of Dunbarton,by whom he had six 
children, only two of whom are living, Archibald S. and Nancy. 
He was elected a Fellow of the N. H. Medical Society in 1816. 

Dr. Ephrahn Crockett, son of John Crockett, and brother of 
Rev. John Crockett of Sanbornton, was born at Stratham, May 
16th, 1774. He received his academical education at Gilman- 
ton Academy, and commenced the study of medicine with Dr. 
Benjamin Kelly of Gilmanton, about the year 1800. He com- 
pleted his. studies with Dr. Samuel Morril, then of Epsom, but 
now of Concord, and commenced the practice of medicine at 
Sanbornton in 1802 or '3. In May, 1806, he married Betsey 
Dexter of Maiden, Ms., by whom he had six children, three sons 
and three daughters. After practising medicine six or seven 
years, he exchanged the profession for that of the ministry. In 
1816, he removed to Grafton, and was ordnined over the Baptist 
church in that place. He afterwards removed to Danbury, 


274 Biographical Notices of 

where he died, June 10th, 1842. He was a member of the 1 
Legislature two years. 

Dr. Thomas Webster was born at Haverhill, Ms., August, 
1767. Read medicine with Dr. Brickett of Haverhill, Ms., and 
commenced practice in that place about 1790. In 1793, he re- 
moved to Warner, and continued there until 1810, when he re- 
moved to Sanbornton, and was engaged in his profession in this 
place until his death, which took place May 8th, 1813. He is 
said to have, been a man of strong mind, retentive memory, and 
a very skillful practitioner. He was remarkably successful in the 
treatment of the spotted fever, which prevailed in this region, 
at the time he resided in Sanbornton, having never lost a patient 
with that disorder. But although successful with others, he was 
unable to avert the stroke of death from himself. He was seized 
with the spotted fever while visiting a patient with that disease, 
and died in 40 hours from the first attack. He was the father of 
eight children. 

Dr. Joseph M. Harper, a native of Limerick, Me., and son 
of Samuel Harper, studied medicine with Dr. Kittredge of Can- 
terbury, and commenced practice in Sanbornton in 1810. He 
resided in the town but a short time, and removed to Canterbu- 
ry, where he now resides. A further account may be expected 
of him, when Notices of the Physicians of Canterbury shall be 

Dr. Peter Bar-tlett, a practitioner in Salisbury, came to San- 
bornton, but after a short stay returned to Salisbury. The year 
he was at Sanbornton, is not remembered. He afterwards re- 
moved to the West. 

Dr. Symmes Sawyer established himself in Sanbornton, 
March, 1813, remained there two or three years, and removed 
to Peeling, now Woodstock. * 

Dr. John Carr, a native of Weare, was born October 22nd, 
1?S5, and is the son of Jacob Carr of Weare, and a descend- 
ant of the fourth generation from John Carr, who emigrated from 
England and settled in Salisbury, Ms. He commenced the 
study of medicine March 10th, 1808, with Hon. David L. Mor- 
ril of Gotistown, completed his studies with Dr. Samuel Morril 
of Epsom, and commenced practice at Weare, in December, 
1811. In May, 1813, he removed from Weare to Sanbornton, 
where he still continues engaged in the business of his profession. 

Physicians in Sanbornton. 


In 1815, he married Priscilla R. Babb of Epsom, by whom he 
had six children, four sons and two daughters. In 1817, he was 
elected a Fellow of the N. H. Medical Society. In September. 
1841, his wife died. His present wife was Mary A. M'Coy of 
GofTstown, by whom he has one daughter. 

Dr. Sweatt removed from Boscawen to Sanbornton, 

August, 1813. He continued in the place until the next year, 
when he went to Newbury. He was afterwards a Surgeon's 
mate on board a Man-of-War. His remaining history is not 
known to the writer. 

Dr. Thomas P. Hill, son of Charles Hill, Esq., was born at 
Conway, N. H., in 1781. He commenced the study of medi- 
cine with Dr. William Chadbourne of Conway, and completed 
his studies with Dr. Perkins of Hanover, and received his med- 
ical degree at Dartmouth College in 1816. The same year he 
commenced the practice of medicine at Sanbornton, where he 
continued in the business about 28 years. In March, 1818, he 
was married to Sophia, daughter of Col. McMillan of Conway. 
In 1820, he was elected a member of the N. H. Medical Socie- 
ty. In October, 1834, his only child, a son 15 years of age, 
died, and in September, 1841, he was called to part with his 
wife by death. In September, 1842, he was married to Mrs. 
Phebe Marsh, daughter of Dr. Ammi R. Mitchell of North 
Yarmouth, Me. He removed from Sanbornton to Hanover, Jan- 
uary, 1844, where he now resides. 

Dr. Marie Harris of Methuen, engaged in the study of med- 
icine with his brother of the same town. He commenced the 
practice of medicine at Meredith in 1806. He removed to San- 
bornton in 1817 or '18, and established himself in the Northeast 
part of the town, near Meredith, and remained in town 12 or 15 
years. He then changed his residence to Sandwich, where he 
now resides. 

Dr. Obadiah E. Durgin, a native of Sanbornton, and son of 
Elijah Durgin, was born, September, 1794. He pursued his pre- 
paratory studies at Gilmanton Academy, and studied medicine 
with Dr. Thomas P. Hill of Sanbornton, and at Albany, N. Y. 
He commenced practice at Sanbornton Bridge, in 1820. In 
1825, he removed to Portland, Me., where he still practises. In 
1835, he was married to Eliza Converse of Durham, Me. 

Dr. Daniel Mowe, son of Robert Mowe, was born at Pern- 

276 Biographical Notices of 

broke, in 1790. In 1815, he commenced the study of medicine 
with Dr« Silas Merrill of Andover, with whom he studied two 
years. He next read two years with Dr. Job Wilson of Salis- 
bury, attended medical Lectures at Dartmouth College, and in 
1819, received the degree of M. D. at that Institution. He 
commenced practice in New Durham, and removed to Sanborn- 
ton Bridge, in 1825, at which place he continued until 1831, 
when he removed to Lowell, Ms., where he now resides. In 
1825, Dr. Mowe was elected a Fellow of the N. H. Medical 
Society. In 1826, he was married to Elizabeth H. Whitmore, 
daughter of Anthony Whitmore, Esq., of Salisbury, by whom 
he has one child. 

Dr. Calvin McQueston succeeded Dr. Mowe at Sanbornton 
Bridge, where he practised a short time. 

Dr. Nathaniel G. Ladd, son of Capt. James Ladd, and 
grand-son of Nathaniel Ladd of Epping, was born in Chelsea, 
Vt., July 13th, 1798, and is the fourth of eleven children. He 
commenced his medical studies with Dr. John Ladd of Lee. 
He afterwards read with Dr. Thomas Sargent at Chester. He 
attended medical Lectures at Dartmouth College, and graduated 
at that Institution in 1825. He commenced the practice of 
■medicine at Morgan, Vt., where he remained nine years. In 
December, 1825, he married Abigail K. Mead of Derby, Vt., by 
whom he has had ten children, eight of whom are now living. 
In March, 1832^ he removed to Meredith Village, where he re- 
mained until March, 1835, when he went to Sanbornton Bridge, 
where he is still actively engaged in his profession. 

Dr. James B. Abbott, a native of Concord, was born June 
24th, 1799, and is a son of Dea. Elias Abbott, and a descend- 
ant of the 7th generation from George Abbott, who emigrated 
from England, and settled at Andover, Ms. He studied medi- 
cine with Dr. Enos Hoyt of Northfield ; attended medical Lec- 
tures at Dartmouth College in 1824 and 1825, and received the 
degree of M. D. at that Institution in 1826. In July, 1826, he 
entered into partnership in the practice of medicine with Dr. 
Harper of Canterbury, and continued this connexion one year. 
In August, 1827, he established himself at Loudon Mills, where 
he remained upwards of ten years. November 15th, of the 
same year, he was married to Nancy B. Rogers of Northfield, 
with whom he lived until September 11th, 1837, when she was 

Physicians in Sanbornton. 277 

removed by death. He was elected a Fellow of the N. H. Med- 
ical Society in 1832, and has held the offices of Secretary, Cen- 
sor, and Corresponding Secretary of the Society. In April, 
1838, he removed to Boscawen, and in October of the same 
year, was married to Elizabeth A. Rogers, by whom he has had 
two children, the eldest of whom died in infancy. Nov., 1842, 
he was called to mourn the loss of his second wife by death. 
He married Sarah Gerrish, daughter of Capt. Joseph Gerrish of 
Canterbury, in 1843, and December 19th, of that year, he re- 
moved to Sanbornton, where he still resides. 

Dr. Charles C. Tibbetts, son of Capt. Bradbury Tibbetts, 
was born at Northfield, January 13th, 1814. He commenced 
the study of medicine in 1840, at the Tremont Medical School 
in Boston ; and completed his studies with Dr. Enos Hoyt of 
, Northfield. He received the degree of M. D. at Dartmouth 
College, in 1844, and commenced the practice of medicine at 
Campton, where he remained a few months, and in October, 
1845, established himself at Sanbornton Bridge, where he is en- 
gaged in the business of his profession. He married Harriet K., 
daughter of Geo. L. Sibley, Esq., of Meredith, Feb. 14th, 1837, 
by whom he has one child. 

Dr. Ephraim F. Wilson, son of Dr. Job Wilson of Franklin, 
was born at Salisbury, October 30th 1817. He commenced 
reading medicine in 1839, and pursued his studies with his father 
and brother, Dr. Thomas W. Wilson of Salisbury. Fie gradua- 
ted at the Medical Institution at Castleton, Vt., in November, 
1845, and in January, 1846, commenced practice at Union 
Bridge, East Sanbornton. 


[For the facta in this Article, we are indebted to Oliver P. Newell, M. D.\ 

Dr. Nathaniel Breed was the son of Mr. John Breed, and 
was born at Lynn, Ms., July 25th, 1727. He was one of the 
first settlers, and the first physician in Nelson. He was a regu- 
larly educated physician for those days. He practised for a num- 


278 Biographical Notices of 

ber of years at Eastham, Ms., where he was married, January 
10th, 17^0, to Ann Knowles, daughter of Dea. Thomas 
Knowles, by whom he had a number of children, who settled in 
Nelson. Dr. Breed also practised a number of years in Sudbu- 
ry, Ms. He came to Nelson, about 1769, several years before 
the town was incorporated, and while it was yet called Monad- 
nock, No. 6. The town records say, that he was the oldest set- 
tler in Packersfield ; that Abigail, a daughter of his, " was born 
in Packersfield, June 16th, 1769, and was the first person bap- 
tised in said town ;" also that Deliverance, another daughter of 
his, "was married to Lieut. Abijah Brown, October 28th, 1772, 
being the first person married in said town." 

Dr. Breed was Surgeon's Mate in the Revolutionary war. 
He was much employed in town business, as Selectman, Town 
Clerk, Representative, both before and after the town was incor-, 
porated in Feb. 1774. He was a pious man, and useful mem- 
ber of Society. He died, Nov. 5th, 1810, aged 82. 

Dr. Samuel Skinner was born in Marshfielcl, Ms. He was at 
first, a cooper, but afterwards worked several years at the trade 
of a blacksmith. He then commenced the practice of medicine 
empirically. He removed to this town in the last part of the 
year 1778, being then about 40 years of age. After a number 
of years, by his ingenuity, tact, and perseverance in acquiring 
medical knowledge, he obtained the principal portion of the bus- 
iness in town. He died, January 16th, 1825, aged 86 years. 

Dr. Silas Marshall was born and brought up in Mollis. He 
studied medicine a short time with an uncle of his in Hollis, and 
came to this town, in 1795 or '96, and gradually obtained consid- 
erable business as a physician. While he resided here, the bus- 
iness was divided between him and Dr. Skinner. He removed 
from this place to Templeton, Ms., in J 812. 

Dr. Simon Goodell, the next physician, who came into Nel- 
son, was born at Westminster, Vt. He attended two courses of 
Lectures at the Medical Institution of Dartmouth College, and 
commenced his first business as a physician in this place, at 
about the age of twenty-five years. He came here by invita- 
tion of some of the principal inhabitants in the fall or winter of 
18 L2. Being a pious, active young man of good theoretical 
knowledge of medicine, respectable talents, and pleasing address, 
he soon obtained the principal part of the business in town, and 


Physicians in Nelson. 279 

considerable business in neighboring towns. He was married to 
Lydia Melville, daughter of Josiah Melville, Esq., of this town. 
In the spring of 1821, he left the practice of medicine, and 
soon after lost his wife by death, and moved to Western New 

Dr. Calvin Hubbard was born in Springfield, Vt.,May, 1795. 
He studied medicine two years, 1817 and '18, with Dr. Cobb of 
that place, during which time he attended two courses of medi- 
cal Lectures at the Medical School of Dartmouth College. He 
then studied and rode two years with Dr. Amos Twitchell of 
Keene. and received the benefit of observing his extensive prac- 
tice in medicine and surgery. By the invitation of Dr. Goodell, 
he came to this place, April 3rd, 1821. He continued here un- 
til the spring of 1837, when he removed to Springfield, his na- 
tive place, where he now resides, engaged in the business of ag- 

Dr. Nehemiah Rand purchased his situation as a practitioner 
for $200. He was born Feb. 18th, 1802, in Lyndeborough. 
In about a year after, his parents removed to Francestown, where 
they now reside. Dr. Rand studied medicine three years with 
Dr. Herrick of Lyndeborough, and one year with Dr. Daniel 
Adams of Mont Vernon, now of Keene. He attended three 
courses of Lectures at the Medical School, Hanover, and com- 
menced practice in Hancock, September, 1828. He resided 
there between eight and nine years, and then came to this town, 
January 1st, 1837.* Like his predecessors, Drs. Hubbard and 
Goodell, he has had a successful and profitable practice, and still 
resides in Nelson. 

A Dr. Mitchell resided here a short time, when Dr. Goodell 
was the practicing physician, but little is known concerning him. 

Dr. Oliver P. Newell, the son of the Rev. Gad and Mrs. So- 
phia Newell, was born December 7th, 1796, in Nelson ; studied 
medicine with Dr. Simon Goodell, a year and a half, then went 
to New Haven, Ct., and studied with Dr. Eli Ives, Professor in 
the Medical School of Yale College, about a year and a half. 
During this time, he attended two courses of Lectures at Yale 
College, and at the Commencement in September, 1822, receiv- 
ed the degree of M. D. Subsequently to this, he rode with Dr. 
Calvin Hubbard of Nelson, Dr. Amos Twitchell of Keene, and 
Dr. Stephen Batcheller of Royalston, Ms. He commenced 

280 Biographical Notices of Physicians in Nelson. 

business as a physician first at Hinsdale, in November, 1824, re- 
'mained thqre but a short time, and then removed to Union, 
Broome County, N. Y., where he commenced business about 
Jan. 1st, 1825, and continued in the practice of medicine about 
five years. In the fall of 1830, he removed back to Hinsdale, 
where he remained till October, 1836. when he returned to his 
native place, where he has resided since, being engaged princi- 
pally in agricultural pursuits, though occasionally he practices 

The following is a brief account of the genealogy of Dr. 

Mr, Thomas Newell, the first of the name, who came to this 
country from England, settled at Farmmgton, Ct. He died in 
Farmington, in 1689. Samuel Newell, son of Thomas, was 
born, 1660. Samuel Newell, Jr., was the son of the preceding, 
and moved to Southington, Ct. Isaac Newell, son of Samuel 
Newell, Jr., was born in Southington, 1712, and died in 1793, 
aged 81. The Rev. Gad Newell, son of the preceding, and lather 
of Dr. Newell, was born Sept. 10th, 1763. lie was settled in the 
ministry at Nelson, June Uth, 1774, where he still resides in ad- 
vanced life, but in the enjoyment of comfortable health. Dr. New- 
ell is of the sixth generation from Thomas Newell, who came from 
England. His maternal ancestor, Capt. Roger Clapp, the first 
of the Clapp family, who came to this country, was born in Eng- 
land, 1609, came to this country in 1630, and settled at Dor- 
chester, Ms. He'died 1690. He had six children, who lived 
to old age, whose names were Samuel, Elizabeth, Preserved, 
Hopestill, Wait and Desire. Mr. Preserved Clapp was born 
Nov. 23rd, 1643. He moved to Northampton, where he died 
Sept. 20th, 1720, aged 77. Capt. Roger Clapp, son of Pre- 
served Clapp, was born 1686, and died at Northampton, 1762. 
Maj. Jonathan Clapp, son of the preceding, was born 1704, liv- 
ed and died at Easthampton, 1781. Mr. Benjamin Clapp, third 
son of Maj. Jonathan Clapp, was bom at Easthampton, Dec. 
16th, 1738, and died Nov. 8th, 1815. Sophia Clapp, born, 
1771, and second daughter of Mr. Benjamin Clapp, was Dr. 
Newell's mother. He is then of the seventh generation from 
Capt. Roger Clapp, who settled at Dorchester, and he is de- 
scended from an unbroken line of pious ancestors, both by father 
and mother, from the first who came into this country. No peo- 

Thoughts on Mental and Moral Science. 


pie on earth can trace themselves back to a more pious ancestry, 
than the people of New England. This is an honor and priv- 
ilege far too little esteemed. 


The Soul, — Its Nature 

There are three Theories respecting the Nature of the Soul. 

1. That the soul is a material substance, intelligent, sensitive, volunta- 
ry, conscious, and capable of moral feelings and actions. 

But, that the soul is not a material substance may be proved from the 
following considerations. 

All knowledge, respecting the nature of any substance, must be de- 
rived from an examination of its properties. There is no evidence, that 
the soul has one property, which matter possesses, as solidity, extension, 
divisibility ; or that matter has one property, which the soul possesses, 
as understanding, heart, will, and capability of moral feelings and ac- 
tions. The properties of the soul, and the properties of matter are, 
therefore, distinct from each other, aud unlike, in their nature. The 
soul, then, is not a material substance. 

This argument may be presented more fully in the following manner: 
The soul and matter possess totally different essential properties. The 
substratum, in which these properties inhere and co-exist, may be con- 
sidered as the cause of their difference. The essential properties may 
be regarded also as inseparable from the basis or substratum, in which 
they inhere — inseparable in such a sense, that the destruction of the 
properties would be the destruction of the basis or substratum. If mat- 
ter should lose its properties of solidity, extension and divisibilty, it 
would no longer be matter ; and if the soul should lose its properties of 
understanding, heart, will, and capability of moral feelings and actions, 
it would no longer be the soul. These properties are so absolutely de- 
pendent on their substratum, that they both necessarily exist, or cease to 
exist, together. The substratum, by its very constitution, is the necessa- 
ry basis of its properties, and these are what they are, because the sub- 
stratum is what it is. As the properties of matter and of the soul, are to- 
tally unlike, we infer that the substratum of each is totally unlike ; for it 
is an axiom, Unlike effects proceed from unlike causes. Hence we infer, 
that the soul is not a material substance. 


Thoughts on Mental 

The soul is a thinking substance or being. But let matter be modi- 
'fied into anyjform, and it will neither think nor perform any operation 
or function of the soul. Atoms as such do not think. Did they, there 
would be an innumerable multitude of thinking beings in such a com- 
pound of existence as man. Atoms, in an accumulated or organized 
form, do not think. They have no more capability of thinking, when in 
juxta-positionor aggregated, than when separated and apart, let their el- 
ements, their chemical properties, their position, attenuation or motion 
be what they may. They are, and ever will be, absolutely incogitative. 
There is nothing in matter, which can enable it to think. In confirma- 
tion of these remarks, it may be observed, that no philosopher has ever 
made matter think, or perform one operation of the soul, or has ever ap- 
proximated towards doing it. It may also be remarked, that thought 
cannot be superadded to matter, so as to become a property or an attribute 
of it, or to be inherent in it. If thought should be annexed to matter, 
so as to become an appendage to it, it would neither become a property, 
nor an attribute, of it. Surely, the soul is not a material substance. 

II. Another theory respecting the soul, is, that it is a succession of 
thoughts or ideas and exercises. 

The Cartesians define the soul to be " a thinking, incorporeal, inex- 
tended substance." In their discussions of this subject, they seem to 
make thinking the essence of the soul. — Modern philosophers, who adopt 
this theory, reason thus, We can conceive of ideas and exercises, be- 
cause we are conscious of them, and are thus certain of their existence ; 
but of a substance, whence they proceed, a cause by which they are ef- 
fected, an agent-who. is the author of them, we can form no idea, be- 
cause of these we are not conscious, and, consequently, can have no con- 
ception of them. Their conclusion, therefore, is that they do not exist. 
The incorrectness of this position will appear, if we apply the same rea- 
soning to God, — his existence, his perfections, his works of creation and 
providence, and his operations in regeneration and sanctification. The 
modus existendi et operandi of God is to us wholly unknown. We are 
not conscious of it, and, therefore, can have no conception of it. Con- 
sequently, God does not operate, and does not exist. 

This view of the soul is contrary to the natural apprehension of 
mankind, and our own individual consciousness. Every porson be- 
lieves, and is conscious, that he exists, that he is something, and that he 
perceives, thinks, reasons, loves, hates, wills, and executes his will. Ife 
is as intuitively certain that he exists, and that he is an agent, perform- 
ing certain actions, as he is of any proposition whatever, and that he is 
the same being to-day, that he was yesterday. But this could not be so, 

and Moral Science. 283 

5f the soul be merely a succession of ideas and exercises; for were it so, 
every idea and exercise would seem to constitute a distinct soul. 

Man is the subject of properties or attributes. This, all will admit. 
But we cannot conceive of properties or attributes, as existing- independ- 
ently of some substance, essence, or substratum, in which they inhere. 
Who can conceive of a thought without a being to think, of a conscious- 
ness without a being to be conscious, of an exercise without a subject 
of that exercise ? If this theory be true of man, why not of God ? 
And is God a mere succession of ideas, or thoughts and exercises ! 

If this theory be true, man has no personal identity. A thought or an 
exercise is a mere event, which exists, and then ceases to exist. Every 
thought or exercise is a new, distinct, and different event. Consequent- 
ly, if the soul be a mere succession of thoughts and exercises, the soul 
changes with every new thought and exercise, and becomes a new and 
different soul. It has, therefore, no continued existence, except during 
the time of each of its thoughts and exercises. Where, then, is its con- 
tinued personal identity ? Should it be said, that consciousness is iden- 
tity, it may be replied, that consciousness is not identity itself, but only 
evidence of identity. 

If the theory, now under consideration, be true, then there is nothing 
in the soul of man, which can be punished or rewarded. It is agreeable 
to common sense and the Bible, that the subject of guilt only, can and 
will be punished, and that the subject of virtue only, can and will be re- 
warded. But how can thoughts and exercises be subjects of virtue or 
vice ? Virtue and vice, in the nature of things, cannot be imputable to 
mere thoughts and exercises, independent of the subject of them. lie- 
sides, as thoughts and exercises are momentary, they will have perished 
before judgment will have been passed, and sentence awarded. Conse- 
quently, upon this reasoning, all that is said in the Bible of trial, reward 
and punishment, is mere trifling. 

This theory of the soul militates against the doctrine of motives. A 
motive is that which moves, inclines, or induces to action, and is ad- 
dressed to a being capable of being influenced. The being to be influenc- 
ed must exist at the time, in which the motive is presented, in order to 
produce an effect. How then can thoughts and exercises be influenced 
by motives before they exist, or afterwards as they instantly perish, and 
are not, in their nature, subject to modification ? There is on this scheme, 
therefore, no possibility of their being affected by them. But God, who 
made the soul, and is acquainted with its nature and capabilities, presents 
motives to men, and according to the manner, in which they are affected 
by them, he justifies or condemns. 

284 Thoughts on Mental 

The^Scriptures represent man as an agent, — something distinct from 
'his perceptions, affections, volitions, and actions. He is always address- 
ed as such, by his Creator and Redeemer, and by all the inspired wri- 

From the above considerations, it follows, that the soul is not a suc- 
cession of thoughts or ideas and exercises. 

III. The other theory respecting the soul is, that it is a spiritual sub- 
stance, intelligent, sensitive, voluntary, conscious, and capable of moral 
feelings and actions. 

That this theory is the true one, may be argued from the fact, that 
one of the three theories is undoubtedly true ; and, as the first two are 
not true, therefore the third must be true. 

That the soul is not material, has been, it is believed, clearly proved 
in the discussion of the first theory, ft possesses not a single property 
of matter, and, therefore, cannot be matter. Besides, let matter be mod- 
ified into any form, or placed in any position, it will not possess a single 
property of the soul. All the wisdom and power of man have never 
been able to make matter think, 6r perform one operation of the soul. 
All beings may be considered as material or spiritual. We know of no 
other kind of being, it' these beings should be connected, as they are 
in man, they do not become the same, by the conversion of the one into 
the other, or by the intermixture of the two natures. Each nature re- 
tains its distinct properties entire. The soul of man, then, is not matter, 
but spirit. — It has been shown, that we cannot conceive of thoughts and 
exercises, without a being to think, and to put forth exercises. There 
can be no action without an actor or agent. The being who thinks and 
acts, must exist previously to his thoughts and actions. This is accord- 
ing to the common apprehension of all mankind, our own conscious- 
ness, the language used by all nations and people without exception, 
and the representations of the Bible. The immediate followers of Des 
Cartes, and those philosophers of the present day, who embrace his 
views, would seem to deny, that man has a soul distinct from its opera- 
tions, for they appear to make thinking the essence of the soul. Bo- 
sides, the adoption of this theory would lead to the denial of personal 
identity, of the doctrines of rewards and punishments, of the influence 
of motives, of the consciousness of our existence, and of the teachings 
of the Scriptures on this subject. Hence we infer, that the soul of man 
is a spiritual substance or substratum, in which faculties, which are 
distinct from their operations or exercises, inhere. 

That this last theory is true, we argue from the nature of the proper- 
ties of the soul. The essential properties of a being best define its es- 

and Moral Science. - 285 

sence or inward constitution ; for they are inseparable from it, and are 
what they are, Ijecause the essence or substratum is what it is. The 
soul has properties, distinct and dissimilar, which define its essence or 
substratum, as do the properties of matter define its essence or substra- 
tum. We can have as clear an idea of the one as of the other, the es- 
sential properties of each being equally known, and the inward consti- 
tution or substratum of each being equally unknown. Indeed, our knowl- 
edge of spirit is by consciousness, which is infallible, but our knowl- 
edge of matter, is by the senses, which are not infallible. "Of all the 
truths we know," says Dugald Stewart, " the existence of mind is the most 
certain." The essential properties of the soul, then, being spiritual, we 
infer, that its basis, or substratum is spiritual. 

That the third theory is true, we infer from the fact, that all nations, 
whether Jewish, Christian, or Pagan, have believed the soul of man to 
be a spiritual substance, distinct from the body. By this, it is not meant, 
that Pagan nations have formed a system, or science on this subject. 
They are too ignorant to do this. They may not be able to explain their 
own views precisely, but they believe, that, though the body is material, 
and, at death, moulders to dust ; yet the thinking being is different, a 
spiritual substance, and still lives in another world. There may be ex- 
ceptions ; but these are too few to affect the general opinion, or faith. 
This universal belief is evidence, that the soul is spiritual, whether the 
belief arose at first from immediate revelation, which has been transmit- 
ted from generation to generation by tradition, or from reason, analogy, 
or any other source. 

That this last theory is-the true one, we argue from the Bible. The 
Scriptures represent the beings above man, God and angels, who are 
thinking existences, as spirits. And as God and angels, who are think- 
ing beings, are spirits, so analogy leads us to conclude, that man, who is 
also a thinking being, is also a spirit. 

The Scriptures expressly assert the doctrine, that the souls of men are 
spiritual. David, in addressing God, says, Into thine lutnd I commit my 
spirit. Just before crucifixion, the Savior, looking up to heaven, said, 
Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit ; and having said thus, he. gave up 
the ghost. Stephen, in his dying prayer, said, Lord Jesus, receive my spirit. 
Solomon declares, TMn shall the dust return to the earth as it was, and the 
spirit shall return unto God who gave it. By the spirit, here, is undoubt- 
edly intended the thinking, conscious being. And can David and Solo- 
mon, inspired prophets, Stephen, a man full of the Holy Ghost, and 

Christ himself, be deceived on this subject ? Certainly not. Many 

passages of Scripture might be adduced, which strongly imply this doc- 


286 Histoay of School Books in New England. 

, trine, but we will not enlarge. The Bible calls those, who have depart- 
ed this life, spirits, as spirits in prison, spirits of just men made perfect. 

Thus common sense, reason, and the Bible teach, that the soul of man, 
which thinks and remembers, conceives and reasons, loves Jand hates, 
fears and hopes, surveys the past and looks forward to the future, is a 
spiritual substance, intelligent, sensitive, voluntary, conscious, and capa- 
ble of moral feelings and actions. We may add, it is invisible, not dis- 
cernible by our corporeal vision ; uncompounded, not made up of parts, 
but simple ; immortal, possessing no principles of death, for where 
there is no composition, there can be no dissolution. — See Priestley's 
Disq.; Locke's Ess.; Des Cartes' Princ; Watts' s Ess.; Upham's Ment. Phi- 
los.; Duright's Theology; Doddridge's Lectures; Chambers' Univ. Diet.; " S. 
Clarke's Being and Attributes of God; Flavel's Treatise on the Soul ; But- 
ler's Analogy. To be continued. 


Though attention was paid to the education of children and youth in 
the early days of New England ; yet the means of instruction, were 
limited. School-books were few in number and variety, and these were 
imperfectly prepared. For a considerable time after our forefathers 
came to this country, the New England Primer was, so far as is now 
known, the only elementary spelling and reading book in general use. 
One edition of it, published at Providence, R. I., in 1775, has in it the 
portrait of King George III., and another, published at Hartford, Ct., in 
1777, has in it the portrait of Samuel Adams. These portraits were in- 
dicative of the political state of the country at the time. Children usual- 
ly passed from the Lessons in the Primer to the Psalms of David and 
the New Testament. The Psalter used to be embellished with a cut of 
King David's harp. In the most advanced class in schools, the Bible was 
the reading book. The scholars were taught to spell from the lessons 
which they read. These, so far as we can learn, (and no little pains 
have been taken to ascertain,) were the only spelling and reading books 
used in Common Schools in New England, for nearly a century after 
its settlement. 

One of the Legislative acts, passed by the Colonies respecting edu- 
cation, ordained, that all children and apprentices should be instructed 
so as to be " able to read the Scriptures, and other good and profitable 

New England Historic-Genealogical Society. . 287 

books in the English tongue." Ability to read was all, that the law re- 
quired. The grqat desire of our Puritan Fathers, was, that their poster- 
ity might be able to read the Bible, and understand it, for themselves. 
They were zealous for the maintenance of the Protestant principal of 
private judgment, in matters of religious faith. 

A book of 144 pp., entitled, " The Youth's Instructor in the English 
tongue," was used as early as 1720. It is divided into three Parts. 
Part I. contains " Reading and Spelling Lessons." In its spelling Les- 
sons, we noticed one word of fourteen syllables, divided as follows, viz, 
" Ho-no-ri-fi-ca-bi-li-tu-di-ni-ta-ti-bus-que." Part II. treats " Of Letters 
in general ; with an Account of the Points, Stops, &c, by way of Ques- 
tion and Answer." Part III. contains "Rules in Arithmetic, with Forms 
of Bills, Bonds, Releases, &c." We have seen another work of similar 
character, having the same indications of antiquity. The title page is 
gone, and there is no running title. More than half of the book is ap- 
propriated to spelling and reading ; the remainder to arithmetic, prece- 
dents of bills, receipts, &c, the Decalogue, forms of prayer, &c. 
To be continued. 


This is the name of a Society, which was formed at Boston, and was 
incorporated by the General Court of Massachusetts, March, 1845. 
The design of the Society is expressed in the second Article of the 
Constitution, which is, " The object of the Society shall be to collect and 
preserve the Genealogy and History of early New England Families." 

In the second Circular of the Society, it is said, 

" The object of this Association has justly been regarded as one of great im- 
portance as well as curiosity, as well in a philosophical as physical and social 
point of view. The minds of men are naturally moved to know something of 
their progenitors — those from whom they have derived their being ; and there 
seems to be an increasing interest in this subject; many are endeavoring to trace 
their genealogy back at least to the first settlers — the early pilgrims of this coun- 
try. The Society proposes to cultivate this taste, and togive such a direction to 
these inquiries as will facilitate their labors, and render them of practical im- 
portance to individuals and to the public." 

The third Article of the Constitution, is as follows: "The Society shall 
be composed of Resident, Corresponding and Honorary Members, who 
shall be elected by ballot, having been nominated by the Board of Direc- 

We notice among the Resident Members, the names of Hon. Ed- 
ward Everett, LL. D., President of Harvard College, and Hon. John G. 

288 New England Historic-Genealogical Society. 

Palfrey, LL. D.; among the Corresponding Members, Hon. William 
Plumer, Jr., pf Epping, N. H., Hon. John Kelly of Exeter, N. H., Rev. 
Thomas Robbins, D. D., of Hartford, Ct., Hon. Charles K. Williams, 
LL. D., of Rutland, Vt.,and Hon. William D. Williamson, the Historian 
of Maine ; and among the Honorary Members, Hon. John Q, Adams, 
LL. D., Hon. George Bancroft, LL. D., Rev. William Jenks, D. I)., and 
the late President Quincy of Harvard College. 

" The Society will gratefully receive donations of the following descriptions. 

1. Printed Books, containing Memoirs of individuals or families, Funeral Ser- 
mons, Epitaphs, Engraved Portraits, and every other printed document or work, 
which can, in any way, elucidate the lives and actions of the early inhabitants 
of New England, or their descendants. 

2. Manuscript Documents, containing original copies or abstracts of wills, 
deeds, settlement and distribution of estates, letters, autographs, coats of arms, 

3. Original,, or copies of Family Registers, or Bibles, containing records of 
births, marriages, and deaths. 

4. Original Manuscripts, containing the Genealogy, Biography, or History 
of early Now England settlers, or their descendants. 

5. Newspapers, or parts of Newspapers, and other periodical works, con- 
taining marriages and deaths, or obituary, or biographical notices of any indi- 

The Society has issued a Prospectus of a Quarterly Periodical, for a 
" Genealogical and Antiquarian Register," comprehending among its 
contents such materials as the following, viz: 

11 1. Biographical Memoirs, Sketches and Notices of persons who came to 
North America, especially to New England, before Anno Domini 1700 ; show- 
ing from what places in Europe they came, their families there, and their de- 
scendants in this country ; — 

2. Full and minute Genealogical Memoirs and Tables, showing the lineage 
and descent of families, from the earliest dates to which they can be authenti- 
cally traced, down to the present time, with their branches and connexions ; — 

3. Lists of names found in ancient documents, such, especially as were en- 
gaged in any honorable public service ; also the documents themselves, when 
they may contain any important facts illustrative of the lives and actions of in- 
dividuals ; — 

4. Descriptions of Costumes belonging to the earliest times to which the an- 
cestry of families may be traced ; also their dwellings, buildings and utensils 
of every description ; to be accompanied, when practicable, with drawings ; — 

5. Ancient Inscriptions and Epitaphs, with descriptions of Cemeteries, Mon- 
uments, Tombs, Tablets, &c. Also, extracts from the Town and Parish Rec- 
ords of New England ; — 

6. Descriptions of Armorial Bearings, and of other Heraldic devices, occa- 
sionally emblazoned, with sufficient explanations of the principles and terms of 

The officers of the Society, are Charles Ewer, Esq., President ; Lem- 
uel Shattuck, Esq., Vice President ; Rev. Samuel H. Riddel, Recording 
Secretary ; Samuel G. Drake, A. M., Corresponding Secretary ; Mr. Wil- 
liam Henry Montague,* Treasurer ; and Mr. Edmund B. Dearborn, Libra- 

Gilmanton Theological Seminary. 289 


The Anniversary of this Institution will take place on the third Thurs- 
day, (16th day,) of July. On the day preceding, the examination of the 
students in the various branches of learning, to which they have attend- 
ed during the year, will commence at 9 o'clock. A. M., in the chapel of 
the Seminary, in the presence of the Examining Committee, Trustees, 
Visitors, and others who may be pleased to attend the exercises. The 
examination will close at 3 o'clock, P. M. At 3 1-2 orations may be ex- 
pected before the Society of the Associated Alumni, in the Meeting- 
house, from the Rev. Corban Curtice of Sanbornton, the Rev. Rufus 
Childs of Gilmanton, and the Rev. Ephraim N. Hidden of Deerfield. 
In the evening of the same day, orations will be delivered by stu- 
dents of the Seminary, before the Rhetorical Society and the Society of 
Inquiry, united in an Anniversary, by Thomas N. Jones, on the Wane 
of Error ; by William H. Marble, on Christian Zeal, — its Importance 
to a Minister of the Gospel ; by Rev. John L. Seymour, on the Abo- 
rigines of North America, — their History and Destiny; by John G. 
Wilson, on the Extension of the Kingdom of Christ. 

On Thursday, the public exercises of the students will commence at 
9 o'clock, A. M., and be as follows : 

1. Preaching, — its Characteristics in different Periods of the Church. 

By Edward Farrington Abbott, Andover, Ms. 

2. Exegesis of Gen. vii. 11 — 16. 

By Jonathan Byron Cook, Somersworth. 

3. Christ, an Example for his Ministers. 

By Daniel Goodhue, Hancock. 

4. The Psalms of David, — their Poetry and Devotion. 

By Thomas Newton Jones, Lowell, Ms. 

5. Inspiration of the Scriptures. 

By William Horace Marble, Winchester. 

6. The Christian Ministry, the great Instrumentality in the Conversion 
of this World. By Rev. John Lathrop Seymour, Turkey River, Iowa. 

7. Christian Union. 

By William Chalmers Whitcomb, Marlborovgh. 

8. Revivals of Religion, — their Nature and Importance. 

By John Gilman Wilson, Nelson. 
At the close of the exercises of the students in the afternoon, an ad- 
dress before the Rhetorical Society, may be expected from the Rev. 
William A. Stearns of Cambridge, Ms., and an address before the Grad- 
uates of the Seminary, by the Rev. Prof. Warner of Amherst College. 


Notices of New Publications. 

1844 AND 1845. 

The following Statement, respecting thiiiy-eigld colleges of the one hun- 
dred and nine in the United States, was prepared by the Rev. Samuel H. 
Riddel, Secretary of the American Education Society. 

1844. 1845. 



Bowdoin, Me., 



Geneva, N. Y., 



Waterville, Me., 



University of N. York.N.Y. 39 


Dartmouth, N. H., 



College of N.Jersey, 



University of Vermont, 



Rutger's, N. J., 



Middlebury, Vt. 



Dickinson, Pa., 



Harvard, Ms., 



Jefferson, Pa., 



Williams, Ms., 



Washington, Pa., 



Amherst, Ms., 



Pennsylvania, Pa., 



Brown University, R. I., 



Delaware, Del., 



Yale, Ct., 



Georgetown, J). C, 



Trinity, Ct., 



Marietta, O., 



Wesleyan, Ct., 



Granville, O., 



Columbia, N. Y., 



Western Reserve, O. 



Union, N. Y., 



Nashville, Ky., 



Hamilton, N. Y., 



Total, 839 780 

The number of graduates at the following colleges are only for the 
year, 1845. 

8,IHinoia College, 111., 11 

27 Jackson College, Tenn., 

Columbia College, D. C, 

Miami University, O!, 

Wabash College, Ind., 3 

Indiana State University, Ind., 6 

University of Michigan, Mich., 11 

Oakland College, Miss., 
Franklin College, Ga., 




Duties of the Medical Student. An Address delivered before the Rush Med- 
ical Society, connected with the WUloughby Medical College, Dec. %7th, 1845. 
By Abner H. Brown, M. D., Professor of Chemistry in said College. Prin- 
ted for the Society. 1846. 

Dr. Brown is a graduate of Dartmouth College in the class of 1839, and was 
Tutor two years at the College. Tbe Address above named is written with 
spirit, and is appropriate to the occasion. The advice given ia wholesome, and 

Notices of New Publications. 291 

deserves to be well pondered by those for whom it is designed. We quote from 
his concluding remarks : "Your exploits, Gentlemen, will not be seen by the 
world. In the privacy gf the domestic circle and the silence of the sick-cham- 
ber, you will achieve your greatest triumphs. Oftentimes, even those whom 
your judgment and skill may have saved from the grave, will be ignorant of the 
true nature of the services which have been done for them. But be content ; let 
the consciousness of duty performed, of good accomplished, be your reward. 
The eye of God has seen you ; be satisfied." 

A Sermon, preaclied at the Ordination of the Rev. William Bates, in North- 
bridge, Mass., Nov. 5th, 1845. By Joshua Bates, D. D., Pastor of tlie First 
Congregational Church in Dudley. Andover : Printed by Allen, Morrill, 
&Wardwell. 1846. 

The Ministry strong in the Grace of Christ. A Sermon, preached at tlve 
Ordination of Mr. Richard S. Storrs, Jr., as Pastor of the Harvard Church 
and Society, Brookline, Ms., October 22nd, 1845. By Richard S. Storrs, D. 
D., Pastor of the First Church Braintree, Ms. Published by request. 
Boston : Press of T. R. Marvin, 24 Congress street. 1845. 

The Sermon of Dr. Bates is founded on ICor. i : 21, For after that in the wis- 
dom of God, the world by wisdom knew not God, it pleased God by the foolish- 
ness of preaching, to save them that believe. The plan is such as to develope 
and illustrate the text. I. Endeavor to explain the term, to save, as used in the 
text ; and show the nature and extent of the salvation, purchased by Christ and 
revealed in the gospel. II. Inquire, what the instrumentality is, by which this 
salvation is applied to men : as denoted by the phrase, " foolishness of preach- 
ing." III. Speak of the wisdom of God, displayed in the adaptation of preaching 
lo the rconciliation, reformation and salvation of believers. Some remarks close 
the Discourse. 1. Importance of a thoroughly educated ministry. 2. The par- 
amount importance of a pious ministry. 3. The importance of a stated, perma- 
nent ministij. 4. The momentous responsibilities, which rest upon the desig- 
nated ministers of the gospel. 5. The duty of all Christians to organize them- 
selves into Christian societies, or join themselves to some organized church of 
Christ, where they dwell ; and thus united, to provide for the able, faithful and 
stated preaching of the gospel. 

Dr. Storrs selected for his text, 2 Tim. ii : 1, Thou, therefore, my son be 
strong in the grace that is Christ Jesus. In the treatment of it, he proposes to 
consider the import and propriety of its injunction. I. The injunction requires, 
1. A firm and intelligent conviction of the divine origin and true character of 
the Gospel. 2. Boldness and earnestness in proclaiming the Gospel. III. A 
vigorous defence of the Gospel. IV. The widest possible diffusion of 
the Gospel. II. Consider the propriety and necessity of the injunction 
of the text. These appear by considering, 1. The strong temptations ex- 
isting in man's heart to the indulgence of the spirit of controversy. 2. 
Man's innate love of Power. 3. The dangers of an absorbing love of Litera- 
ture. 4. The bearing of the prevailing love of Change, on ministerial character 
and usefulness. 5. The matter and manner of ministerial Support. 6. The 
commonness of a passionate desire for Distinction — an ambition for greatness, 
at the expense of humility — a thirst for popularity and fame, at the sacrifice of 
that honor which cometh from God only. 

These Sermons are welcomed as from old friends and the more, as having 
heen delivered at the ordination of their sons, with whom also we were ac- 
quainted. No occasion could be more interesting to these fathers and sons, than 
the one when the sons took their ordination vows, and this is manifested in the 
appropriate, affectionate, and paternal addresses, at the close of the sermons. May 
the sons be as faithful and successful in building up Zion as their fathers have 


292 Notices of New Publications. 

been. The sermons present great and important truths in application to the 
Christian ministry in the present day ; and are able and valuable, exhibiting the 
peculiar characteristics of their Authors. 

Genealogical and Biographical Account of the Family of Drake in Amer- 
ica, With some Notices of the Antiquities connected with the early times of 
Persons of the Name in England. Those only deserve to he remembered by 
Posterity, who treasure up the histoiy of their ancestry. — Burke. Printed at 
the private press of George Coolidge, for Samuel Gardner Drake, Au- 
gust, 1845. 

This is a book of 52 pages, of large Duodecimo size, neatly printed on good 
paper, and well done up, and is inscribed to Charles Ewer, Esq., President of 
the New England Historic-Genealogical Society. The family of Drake is one 
of great antiquity, and is of Saxon origin. As early as the Norman Conquest, 
several families resided in the county of Devonshire. Draco or Drago, is the 
Roman name of Drake, and as late as the time of Sir Francis Drake, writers 
frequently coupled his name with that of Dragon. John Drake of the Council 
of Plymouth, was one of the original company, established bj King James, in 
1606, for settling New England. Several of his sons came to this country. 
John came to Boston, in 1630, with two or more sons, and finally settled in 
Windsor, Ct. Robert, with two or more sons and one daughter, settled at 
Hampton, N. H. From these brothers have descended all of the name in New 
England, and most, if not all of those bearing it in the Middle, Southern, and 
Western States. 

Samuel Gardner Drake of Boston, who is the Author of this Family Geneal- 
ogy, is the son of Simeon Drake, who married Love Muchamore Tucke ; he 
was the son of Simon Drake, who married Judith Perkins ; he was the son of 
Abraham, who married Theodute Roby ; and he was the son of Abraham, 
who was also the son of Abraham, who was the son of Robert, who settled at 
Hampton, in N. H., as mentioned above. 

For the above facts, we are indebted to the Memoir before us, which is prepar- 
ed with great accuracy and taste. 

The Author of this work keeps an antiquarian bookstore in Boston, is a self- 
made man, and has done himself great honor in some historical publications. 
They are " The Book of the Indians," large octavo, first published in 1832, 
ninth edition, 1845 ; " A Collection of Authentic Narratives of Persons, car- 
ried away captive by the Indians,12mo.," many editions; An edition of "Church's 
Narratives of the Indian and French Wars, with extensive Notes and an Ap- 
pendix, by himself;" " The Old Indian Chronicle. A Collection of Rare 
Tracts on Philip's War, with a Chronology of events in Indian History, from 
the first Discovery of America to the present time," 18mo., 1836; and "A Fam- 
ily Memoir ." 











The Editor of this Work, having been appointed by the New England 
Historic-Genealogical Society, Editor of a Work to be published by 
them at Boston, to be entitled, " The New England Historical and Gen- 
ealogical Register," has felt it his duty to accept the appointment. In 
the arrangement between him and the Society, provision is made by 
which the subscribers to the Repository, will receive the first two Num- 
bers of the Register in lieu of the last two Numbers which were to have 
been printed of the Repository, without any additional charge, though the 
Register will be two dollars a volume, while the Repository is only one. 
The Statistics of Ministers and Churches, of Courts and Attorneys, and 
of Physicians in New Hampshire, will be inserted in the New Work. 
We trust, therefore, that the subscribers to the Repository, will be prof- 
ited and pleased by this new arrangement. Should they wish to sub- 
scribe for the Register, they can receive the last two Numbers of the 
first volume for one dollar. .. After that, the work will be to them^ two 
dollars a volume. All who do not wish to become subscribers for the 
Register, are respectfully requested to signify their wish by letter to 
Samuel G. Drake of Boston, the Publisher of the New England His- 
torical and Genealogical Register, immediately upon receiving the second 
Number of the Register. All who do not give to him this information, 
will be considered subscribers to the Work, and consequently the Num- 
bers will be regularly sent to them. 

All who wish to address the Editor in respect to the New Hampshire 
Repository, or the New England Historical and Genealogical Register, 
will please direct their communications to him at Boston. 



, Page. 

Attorneys, who haVe practised in Rockingham County, 114 

Attorney Generals for New Hampshire, 125 

Biographical Notices of Physicians in Tamworth, 74 

Biographical Notices of Physicians in Charlestown, 77 

Biographical Notices of Physicians in Concord, 80,135 
Blake, Rev Jeremiah's Statistics of Congregational Ministers and 

Churches in Carroll County, 47 

Chipman, Hon. Daniel, Sketch of, 69 

Cooke, Josiah P., Esq., Sketch of, 71 

Christian Union, by William C. Whitcomb, 127 

Concord, Physicians of, viz. Rolf, Ezra Carter, — — Emery, 

Ebenezer II. (Joss, Philip Canigain, Peter Green, Samuel 
Adams, G. Gridley, Zadok Howe, Thomas Chadbourne, 
Alexander Ramsay, Moses Long, Moses Chandler, John 
Odlui, Peter Renton, Benjamin Parker, David L. Morril, 
Samuel Morril, Jonathan Badger, Isaac Colby, Ezra Carter, 
Joseph Reynolds, James Scales, George Chandler, Timo- 
thy Hay nes, Moses Carter, Moses Thompson Willard, 
Benjamin Ha r lock Tripp, Andrew McFarland, Henry 
Onie Stone, Charles Pinckney Gage, Moore Russell 
Fletcher, John T. G, Leach, Ehenczer G. Moore, John 
Renton, William Prescott, and Jonathan Chase Prescott, 80, 135' 

Charlestown, Physicians of, viz., David Taylor, William Page, Ol- 
iver Hastings, Joseph Robey, Edward Pelouze, John B. 
Batchelder, Putnam Barron, Samuel Webster, Horace 

Saunders, Bliss, Saflbrd, Jacob Adams, John 

Duncan, Alexander Campbell, Hiram Hoyt, John W.Fur- 
ber, S. Hale, Otis R. Freeman, D. H. Marden, Frink,. 
Leach, Pollard, and Hall, 77* 

Dana, Rev. Dr. Daniel's Thoughts on Pulpit Eloquence, 28, 85 

Dartmouthpollege Triennial Catalogue, Statistics of, 46 

Dartmouth College, Sketches of Alumni of, 64 

French, Rev. Jonathan's Statistics of Congregational Ministers and 

Churches of Rockingham County, 98 

Fessenden, Hon. Samuel, LL. D., Sketch of, 66 

Genealogy of the Worcester Family, 9 

How Scholars are made, 66 

History of School Books in New England, 81 

Harvey, Hon. Matthew, Sketch of, 64 


History of the Methodist Episcopal Church in New Hampshire, by 

Rev. Eleazer t Smith of Concord, 92 

Juridical Statistics of Rockingham County, by Hon. John Kelly of 

Exeter, 34, 111 

Jackson,JRev|Dr. William, Sketch of, 68 

Kelly, Hon. John's Juridical Statistics of Rockingham County, 34, 111 

Memoir of Rev. Samuel Worcester, D. D., 9 
Metcalf, Ralph, Esq., Sketch of, 73 
Ministers and Churches, Congregational, of Carroll County, Statis- 
tics of, by Rev. Jeremiah Blake of Tamworth, 47 
Ministers and Churches, Congregational, of Rockingham County, 

Statistics of, by Rev. Jonathan French of North Hampton, 98 

New Hampshire Senate, Statistics of, by J. A. Richardson, Esq., 57 

Northern Academy of Arts and Sciences, Notice of, 58 

Notices of New Publications, 82 

Rockingham County, Juridical Statistics of, 34, 111 

Justices of the Superior Court, 34 

Justices of the Courts of Common Pleas, 40 

Sheriffs, 45 

Judges of Probate, 111 

Registers of Probate, 112 

Registers of Deeds, 113 

Attorneys at Law, / 114 

Clerks of the Superior Court, 123 

Clerks of the Courts of Common Pleas, 124 

Solicitors, 124 

Attorney Generals, 125 

Thoughts on Pulpit Eloquence, by Rev. Daniel Dana, D.D., 28, 85 
Tamworth, Physicians of, viz. Joseph Boyden, Joseph Cogswell, 
Wyatt C. Boyden, John L. Sargent, Ebenezer G. Moore, 
Ebenezer Boyden, Lowell Marston, Carr L. Drake, Ebene- 
zer Wilkinson, Joseph Huntress, 74 

Whitcomb, William C.'s Christian Union, 127 

Worcester, Rev. Dr. Samuel, Memoir of, 9 


Rev. 'Samuel wo .« c:k ste n , i> . ». 




Vol. II. OCTOBER, 1846. No. 1. 


Dr. Worcester was born at Hollis, N. H., November 1st, 
1770. His father, whose name was Noah, was a highly respect-, 
able farmer of that town, and a descendant in the fourth genera- 
tion from the Rev. William r Worcester, who was the first minister 
of Salisbury, Ms., where he was settled in the year 1638.* 

* There is a diversity In regard to the Christian name, and also the orthog- 
raphy of the surname of the^ first minister, of Salisbury. By some the Chris- 
fiannamehas been written" Thomas, and the surname Worster or Woster. 
But by the Salisbury records, it appears that \A4 name was written William 
Worcester, and it is so written by the Rev. Dr. Cotton Mather in his Magnalia ; 
and these facts seem to be good and sufficient authority for spelling the name as 
above. - * 

The following brief genealogical account of the Worcester family, is here in- 
serted as a matter of interest to many, and as worthy of being preserved. The 
Rev. William Worcester, who was the first minister of Salisbury, came from 
Salisbury in England, and was admitted freeman in 1640. He married for his 

first wife, Sarah , who died, April 23rd, 1650, and for his second wife, he 

married, Aug. 22nd, 1650, the widow Rebecca Hall. He died, Oct. 20th, 1662. 

The names of his children were Samuel, William, Sarah, Sarah, 2nd, Timo- 
thy, Moses, Sarah, 3rd, Elizabeth, and Elizabeth, 2nd. Samuel, who resided 
at Bradford, died at Lynn, April 21st, 1680, when returning from Boston, hav- 
ing been deputy to the General Court. He had a son named Francis, who mar- 
ried Mary Cheney, and died at Bradford, Dec. 17th, 1717. This Francis had a 
son Francis, who was born, June 7th or 8th, 1698, married Abigail Carlton, and 
was pastor of the second church in Sandwich, Ms., and signed " The Testimo- 
ny and Advice of an Assembly of Pastors of churches in New England, at a 
meeting in Boston, July 7th, 1743, occasioned by the late happy Revivals of 
Religion in many parts of the Land." He removed with his family to Hollis, 
N. H. in 1750, where he died, Oct. 14th, 1783, at the age of 85 years. He was 


Memoir of 

When only twenty months old, he had the misfortune (o fos<? 
his mother*, who is said to have been distinguished for her piety 
and good sense.* During his infancy he suffered much from 
sickness, but God who had destined him to important services in 
the church, watched over his cradle, and raised him to health 
and strength. As he grew up, he worked on his father's farm, 
attended school in the winter season, and, in the enjoyment of 
this privilege only, he qualified himself to teach a common dis- 
trict school. At 17 or 18 years of age, he had arrived at his full 
stature, which was about six feet. 

During one of those seasons of the gracious outpourings of the 
Holy Spirit, which have so often occurred in New England, and 
conferred on her churches the richest and most durable blessings, 
his mind, when he was about 16 years of age, became impressed 
with the importance of his spiritual and eternal interests. After 
a period of six months of anxious inquiry, he began to cherish a 
trembling hope that he had " passed from death unto life." He 
did not, however, through fear of being deceived make a public 
profession of religion until some years after. 

At the Academy of New Ipswich, under the instruction of the 
Hon, John Hubbard, afterwards professor in Dartmouth College, 
he commenced a course of education preparatory to his entering 
in advance, the Freshman Class in the spring of 1792, when he 

the father of Noah Worcester, Esq., who was born at Sandwich, Oct. 4th, 1735,, 
removed to Hollis, with the family, and died there, Aug. 13th, 3817, aged 82. 
Noah Worcester, Esq., was twice married, and had sixteen children, seven by 
the first marriage, and nine by the second. Of his five sons by bis first mar- 
riage, four were ministers of the gospel, viz. Rev. Noah Worcester, D. D., of 
Brighton, Ms.; Rev. Leonard Worcester, M. A., of Peacham, Vt.j Rev. Thom- 
as Worcester, M. A., of Salisbury, N. H., and Rev. Samuel Worcester, D. D., 
Salem, Ms., the subject of this Memoir. These were all distinguished for their 
talents, various publications and services. The other son was Jesse, who was 
the father of Joseph E. Worcester, Esq., Author of Worcester's Dictionary, 
various geographical works, and other valuable publications. 

* For many of the facts and much of the language of this Memoir, we are 
indebted to the sermons of the Rev. Drs. Woods and Cornelius, preached on 
the occasion of Dr. Wqrcester's death. 


Rev. Samuel Worcester, D. D. -11 

wa$ about twenty one years of age. Here he" rose to a high rank 
as a scholar, notwithstanding his limited means of support obliged 
him often to leave his studies, and spend months in the business of 
teaching. It was while a member of College, and during a win- 
ter season, when employed in the care of a school in Salisbury, 
N. H., that his attention was called anew to the importance of 
making a profession of religion. There had been a revival in 
4hat place, the summer and autumn preceding, " in the fruits of 
which,' 7 says his brother Thomas, who was then pastor of the 
church, " his heart was warmed, and he obtained such additional 
evidence of his vital union to Christ, and such a deep sense of 
the great importance of such a duty, that he could no longer re- 
frain from owning Christ before men." Accordingly he united 
with his brother's church on the 18th day of February, 1793. 

On the 4th of July, while in his Junior year, Dr. Worcester 
pronounced an oration before the officers and students of the 
College, and the inhabitants of the place. It was published and 
is a good specimen of correct thought and splendid diction. In 
1795, he finished his academical course, and graduated at Dart* 
mouth College with distinguished honor. His commencement 
exercise was the Valedictory Oration. 

After graduating, Dr. Worcester commenced and pursued the 
study of theology under the direction of the late Rev. Dr. Sam- 
uel Austin, of Worcester, Ms. Sometime during the year, he 
took charge of New Ipswich Academy, and while there he was 
licensed to preach the gospel. September 27th, 1797, he was 
ordained Pastor of the church in Fitchburg. The five following 
years of his life were spent in performing the duties of a Pastor, 
amid various scenes of trial and success. It pleased God, soon 
after his settlement, to grant him the satisfaction of witnessing an 
extensive revival of religion among his people, the effects of 
which contributed much to the promotion of evangelical religion 
in the place. But there were those still, who could not endure 
sound doctrine, nor the plain and pungent application, which he 

12 Memoir of 

made of it to the conscience and the heart. Opposition increas- 
ed until it wasjudged expedient, that his pastoral relation should 
be dissolved. This took place, Aug. 29th, 1802. At that time 
he delivered a solemn and impressive sermon to his church and 
people, which closed his ministerial labors in Fitchburg. By a 
unanimous vote of the church, which had remained stedfastly at- 
tached to him during the whole of his conflict, the sermon was 
published, and it will long remain a memorial worthy of its Au- 

On the 23rd of November following, the Tabernacle Church 
in Salem, made choice of Dr. Worcester as their Pastor, and on 
the 20th of April, 1803, with the unanimous concurrence of the 
Proprietors of the house, he was installed. 

June, 1804, the Trustees of Dartmouth College, wishing to 
fill the Professorship of Theology in that Institution, fixed their 
eyes upon Dr. Worcester, and made choice of him to supply that 
office. Never did a man act with a more conscientious regard to 
the will of God, than he did in declining this invitation. To an 
intimate friend, he said some years after, in reference to this de- 
cision, " I cast myself upon Providence, leaving it to the Coun- 
cil, who were called upon this occasion, to say, after receiving 
all the light which could be thrown upon the subject, whether I 
should'go, or whether I should remain. And having left it there," 
he added, "I know not that I felt the least anxiety for the re- 
sult, either before, or after it was made known." 

From this time, no event of consequence occurred to divide 
his attention, or interrupt his labors among his people, except 
what was incident to his growing reputation, and the occasional 
demands of other churches, until the year 1810, when the Amer- 
ican Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions was formed, 
and he was appointed its Corresponding Secretary. Though 
prudent, cautious, and deliberate, he was the first minister who 
became zealously enlisted in the enterprise, and the first, probably, 
who suggested the idea of (he American Board of Missions. 

Rev. Samuel Worcester, D. D. 13 

Little did he imagine, when he consented to accept the ap- 
pointment ofJSecretary, that the duties of this office were so soon 
to engross his time and strength, and were yet to constitute by 
far the most important feature in the history of his life. Of this 
fact, one of his letters to the Treasurer of the Board, affords the 
most satisfactory proof. " But what individual," says he, " who 
took part in those inchoative deliberations and proceedings, had 
any adequate anticipations of the magnitude and importance, to 
which in ten years, they would grow." Could he have 
foreseen the accumulated duties, which, in addition to the con- 
cerns of a large parish, this appointment would bring up- 
on him, there is no reason to conclude he would have consented 
to accept it, without some new arrangement, by which his pa- 
rochial burdens should have been lightened. 

At the meeting of the Board of Commissioners for Foreign, 
Missions in 1817, it was distinctly stated by him, that the double 
duties which his situation imposed, were too arduous for him any 
longer to discharge without assistance ; and that unless some new 
arrangement could be made, he should find it necessary to resign 
the office of Secretary. Such, however, were the embarrass- 
ments with which the subject was attended, that it was not till 
near the close of the ensuing year, that he saw any prospect of 
a diminution of his labors. At that period, the Prudential Com- 
mittee made application to the church, for the relinquishment of 
three fourths of his time to be devoted to the Missionary cause. 
The result was, the church and society, after a great struggle of 
feelings and much regret, consented to the proposal, and settled, 
July 21st, 1819, the Rev. Elias Cornelius as colleague Pastor 
with Dr. Worcester. 

Nearly three years before this arrangement had been made, 
Dr. Worcester's constitution began to discover symptoms of 
decay. To use his own expression, It had lost its former elas- 
ticity, and could not recover itself so easily from the effects of 
severe labor, or even occasional fatigue. His powers of diges- 

14 Memoir of 

tiou were impaired ; a peculiar lethargy gradually possessed his 
frame ; and the tone, both of his muscular and nervous systems, 
was destroyed. In hope of finding some relief from these com- 
plaints, he took an extended journey in the months of October 
and November, 1820, but he obtained little or no benefit from it. 
By advice of medical friends, he determined on spending the 
approaching winter in a southern climate. On the last Sabbath 
in December, he delivered to his church and people his parting, 
and it proved to be his last, discourse from the appropriate pas- 
sage in the 39th Psalm : " For I am a stranger with thee, and a 
sojourner as all my fathers were." 

Here we would remark, that Dr. Worcester was greatly at- 
tached to the people of his charge, and was remarkable happy 
with them ; and that they respected and loved him, perhaps, as 
much as any society ever did their minister. 

On the 5th of January, he sailed from Boston for New Or- 
leans, intending on his return, to pass through the interior of the 
country, and visit the missionary stations of Elliot and Brainerd 
— places for the good of which he had long toiled and prayed, 
and which he earnestly desired to see. 

On the 3rd of February, after one of the most boisterous and 
-dangerous voyages ever experienced, he arrived at New Orleans, 
extremely debilitated. Though sinking under a load of bodily 
infirmities, and too weak to speak in public, he made, in behalf 
of Missions, an appeal through the press, to the people of New 
Orleans, and of the State of Louisiana generally, which for eleva- 
tion of thought, tenderness of feeling, and elegance of language, 
is^ scarcely inferior to any thing of the kind, which he ever 

On the 10th of March, he took leave of the numerous friends, 
with whom he had become acquainted in New Orleans, and set 
his face towards the missionary stations in the wilderness. Af- 
ter much fatigue and suffering, he arrived in the central part of 
the Choctaw tribe, at a place sixty miles distant from Elliot, on the 

Rtv. Samuel Worcester, D. D. ■. 15 

10th of April. Here, while lie tarried for the arrival of several 
missionaries, wJio were expected to accompany him to Elliot, he 
was seized with another turn of severe illness, which confined 
him for two weeks, and obliged him to abandon the hope of ever 
seeing that place, strongly endeared as it was to his heart. Up- 
on this he addressed a most tender, paternal letter to the mission- 
aries at Elliot. Like every thing else which he wrote, during 
his last illness, it indicated a mind fast ripening for the heavenly 
world. Submission, the most cheerful and entire, to all the al- 
lotments of Providence, whatever they might be, seems never to 
have left him for a moment. In a letter to a friend, he says, 
" Amid various scenes and changes, infirmities and fatigues, T 
had been cheered with the anticipations of refreshment at that 
consecrated spot ; but our Heavenly Father saw it best, that the 
fondly cherished hope should not be realized. I have not seen 
Elliot. I shall never see that place. I bowed to what appear- 
ed to me plainly to be the Divine will." 

Though disappointed in not seeing Elliot, Dr. Worcester had 
the satisfaction of meeting all the missionaries, except one of the 
Choctaw and several of the Cherokee missions, at Mayhew. 
Some idea of his feelings, upon first arriving at the missionary 
station, may be learned from the following extract of a letter, 
written on the day of his departure from Mayhew. After 
describing his journey to that place, which was performed with 
great fatigue, he says', " But at day break the next morning, I 
awoke uncommonly refreshed. One of the first sounds that 
struck my ear, was that of the bells of the cattle, horses and 
cows. *To me it was holiness to the Lord. The ground was 
holy — the Lord's plantation — all appertaining was holy — sacred 
to his cause. It was a light in a dark place — a fountain in the 
desert — a fruitful field in the wilderness — the opening of a glori- 
ous millennial scene. Before sunrise, I forgot all the fatigues and 
pains of the way." 

While at Mayhew, Dr. Worcester had strength sufficient to- 


Memoir of 

give to the missionaries, the instructions and counsel they need- 
ed, to assist Sn organizing a church, and to deliver one or two 
appropriate discourses. But these were his last labors for the 
good of the heathen. 

Just as he left Mayhew, on a journey of three hundred and 
fifty miles for Brainerd, he addressed a short letter to his family, 
which concludes with the following words : "This place, one of 
the most delightful, certainly, my eyes ever saw, I leave this morn- 
ing with my face towards Brainerd — towards Salem, and O, may 
I add, towards Heaven ! To God, my hope, would I commit 
my way, my life, my family, my all." This was the last com- 
munication which his family received from his own hand. 

The eighteen days succeeding, were spent in performing his 
journey to Brainerd. On arriving at this place, he was so feeble 
as to require the aid of two men, to assist him into the house. 
But his soul, says one of the missionaries, was in a high state of 
health and prosperity. He was not only willing to end his days 
here, if it should be the Divine pleasure, but he remarked, " I 
had rather leave my poor remains at Brainerd, than at any other 

In the bosom of a.missionary family, surrounded by those "dear 
children" of the forest, whose voices, taught, in part by his in- 
strumentality, to celebrate the praises of God, now cheered his 
departing soul, with their songs of gratitude ; and above all, with 
a hope in God which assured him of eternal happiness in Heaven, 
he looked forward to his approaching end with emotions of joy. 
Nor was the period long delayed. On the morning of Thursday, 
the 7th of June, " at ten minutes before seven, a most delight- 
ful and heavenly smile passed over his countenance — his eyes 
were immediately set — rhe breathed until one minute before seven, 
and then ceased to breathe, without the least struggle or appear- 
ance of pain." 

On the 9th of June, in the presence of the Mission family 
and school, and a large number of the natives, some of whom 

Rev. Samuel Worcester, D. D. 17 

had come from a great distance to unite in the solemnity, the mor- 
tal remains of J)r. Worcester were interred. 

On the monument erected to his memory in the grave-yard, at 
Brainerd, is the following inscription, prepared hy his successor 
in office, as Secretary of the American Board, Jeremiah Evarts, 

" Here lie 

the Mortal Remains of the 

Rev. Samuel Worcester, D. D. 

Pastor of the 

Tabernacle Church 

in Salem, Massachusetts, 

and first Corresponding Secretary of the 

American Board of Commissioners for Foreign 


He was born, Nov. 1, 1770, 


Died, June 7th, 1821." 

Such is a general view of the course of life, which Dr. 
Worcester pursued. We will now glance at the leading features 
of his mind, and the predominant feelings of his heart. 

Dr. Worcester's intellectual powers were of the first order. 
They are well characterised by the Rev. Dr. Cornelius, his col- 
league in the Pastoral office : "His perceptions were clear and dis- 
tinct. His judgment was remarkably good ; forming its decisions 
with great deliberation, and upon the most substantial grounds. 
But that, which most of all, distinguished his intellectual faculties, 
was the strength and comprehensiveness of his reasoning powers. 
He had a prodigious grasp of mind, by which he seemed to lay 
hold of every subject, and to look through it, in its most exten- 
sive bearings. If it involved the consideration of many particu- 
lars of different and opposite kinds, his mind turned with minute 
attention to each, and suspended its judgment until it had fully 



Memoir of 

investigated them all. Having once gone over a subject, he 
seldonuhad occasion to retrace his steps, or to alter his conclu- 

Another trait in Dr. Worcester's mind was its remarkable 
completeness in all its faculties. " His imagination, though not 
the most lively, was highly inventive and well regulated. A 
correct and an improved taste qualified him to perceive and enjoy 
whatever was beautiful and harmonious in nature or art. His 
memory was strong, and more than commonly retentive." But 
that which gave to his mind its chief advantages was the thor- 
ough discipline, to which its faculties were subjected. He had 
a perfect control of it. 

Such were some of the principal traits, which distinguished the 
mental powers of Dr. Worcester. — His moral qualities were not 
less prominent. From his history as it has been given, it must 
be evident to every one, that the grace of God had done much 
to elevate and sanctify his affections. His piety was deep and 
uniform, exhibiting itself at all times and on all occasions. One 
striking characteristic of his piety was, it induced him to study 
Providence — to refer every thing to Providence, and to jollow 
the leadings of Providence. His opinions, therefore, were fre- 
quently rather his perceptions of what appeared to be the will 
of God, than any original or unassisted speculations of his own. 
His benevolence shone with peculiar lustre, and will be acknowl- 
edged with increasing gratitude for ages to come. In regard to 
the various objects of Christian enterprise, his mind was well bal- 
anced and his zeal well proportioned. — His private character 
* was marked by a conscientious regard to the duties of family 
and personal religion. As a husband and father, he was kind 
and affectionate. At times he exhibited great love and sweet- 
ness. When officiating at the domestic altar, his soul, occasion- 
ally, seemed to be drawn forth in the most intense desires for 
the Salvation of his family. Tt may be added, that he was natur- 
ally reserved, meditative, and sober minded, but yet capable of 

Rev. Samuel Worcester, 1). D. J 9 

being cheerful and companionable, and sometimes he was pecu- 
liarly so. % 

We will now take a view of Dr. Worcester in his executive 
character. As a preacher he exhibited soundness of faith, manly 
strength of intellect, a cultivated taste, and a warm heart. He 
was always serious, affectionate, and instructive ; frequently ani- 
mated and impressive, and ever happy in his quotations from the 
Scriptures, His subjects were well chosen and adapted to every 
variety of occasion. The plans of his discourses were original, 
comprehensive, logical and practical. He evidently excelled as 
a planner of sermons, and was a most excellent instructor in 
theology, as those who read divinity with him, have uniform- 
ly testified. As a Pastor he was affectionate, laborious, faith- 
ful, devoted and successful. During his ministry he witnessed 
several revivals of religion. While he was minister in Salem, 
two hundred and fifty-five persons were added to the church. 
In a theoretical and practical knowledge of church govern- 
ment, he surpassed most ministers, and was, therefore, hap- 
py as a disciplinarian in ecclesiastical matters. Before his 
removal from his first charge, he gave evidence of uncommon 
discretion and forethought ; of patience and self-control ; of great 
strength of understanding and integrity of heart, and of a warm, 
steady attachment to the interests of the church. 

But Dr. Worcester's usefulness extended beyond his particular 
charge. His reputation for practical wisdom, and for an acquaint- 
ance with the principles and forms of ecclesiastical proceedings in 
New England, occasioned very frequent application to him for 
counsehand assistance. "And the public sentiment respecting 
him was finally such," says Dr. Woods, "that scarcely an instance 
occurred of great difficulty in our churches where his advice was 
not earnestly sought. The collected thoughts, the forcible rea- 
sonings, the foresight, the decision, which he exhibited in the 
business of ecclesiastical councils, gave him an unequalled influ- 
ence in the community." In the course of his ministry, heat- 

20 Memoir of 

tended more than eighty ecclesiastical councils, some of them 
on case* the most difficult, which have occurred in our country, 
and the services which he rendered upon some of these occasions, 
were of the highest moment, and will long be held in the most 
grateful remembrance. And he was invited to many more 

councils which he could not attend. " He was eminent for 

his ability and success as a defender of the truth" says the 
writer just quoted. " His feelings were indeed averse to relig- 
ious controversy ; though the peculiar structure of his mind, 
and his habit of close, patient thinking qualified him, as has 
been generally acknowledged, to be a distinguished controversial 
writer." "A writer possessing such a cultivated, discriminating 
mind, as he possessed, — such manly thought, such moderation 
and candor, united with such earnestness and decision, would be 
deemed a credit to any cause, in any age of the world." 

But Dr. Worcester's greatness and usefulness were most illus- 
trated in his connection with the Missionary Cause: — first with 
the Massachusetts Missionary Society, of which he was many 
years Secretary, and afterwards President; and then finally, and 
chiefly, with the Foreign Missions from America. "Now," says 
the Rev. Dr. Woods, who knew him well, " if I would show you 
• exactly what Dr. Worcester was ; if I would fix your eye upon 
the highest distinction which marked his character; I must not 
mention merely his original powers of mind, nor his diligence and 
success in the acquisition of knowledge, nor his assiduous and ac- 
ceptable discharge of the duties of a pastor and preacher, nor his 
useful efforts in regard to the order and prosperity of particular 
churches, and the right conduct of our ecclesiastical affairs gener- 
ally, nor his able defence of the scripture doctrine of the divine 
glory of Christ ; — I must not stop with any or all of these ; but 
must present the beloved, the honored man before you as Corres- 
ponding Secretary of the American Board of Commissioners for 
Foreign Missions. It was for this office, so important and arduous, 
that all his previous offices and labors and trials contributed to 


Rev. Samuel Worcester, D. D. '2\ 

prepare him. It was in this office that his peculiar talents found 
room for their most appropriate and perfect exercise. Here he 
was in his proper place, his element. And here, through the 
mercy of God, his character acquired its brightest and purest 

" The manner in which he filled the office of Secretary, may 
be learned from facts. Learn it from those Reports of the 
Board which he wrote, especially the two last ; which I will 
venture to say, would not suffer by comparison with any per- 
formances of the kind ever published in America or in Europe. 
Learn it from his correspondence with the Missionaries, should 
that interesting correspondence ever be made public. Learn it 
from the character of our Missionary establishments in different 
parts of the world. The whole plan of these establishments, 
the principles on which they are conducted, and the success 
which has attended them, are before the public. And I think 
it is impossible, that any competent judge'should not perceive the 
superior wisdom which they display. Learn, too, the manner 
in which our brother filled his office from the influence he had 
with the community, and the success which uniformly attended 
his earnest appeals to them, in behalf of the funds of the So- 
ciety. The American people will not continue to invest a man 
with the highest degree of influence over them, unless his con- 
duct entitles him to entire confidence. It was one of the pecu- 
liar excellencies of Dr. Worcester, as Agent of the Missionary 
cause, that he had the habit of investigating a subject more pa- 
tiently and thoroughly, and in all difficult cases, of suspending his 
judgment longer than most other men. Though his mind was 
not distinguished for rapidity of movement, yet he had the supe- 
rior advantage of that slower and more exact movement of 
thought, of that longer reach of intellect, and that more particu- 
lar and more consummate deliberation, which qualified him to 
look through all the relations of a great and complicated subject ; 
to foresee the distant results of measures under consideration ; to 

22 Memoir of 

foresee dangers, and by seasonable precaution, to avoid them ; 
and to carryforward a systematic plan, involving the greatest 
interests of the world, to a gradual, but sure accomplishment. 
He was the man, who, in these vast concerns, had nothing that 
savored of presumption ; nothing precipitate ; nothing showy, 
visionary, or extravagant ; and nothing of transient utility. He 
took time to form his judgment; but when formed, it seldom 
needed reconsideration. I might say of him, what could be said 
of few men living, that such was the fairness and thoroughness 
of his investigations, and the judiciousness of his decisions, that 
it was scarcely necessary to inquire into the expediency or feasi- 
bility of any measure which he deliberately recommended." It 
was one of the most valuable qualifications of Dr. Worcester, 
and one of the most striking proofs of his greatness, that diffi- 
culties, however various and unexpected, never disconcerted him; 
opposition and danger never produced perturbation. He could 
experience many a temporary discomfiture, without being either 
subdued or discouraged. In those emergencies which agitate 
and overwhelm men of ordinary minds, he collected new 
strength ; his feelings rose to higher animation, and his under- 
standing to higher efforts. 

Having portrayed the leading features of Dr. Worcester's pub- 
lic character, and presented him as a man of most distinguished 
eminence in the church, we add a few of his remarks in the clos- 
ing scene of that life which was so full of great and useful ac- 

Speaking of his absence, and the expediency of his voyage 
and journey, he says, " It has been no slight satisfaction to my 
mind, that I came hither in obedience to God's direction, and 
not, as I would humbly trust, without some degree of filial sub- 
mission, and confidence, and hope. What, then, is to be, is not 
yet to be read. It may be the final exit from all earthly scenes, 
and the dropping of this slender tabernacle, though far away 
from its kindred dust, yet in the place, whether in the sea or 

Rev. Samuel Worcester, D. D. 23 

upon the land, appointed by sovereign goodness for its rest till the 
rising day. Ij may be the accomplishment of something for life 
and immortality to the wanderers of the wilderness, or dwellers 
in the dark places of the earth, by an instrumentality so feeble as 
to make it manifest that the excellency of the power must have 
been of God." "At the age of fifty, with a family requiring a 
father's as well as a mother's care, — a people holding his heart 
with a thousand ties ; a study, his loved retreat, ' Fast by the 
oracles of God,' — responsibilities the most weighty, and objects 
of attention and action for which only he would live and labor, — 
one could not leave home for an absence so long, and with pros- 
pects so precarious, without many reluctances and regrets, and 
thoughts of serious import, and movements of the inmost heart* 
But what is time, or place, or outward condition ? God is at 
all times and in all places the same ; and to feel that we are in 
him and he in us, is enough of happiness. To feel that we are 
where he would have us be, and doing what he would have us 
do, is all that for ourselves we should desire." 

The heart of Jacob was not more fondly set on going down 
to Egypt and seeing Joseph before he died, than Dr. Worcester's 
heart was, on visiting the Missionary stations. At a little dis- 
tance from Elliot, he wrote the following apostolic letter to the 
missionaries at that place; a letter which most strikingly shows 
the sacred passion which possessed and ruled his heart. He 
says, " In various scenes and changes ; the perils of the sea and 
perils of the wilderness ; in much weakness, weariness, and 
painfulness, ray heart has been cheered with the anticipation of 
being refreshed at Elliot. At present, however, it seems to be 
the will of our ever to be adored Lord and Master, that the an- 
ticipation, so fondly entertained, should not be realized. I bow 
to his sovereign pleasure, always good — infinitely good. Still 
my heart melts with longing, with tenderness towards that conse- 
crated spot — towards all the members of the Missionary family, 
both those whom I have seen, and those whom I have not seen ; 

24 Memoir of 



and towards the dear children of the forest, the objects of be- 
nevolent instruction, and labor, and care. May the God and 
Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of mercies and the 
God of all grace, bring you nearer and nearer to himself, and 
keep you more entirely in his love, — grant you abundant sup- 
ports and consolations, — make you faithful unto death. May he 
bless the school and prosper the work in the nation, and make ' 
the wilderness and solitary place to be glad for you. And when ■ 
your labors and trials on earth shall be finished, in his infinite 
mercy, may we meet in his presence above, and rejoice in his 
glory forever." 

When Dr. Worcester arrived at Brainerd, May 25th, he was 
extremely feeble, and as it seems, looked upon the time of his 
departure as at hand. " God," he said, " is very gracious. He 
has sustained me, as it were by miracle, thus far, and granted 
me one great desire of my heart, in bringing me to Brainerd. 
And if it be agreeable to his holy purposes, that I should leave 
my poor remains here, his will be done." He was able to at- 
tend to but little business, and to speak but little. In a few 
words, he addressed the members of the church, and some of 
the congregation. After that, though much exhausted, he ex- 
pressed a particular desire, that the children of the school, ac- 
cording to their request, should see him. " I want," — he said, 
feebly, and with tears. — " 1 want to see all my dear children, 
and to take them by the hand." They were then called into his 
room, and he took each of them by the hand, as they passed by bis 
dying bed. Having all passed round in procession, they stood 
and surtg a hymn. He was affected to tears most of the time. 
He then, in the most affectionate manner addressed them, which 
in return melted them to tears. 

The grief of the Missionary family on the occasion of Dr. 
Worcester's death, we may learn from their own language. 
When beginning to write their Journal, the day on which their 
beloved counsellor and father died, they thus describe the over- 



Rev. Samuel Worcester, D. D. 

whelming sorrow of their hearts : " With reluctance we enter 
on the events of this day t Our thoughts xecoil. — Our pen stops. 
— Tears darken our eyes. — We seek where to weep. — We enter 
into our closets and weep there. — We resolve to be men and not 
children. — We resume the task. — Our weakened hands refuse to 
perform their office. — We look at each other, and say, who shall 
bear the doleful tidings? A solemn silence casts a still darker 
shade over the gloomy scene. Every heart is faint ; every 
head is sick ; every hand is weak." 

" But the Missionary family at Brainerd," says Dr. Woods, 
in his funeral sermon, <( are not alone in their grief. There is a 
general mourning. And this mourning will spread through vari- 
ous and distant parts of the world, as the tidings of Dr. Worces- 
ter's death shall be heard. Our Missionaries in the East and in 
the West loved him and confided in him, as a father, by whose 
mature wisdom and faithful friendship, they were guided and 
cheered in their labors. How will their hearts bleed, when they 
shall hear that this beloved, honored friend, is no more! — I 
might speak of the sorrow of this Church and Society ; of the 
Prudential Committee, and the American Board ; of our Theo- 
logical Seminary, in which he had been recently called to the 
office of a Visitor ; of the Massachusetts Missionary Society, 
and the American Education Society, and of other religious and 
charitable Societies with which he was connected-; of the 
churches and ministers of Christ ; of all the friends of missions, 
and all the friends of man." 

Dr. Worcester was married, October, 1797, to Zervia Fox, 
daughter* of Dr. Jonathan Fox, of Hollis, N. II., a most 
estimable man, who was born in Dracut, Ms., and died in 
Hollis, at the age of 29. They were the parents of eleven 
children, six of whom still survive, viz: Rev. Samuel Melanc- 
thon, who is now Pastor of the Tabernacle Church, Salem ; 
Zervia Fidelia, who married Samuel H. Archer, a graduate of 
Dartmouth College, and teacher of youth ; Jonathan Fox, M. D., 

26 Memoir of 

,a graduate of Dartmouth College, and now a teacher of 
youth, in Salem ; Elizabeth Lydia, who married Rev. Warren 
H. Beaman, of Hadley, North Parish ; Abigail Amelia Carlton, 
who married Mr. William Merrill, a trader in Salem ; and Mary 
Haraden, who married Mr. Samuel D. Foster, also a trader in 
Salem. Mrs. Worcester still survives, and enjoys comfortable 
health, and great happiness in her children. 

The publications of Dr. Worcester are the following: — -an 
oration at Dartmouth College, July 4th, 1794 ; oration at New 
Ipswich, July 4th, 1796 ; oration on the death of General 
Washington, at Fitchburg ; six sermons on future punishment, 
1800; Facts and Documents, pp. 118, January, 1802; valedic- 
tory sermon at Fitchburg, Aug., 1802 ; sermon at the Dedication 
of the New Meeting House, Beverly, April 21st, 1803 ; sermon 
on Righteousness, preached at Reading, September 15th, 1804 ; 
sermon at the ordination of Rev. David Jewett, Gloucester, 
October 30th, 1805; two discourses on the Perpetuity and Pro- 
vision of God's gracious covenant with Abraham, September, 
1805; letters to Rev. Dr. Baldwin, 1807; sermon at the in- 
stallation of Rev. Josiah Webster, Hampton, N. II., April, 1808 ; 
the Messiah of the Scriptures, June, 1808 ; sermon on the death 
of Mrs. Eleanor Emerson, November 14th, 1808; sermon be- 
fore the Massachusetts Missionary Society, May 30th, 1809; 
sermon before the Salem Female Charitable Society, September 
27th, 1809 ; sermon at the ordination of Rev. E. L. Parker,. 
Londonderry, September 12tb, 1810; address on Music before 
the Dartmouth College Handel and the Middlesex Musical So- 
cieties, Concord, N. H., September 19th, 1810; God a rewarder, 
a sermon delivered Lord's Day, January 27th, 1811 ; sermon at 
the installation of Rev. Dr. Griffin, Boston, July, 1811 ; spe- 
cial State fast sermon on account of the War, July, 1812 ; Na- 
tional fast sermon on account of the War, August 20th, 1812; 
Martyrdom of Stephen, sermon, August 9th, 1812 ; Right Hand 
of Fellowship given to the Missionaries, Newell, Judson, Nott, 



Rev. Samuel Worcester, D. D. .27 

Hall and Rice ; sermon before the Foreign Missionary Society 
of Salem and Vicinity, January 6th, 1813 ; Select Harmony, 
1813, sermon at the Funeral of Rev. Rufus Anderson, Wen- 
ham, February 15th, 1814 ; Christian Psalmody, 1815; sermon 
at the ordination of Rev. William Cogswell, Dedham, Mass., 
April 26th, 1815 ; sermon at the ordination of Foreign Mis- 
sionaries, Newburyport, June c 21st, 1815 ; three letters to Rev. 
Dr. Channing ; anniversary sermon before the American Educa- 
tion Society, Oct. 23rd, 1816; the Drunkard a Destroyer, sermon 
before the Massachusetts Society for the Suppression of Intem- 
perance, May 30th, 1817 ; anniversary sermon before the Bible 
Society of Salem and Vicinity, June 10th, 1818; ten Reports 
of A. B.C. F. M. from 1811 to 1820 ; various articles in dif- 
ferent periodicals. After Dr. Worcester's decease, in the year 
1823, a volume of his sermons on various subjects, practical and 
doctrinal, was published. 

In 1844, the Rev. Samuel M. Worcester, eldest son of Dr. 
Worcester, visited Brainerd, where his father died and was buried ; 
and, having returned and consulted with the family and their 
friends, and the Prudential Committee ol the American Board 
of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, it was deemed expedi- 
ent, that the Remains of Dr. Worcester should be removed from 
the burial-ground at Brainerd. Accordingly they were disin- 
terred on the 31st of October of that year, and are now deposited 
in the Cemetery at Harmony Grove, in Salem, Ms. The orig- 
inal monument will continue in its place, as a Cenotaph, with the 
inscription unaltered, having, in addition, an appropriate record, 
apprizing the reader of the disinterment. On the spot, where 
the Remains of this great and good man are now entombed, and 
where, in all probability, they will lie undisturbed, until raised in 
the likeness of " the glorious body " of Christ, for whom he 
lived and in whom he died, a monument is erected, on which is 
the following inscription, viz : 


28 Thoughts on 

Rev. Samuel Worcester, D. D., 

* Pastor of the Tabernacle Church, 

And First Corresponding Secretary of the 

American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. 

Born at Hollis, N. H., Nov. 1, 1770, 

Died at Brainerd, East Tenn., 

June 7, 1821. 

Remains removed, and 

Re-interred, May 5, 1845. 

'•' The cause of Missions immeasurably transcends the highest 
estimation of every created mind. Be the event what it may, 
recovered health or early death, I can never regret what I have 
done in this cause ; but only that T have done so little and with a 
heart so torpid." 

An extended Biography of Dr. Worcester, is in a course of 
preparation by his son, the Rev. Samuel M. Worcester, and 
may soon be expected in a volume from the press. 


By the Rev. Daniel Dana, D.D., of Newburyport. 
[Continued from page 252, Vol /.] 

Having spoken of gravity and simplicity as essential charac- 
teristics of pulpit eloquence, 1 proceed to remark, that the elo- 
quence of the pulpit should be evangelical. 

The Christian world abounds vvitli sermons guiltless of all 
offence against good morals, or good sense; against the rules of 
grammar, or logic, or rhetoric. Many of them may be replete 
witja forcible argument, with fine thoughts, with lively illustra- 
tions, and perhaps with those classical allusions, which, for highly 
cultivated minds, have such a powerful charm. Still these ser- 
mons have one defect, and that a radical defect. They are not 
evangelical. They are not Christian. They distinctly recog- 
nize scarce one of all the peculiar doctrines of the gospel. They 
might have been composed, if no gospel had ever existed. On 
the deep depravity of man ; on the divine glory of the Savior; 

Pulpit Eloquence. 29 

on the renewing influence of the" Spirit ; on the distinguishing- 
nature and fruijs of genuine religion — topics of all-command- 
ing and vital interest — they are either silent, or speak a language 
utterly vague and ambiguous. Hence they are sermons only in 
name. They neither disturb the latent corruptions of the heart, 
nor heal them. Far from saving the soul, they do not so much 
as inform the mind, nor awaken the conscience. 

Imperative as are the reasons for deprecating the progress of 
that open hostility to the truths of the gospel, which has been re- 
cently witnessed in our country, no judicious Christian could 
wish it exchanged for the form of opposition which has been just 
described. It is less direct ; but not on that account, less dan- 
gerous. It is more specious and insinuating ; and, therefore, 
more likely to succeed. In the former case, the Church is called 
to contend with an enemy in the open field ; and bracing her- 
self to the conflict, she may hope, in the strength of her God, to 
overcome. But here, her foes are in her bosom ; and the work 
of destruction goes on, secret, silent, and unsuspected ; but ef- 
fectual and sure. 

The species of preaching now described is scarcely more dis- 
tant from the truth and religion of the gospel, than from what is 
most deeply interesting to the human mind and heart. It may 
possess some of the lighter ornaments and attractions of elo- 
quence, but it must ever want its soul-enlivening fire. And this 
leads to another remark. 

The real eloquence of the pulpit consists pre-eminently in a 
lucid and powerful exhibition of Scriptural truth. By this it 
is not4ntended that every preacher, without exception, who can 
clearly conceive, and strongly state the contents of the Bible, is 
of course an Orator in the highest sense. But it is intended, 
that without these requisites, no one can prefer a valid claim to 
the character of a pulpit Orator. It is meant, too, that he who 
possesses them, possesses some of the first and most essential 
elements of the eloquence of the sacred desk. 


30 Thoughts on 


All will admit, that what more than any thing else, distin- 
' guishes ai}d constitutes eloquence, is sublimity. To sublimity, 
likewise, it is essential, that it expands and elevates the mind, 
or raises powerful emotions in the heart, or both. Now the 
Bible, more than all other books in the world, abounds with 
truths, sentiments and images, precisely of this character. How 
astonishing, for instance, are the representations which it gives 
of the Deity himself — the High and Lofty One inhabiting 
eternity — having the heaven for his throne, and the earth for 
his footstool — accounting all the nations of our globe as the 
drop of the bucket, and the small dust of the balance — measur- 
ing the waters in the hollow of his hand — meting out heaven 
with a span — comprehending the dust of the earth in a meas- 
ure — ^weighing the mountains in scales, and the hills in a bal- 
ance. How superlatively interesting are the moral perfections 
of the Supreme of beings, when he proclaims his name in the 
ears of rebellious and guilty mortals, not in accents of thunder, 
but as the Lord, the Lord God, merciful and gracious, long- 
suffering, abundant in goodness and truth ; keeping mercy for 
thousands, forgiving iniquity and transgression and sin, though 
he will by no means clear the guilty. 

But pre-erninentin the Bible are the truths pertaining to human 
redemption. That when man, made in the image of God, had 
obliterated that image, and descended from his height into the 
depths of guilt and wretchedness — it should appear, in that 
dark and awful moment, that the counsels of eternity had been 
employed in devising a scheme for his recovery ; that, in time, 
He „ who was in the beginning with God, and was God, should 
assume the human nature, and in that nature, should obey and 
suffer and die, to make atonement for human guilt ; that the sal- 
vation thus expensively purchased, should be freely offered to 
all the ruined race ; that the Holy Spirit of God should descend 
to apply this redemption, to convince men of sin, to renew their 
hearts, and bring them to believe in the Savior ; that all who 

Pulpit Eloquence. 3 L 

thus believe, should be freely pardoned, graciously adopted, pro- 
gressively sanctified, divinely preserved amid the temptations 
and sorrows of life, sustained in death, and finally presented 
faultless before the throne of God — ah, what astonishing, soul- 
thrilling truths are these! Is there an individual of the race, 
who can hear them without emotion ? This is scarcely less as- 
tonishing. For be it remembered, there are beings in the uni- 
verse, to whom for ages these truths have been familiar, whose 
breasts they fill this moment with raptures of intense delight and 
admiration. These are the themes into which angels desire to 
penetrate — themes which resound, and will forever resound 
through the arches of heaven — themes which, when millions 
of ages shall have gone by, will fill the bosoms of the redeemed 
with transport, and acuminate the despair of the lost. These, 
then, are the themes which should occupy and absorb the Chris- 
tian minister ; which should fill his mind, his heart, and his ser- 
mons. Nothing beside can impart such meaning, such richness, 
such variety, such ever-springing freshness to his discourses. 
Nothing heside can so powerfully assail and impress the minds 
and hearts of his hearers. If these will not comfort and quicken 
the pious, nothing surely can do the work. If they will not 
rouse the impenitent, must they not slumber on till awakened by 
the last trump ? 

The eloquence of the pulpit, I remark further, should be per- 
vaded by a spirit of tenderness and compassion. The love of 
God toman; the pity of Christ to a lost world — these, as we 
have already seen, constitute the great subject of revelation. 
These* pervade its history and prophecy ; its doctrines, com- 
mands and invitations; its promises, and even its threatenings. 
How significant, how instructive is the fact. How emphatically 
does it teach us, that the grand instrument with which Heaven 
assails the hard heart of man, is love. How then can the 
Christian preacher meet the high and benevolent demands of his 

3'2 Thoughts on 


office, but by humbly aiming to give to the same instrument, 
its fairest tr?al, its fullest possible effect ? 

By an experiment of ages, it is now sufficiently ascertained 
that no man was ever yet laughed, or scolded, or satirized, or 
frightened, out of his sins. " If," says Newton, " we can in- 
dulge invective and bitterness in the pulpit, we know not what 
spirit we are of; we are but gratifying our own evil tempers, 
under the pretence of a concern for the cause of God and truth. 
A preacher of this character, instead of resembling a priest, 
bearing in his censer hallowed fire, taken from God's altar, may 
be compared to the madman in the Proverbs, scattering fire- 
brands, arrows and death. Such persons," he adds, " may ap- 
plaud their own faithfulness and courage, in setting their congre- 
tion at defiance ; but they must not expect to be useful." 

Indeed, it has been often found, that even the more stern and , 
rugged forms of human nature, after having long been proof 
against the legal and minatory kind of preaching, have bowed 
at once, to the sweet and subduing influence of gospel grace. 
The wretched Greenlander could hear without emotion, of the 
being and attributes of God, and even of the fallen and wretched 
state of man. But no sooner were the love and sufferings of 
Jesus disclosed, than the ice about his heart began to melt. A 
similar process was tried by Brainerd with his Indians, and with 
similar success. 

Not that we would exclude from the pulpit all that is awful 
and alarming. It would be unkind and cruel to our hearers, 
not to unveil the full extent of their guilt and danger. But the 
threatenings of God are to be uttered by his ministers in the 
same spirit ;n which He himself has uttered them ; that is, 
in the spirit of benevolence. Thus delivered — delivered 
with a trembling concern, they may reach the mark, and do 
some execution. But to denounce the wrath and vengeance of 
Heaven, in a harsh, unfeeling style, seems almost to invite disbe- 
lief, and thus to increase the stupidity which it aims to remove. 

Pulpit Eloquence. . 33 

In a word ; there belongs to the Christian pulpit, an earnest- 
ness, an urgency ;% I might say, even a vehemence of address, ex- 
clusively its own. 

The very truths and doctrines of religion, possess a peculiarity 
of character, which demand a corresponding peculiarity, in the 
style and manner of their discussion. To discourse on the per- 
fections and law of God, or on the ruin and recovery of man, 
with as little emotion as would be felt in investigating a question 
in geometry, or algebra, would be a gross incongruity. But the 
minister is not confined to the bare development and exhibition 
of truth. He has other duties, and those of the most momentous 
kind. It is his to warn sinful men to flee from the wrath to come. 
It is his to call them to believe in the Savior, to repent of their 
sins, and turn to the Lord, ft is his to entreat them in Christ's 
stead, to renounce their rebellion, and be reconciled to God. 
In these high transactions, involving everlasting consequences, 
shall he be cold, and listless, and formal ? Shall he not pour 
his inmost heart into them ? Shall not strong emotions of soul 
become visible in his eyes, his aspect, and his whole demeanor? 

True; with some hearers, this earnestness may pass for weak- 
ness and enthusiasm ; with others, perhaps, for gross affectation 
and hypocrisy. But surely the time will come, when their views 
will be changed ; when their only wonder will be, that the min- 
ister was not more urgent still ; that he could allow them any 
peace in their sins ; that any efforts within human power 
were spared, to disturb the security of their guilt, and to save 
their souls from eternal death. Yes ; the time is hastening, 
when ministers themselves will be ready to think their tenderest 
concern for sinners, too little removed from indifference, and their 
most vigorous endeavors for their salvation, comparatively heart- 
less and cold. 

Let Christian ministers then, awake to a holier zeal, and to in- 
creased earnestness of effort in their Great Master's cause. Let 
them never be content without some evidence of success. Let 

34 Juridical Statistics of 

them aim, in all their sermons, to produce an effect ; not indeed (o 
secure a mere*transient impression on the feelings of their hearers j 
still less, to set their tongues in motion in the preacher's praise ; 
but to awaken trains of deep and solemn thought, and to leave a 
sting in the conscience, which nothing but the grace of Heaven 
can extract. " That sermon," says Bishop Burnet, " that makes 
every one go away silent and grave, and hastening to be alone, 
to meditate and pray the matter over in secret — that sermon 
has produced its true effect. " 

To be concluded. 


By Hon. John Kelly of Exeter. 

In the Juridical Statistics of the old County of Strafford, prepared and 
published by Francis Cogswell, Esq., in the American Quarterly Regis- 
ter, Vol. XII. p. 39, and in the Statistics of other Counties, since pub- 
lished, enough has been said of the early and later judicial systems of the 
Province and State to excuse, in this article, the saying of nothing fur- 
ther upon that subject. 

Nothing is attempted here, but brief notices of those who have been 
raised to the Bench, been members of the Bar or held civil office in the 
Province before its division into Counties, and in the County of Rock- 
ingham since that division. 

That there are many omissions and errors is not doubted. The diffi- 
culty of avoiding them is better understood by those who have attempted 
h similar labor, than it can be by the general reader. 


The records of the Council and the records of the Superior Court 
being imperfect, no complete list of the Justices of that Court is extant, 
and none can now be made. 

The Superior Court of Judicature was not established in the Province 
of New Hampshire till near the close of the 17th Century. 

The names of those who are known to have had seats on the Bench 
of that Court are given with the dates, so far as known of the commence- 
ment and termination of their official duties. As these dates are some- 
times taken not from the records of the Council, but from the dockets 
of the Court, they may not be relied on as perfectly correct. In such 
instances they give the times when the Judge first and last appeared on 
the Bench, rather than the dates of his appointment, resignation, or death. 

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Statistics of Triennial Catalogue D. C. 


The following is a List of those who have graduated, from the com- 
mencement of the Institution, and also of those who have entered the 
ministry each year. 
Year. Grad. Min. Year. Grad. Min. Year. Grad. Min. Year. Gi-ad. Min. 
































































































































































































































76 yrs. 2,440 600 
Of those who have graduated in the regular course of study, 20 have 
been Presidents of colleges ; 73 have been Professors in colleges and 
theological seminaries. One class alone, that of the year 1828, has fur- 
nished one President, and nine Professors of colleges. Nine have been 
Governors of States ; 26 have been Judges of the Supreme Courts ; 10 
have been Senators in Congress ; 46 have been Representatives in Con- 
gress ; 2 have been ministers to Foreign Courts ; 1 Secretary of State ; 
1 Secretary of the Navy and of the Treasury, and 1 Postmaster-General. 
No college, according to its age and number of graduates, has fur- 
nished more distinguished men in the different learned professions than 
Dartmouth. Besides the above alumni, nearly 735 not alumni of the In- 
stitution, have received the degree of bachelor or doctor in medicine in 
the regular course of study; and 360 have received honorary degrees — 
making in the whole, 3,466 who have received degrees at the Institution. 
Of the 2,440 alumni, 1,573 are now living; and of the 600 ministers, 373 
still survive. 

The Rev. Laban Ains worth, of JafFrey, in this State, is the oldest 
graduate of the college now living. Though four others before him in 
the Catalogue, are not starred, viz: Judge Gilbert, and the Rev. Dr. Kel- 
logg, of the class of '75, Mr. Silas Little, of the class of ^76, and Mr. 
Solomon Howe, of the class of '77 ; yet, it is believed, that they all are 
deceased. Dr. Kellogg died, Aug. 13th, 1843, aged 87 years, and Judge 
Gilbert died the present year before the Catalogue was issued, in the 
91st year of his age. The time of the decease of the other two, is not 
known. The Rev. Mr. Ainsworth is in the 89th year of his age. 

Congregational Ministers 

in Carroll County. 



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Congregational Churches and 


There are in the County of Carroll, fourteen towns. In Jive of these, 
viz: Chatham, Albany, Eaton, Freedom and Brookfield, there never have 
been any Congregational Churches. In the other nine towns there are 
eleven Congregational churches, viz: 1 in Conway, 1 in Effingham, 1 in 
Moultonboro', 1 in Ossipee, 2 in Sandwich, 1 in Tamworth, 1 in Tufton- 
borough, 1 in Wakefield, 2 in Wolf borough. The churches in Sand- 
wich North and Tuftonborough, are very small and feeble. There are 
at present Jive settled Pastors in the County, viz : one in each of the 
towns of Moultonborough, Ossipee, Sandwich, Wolf borough and Tam- 
worth. There are also two supplies, the Ruv. Mr. Barker of Wakefield, 
and the Rev. Mr. Hall at Wolf borough Bridge. Some have been for the 
year past without even a stated supply, viz : those of Conway, Effing- 
ham and Tuftonborough, though some efforts are now making to settle 
Pastors over the two former churches. There never have been settled 
within .the bounds of this County but seventeen Congregational ministers, 
viz: 4 in Conway, 3 in Moultonborough, 2 in Ossipee, 3 in Sandwich, 
3 in Wolf borough, and 2 in Wakefield. Of these sixteen, only six are 
known to be dead, ten are still living. 

Conway. — Having been licensed, thejRa;. Dr. Porter preached a short 
time at Blue Hill, Me. In Sept., 1773, he was ordained at New Durham. 
July 2Gth, 1776", he was appointed Chaplain of the Regiment, command- 
ed by Col. Joshua Wingate, went through the wilderness to Mount Inde- 
pendence, on Lake Champlain, lived with the soldiers and shared in their 
privations and sufferings, and was in the service five or six months. 
He left New Durham in 1777, and settled in Conway in the year 1778, 
when the country was new. Dr. Porter, by an arrangement with his 
people, left preaching at Conway in 1814, though he never was dismissed 
till death terminated his labors, having been Pastor fifty-seven years. He 
preached at Fryeburg, Me., a number of years. He died at his resi- 
dence in Conway, November, 1830, in the 92nd year of his age, his 
mental powers, especially his memory, having become much impaired. 
He was a man naturally of a very strong and clear intellectual capacity, 
able as a preacher, and highly upright and Christian-like as a man. His 
theology was taken in its form more from the Bible than human sys- 
tems. Besides, it is said of him, that he used to labor by day and write 
his sermons by night — not by the light of a lamp or candle, but by 
pitch-wood light, as he was poor, and his people were unable to afford 
him much support. He received the degree of Doctor in Divinity at 
Dartmouth and Harvard Colleges in the same year, 1814. 

A few of Dr. Porter's sermons were published, viz : one preached at 
Concord, before the Legislature, June, 1804; one at Conway, on the 
death of General Washington, in 1800 ; and one on the 4th of July, 
1811 ; perhaps others. 

Dr. Porter married, December, 1773, for his first wife, Sarah Stetson, 
daughter of Capt. James Stetson of Portsmouth. They were the pa- 
rents of thirteen children, viz: Nathaniel, Sarah, Tobias, Jacob, Mary, 


Ministers in Carroll County. 


Patty Montford, John, Putty Montford, 2nd, Abigail, James, John, 2nd, 
Daniel True, and Stephen, five of them still survive. Mrs. Porter de- 
ceased Feb. 8th, 1810, aged 55 years, and Dr. Porter married for his sec- 
ond wife the widow Phebe Page, Jan. 12th, 1812. 

Rev. Benjamin Glazier Willey was ordained and settled as colleague with 
Dr. Porter. He continued eight years Pastor of the Church, and then re- 
moved to Milton, where he continued more than thirteen years, preaching 
the gospel of the blessed God, but was never installed. His successor in 
that place is the Rev. Edward F. Abbott, a graduate at Gihnanton Theo- 
logical Seminary in the) ear 1846. Mr. Willey was born in Conway, Feb. 
11th, 1796, was the son of Samuel Willey, Esq., one of the first settlers 
in the town, who lived to the great age of more than ninety-one years. 
He was vigorous and active till near his death. He showed that hard 
labor and plain living, which were incident to the early settlers of the 
county, are not unfavorable to longevity and health. Mr. Willey was 
also brother to Capt. Willey, who, with his whole family, were destroy- 
ed on the night of Aug. 28th, 1826, by an avalanche from the White 
Mountains. He married Rachel M. Mitchell of North Yarmouth, Me., 
daughter of Dea. Jacob Mitchell of that place. They have had three 
children, Phebe Mitchell, who died in February, 1844, aged 18 years, 
much endeared to her friends for her numerous virtues; Stuyvesant 
Ten Broeck and Jacob Mitchell, who are still living. Mr. Willey with his 
family, now reside in Gihnanton, having left Milton some months since. 

Rev. Mr. Gannett was the son of Dea. Matthew Gannett of Tamworth. 
He was the son of Seth, who was the son of Joseph, that settled in 
Bridgewater, who was the son of Joseph, who was the son of Matthew 
Gannett, who was born in England in 1618, came early to this country, 
settled first in Hingham, Ms., and thence soon removed to Scituate. 
He studied theology for a time at the Theological Seminary, Andover, 
but did not graduate. Since he left Conway, he has preached at Edgar- 
town, on Martha's Vineyard, and at other places in the vicinity of Boston, 
but has not been settled. 

The immediate successor of Rev. Mr. Gannett, was the Rev. John 
Wilde. He studied divinity at the Theological Seminary, Andover, and 
had been settled at Grafton, Ms., previous to his going to Conway. He 
is now settled at Falmouth, Me. 

Effingham. — After the dismission of Rev. Mr. Burt, the church was 
for some time destitute of stated preaching. The Rev. Thomas Jame- 
' son, afterwards minister of Scarboro', Me., supplied them for several 
years while Preceptor of the Academy. Subsequently the Rev. John 
Mordough preached for them as a stated supply. Afterwards he w r as 
settled at Saccarappa, Me., and is now preaching at Amesbury Mills, Ms. 
Rev. James Doldt, now of N. Wolf boro', supplied here for a time. 

Moultonboro'. — The Congregational church was embodied, March 
13th, 1777, and Rev. Mr. Perley supplied the pulpit one or two years 
previous to his settlement, and but a few months afterwards. He was b. 
July 22nd, 1742, and ordained over the church at Seabrook, Jan. 31st, 
1705, and dismissed May 22nd, 1775. He studied divinity with Rev. 
George Leslie, and married Hephzibah Fowler of Ipswich, Ms. After 
leaving Moultonboro', he was installed at Groton, N. H., in 1779, where 
he remained about five years ; at Gray, Me., 1784, and continued there in 
office until 1791, and died Nov. 28th, 1831, aged 89. 


50 'Congregational Churches and 

. Rev. Mr. Shaw was the son of Edward Shaw, of Hampton. His moth- 
er's name, before marriage, was Ruth Fellows. She was of Salisbury, Ms. 
Mr. Shaw's grand-father's name, as well as his great-grand-lather's name, 
was Edward. The latter, it is said, came from England and settled in 
Hampton ; and a descendant in the fifth generation now lives on the 
same spot where the first Mr. Shaw fixed his place of residence, and 
the house is now standing and inhabited, in which the Rev. Mr. Shaw 
was born one hundred years ago. Mr. Shaw preached in Moultonboro' 
fifty-two years before his dismission, and occasionally, six years after- 
wards. During his ministry he solemnized more than 400 marriages. 
He died in 1834, at the age of 87 years and 9 months. Mr. Shaw was 
a man of respectable talents, sound in judgment, modest in deportment, 
and peaceful in his life. He studied divinity with Rev. Ebenezer Flagg 
of Chester, and married for his wife Hannah Moulton of Hampton, 
daughter of John Moulton, who was once an Elder of a Presbyterian 
church in Newburyport. She died, Marcli 26lh, 1827, aged 76. They 
had seven children, viz: Abigail, John M., Jeremiah, a Deacon of the 
church, Edward, Eunice, Ichabod, who was a physician, an account of 
whom is given in the Repository, Vol. 1., on page 73, and Ruth F. Only 
two children, John M., and Jeremiah, survive. But two of Mr. Shaw's 
written works are known to have been published : one an answer to a 
work written by Ballou, on the Atonement ; the other a pamphlet enti- 
tled " Great is the Mystery of Godliness." 

Rev. Mr. Dodge's lather's name was George, as was also his grand- 
father's. His mother's maiden name was Mary Cleaves. She was from 
Beverly, and her mother was a Pearly from Boxford. He fitted for 
college at Atkinson Academy under the instruction of the Hon. John 
Vose. He studied divinity with Rev. Drs. Manassah Cutler, Abiel Ab- 
bott and Samuel Worcester, settled in the ministry in the First Parish 
in Haverhill, Ms,, Dec. 2lst, 1808, and was dismissed from that people, 
June 13th, 1827. 

Mr. Dodge married, March 1st, 1809, for his first wife, Mary Shats- 
well of Ipswich, whose father's name was Nathaniel, and whose great- 
grand-father came to this country from England. They had two chil- 
dren, Nathaniel Shatswell and Mary Elizabeth. They adopted a child 
which they named Lydia Ann Dodge. The son has been liberally edu- 
cated, and is by profession an Instructor of youth. He is married to 
Emily Pomroy, daughter of Lemuel Pomroy, Esq., of Pittsfield, Ms., 
where he now resides. 

Mr. Dodge's first wife deceased, July 31st, 1829, and he married, March 
29th, 1831, for his second wife, Martha Hubbard of Sandwich, whose 
father's name was John Hubbard. Mr. Dodge has published a " Second 
Centennial Sermon on the Landing of our Forefathers," 1820 ; and also 
occasionally pieces in periodicals. 

Ossipee. — Rev. Mr. Jlrnold studied divinity in part with the Rev. Mr. 
Ward of Plymouth, and supplied for a time at Bristol and Loudon. He 
is die author of two publications on Baptism, and one or two others. Af- 
ter being at Ossipee a few years, a difficulty arose in respect to his mor- 
al character, and he withdrew from the ministry. He then read law, 
and is supposed to be in its practice in some of the Western States. 
He married a daughter of Dea. Grover of Atkinson. 

The given name of the Rev. John Searle Winter's father was Benjamin, 

Ministers in Carroll County. 


whose native place was Newburyport. His mother's name was Hannah 
"Searle, daughter of William Searle. He studied divinity with Rev. Drs. 
Parish of Newbury, (Byfield,) Ms., and Wood of Boscaweu. He was 
licensed to preach the gospel by the Hopkinton Association, June 25th, 
1825, and labored in Danbury and vicinity till March, 1831, having been 
ordained to the work of an Evangelist, the last Wednesday in April, 
1828, by the Hopkinton Association. He labored also as acting Pastor 
of the Congregational church in Bristol six years, ending March 6th, 
1837. He commenced his ministerial services in Ossipee, March 12th, 
1837, and was installed Pastor, Nov. 8th, 1837. He was married to 
Elizabeth Webster of Salisbury, Sept. 28th, 1818, by whom he has had 
five children, four of whom are still living. 

Between the dismission of Mr. Arnold and the employment of Mr. 
Winter, the pulpit at Ossipee was supplied by various Congregational 

Sandwich. — The Congregational church at Sandwich was formed 
August, 1814, through the instrumentality of the Rev. William Cogs- 
■well, a missionary sent from the Massachusetts Missionary Society to 
preach in Saudwich and vicinity. An interesting revival of religion 
commenced with his labors, which resulted in the conversion of many, 
and the establishment of a church, which has lived and flourished. 
The church, at its formation, consisted of 13 members. Others were 
soon added so as to make 27 in the whole, and the revival continued. 
Mr. Cogswell's mission closed in September. From that time to the 
settlement of Mr. Smith, the church and society were favored, most of 
the time, with the services of missionaries or stated supplies. 

Rev. David Page Smith was the son of the Rev. David Smith of Mere- 
dith. After leaving Sandwich, he was settled at Ne wfield, Me., and is now 
happily settled as the Pastor of the Evangelical Church in Greenfield in 
this State. Having preached as a stated supply for about six years, he 
was installed Pastor, May 8th, 1845. 

Rev. Mr. Leach was the son of Levi Leach of Bridgewater, Ms. He 
studied divinity at the Theological Seminary, Audover. When ordained, 
he was sick so as to be confined to the house, and the ordaining servi- 
ces, as Ordaining Prayer and Imposition of Hands, Charge and Right 
Hand of Fellowship, were performed in a private house ; the other ser- 
vices on the occasion, as sermon, prayers and address, were in the 
Meeting-house. After dismission from Sandwich, Mr. Leach was in- 
stalled over the church at Meredith village, Nov. 23rd, 1842, and still 
continues their Pastor He married Elizabeth Thompson, daughter of 
Stephen Thompson of Heath, Ms., Feb. 25th, 1833. Their children are 
Elizabeth Hervey, Lucy Ann and Clara Amelia. Mr. Leach has publish- 
ed some Reports of Benevolent Societies, and also occasionally pieces in 
different periodicals. 

The Rev. Mr. Holmes, previously, to commencing his studies for the 
ministry, officiated as a lay-rnissiouary in Boston. After concluding to 
engage in the ministry, he pursued preparatory studies at Gilmanton 
Academy until 1839, when he entered Gilmanton Theological Seminary, 
where he graduated in 1842. He was licensed to preach by the Hop- 
kinton Association of ministers in June of that year. Immediately after 
leaving the Seminary, he commenced preaching at Sandwich, and was 
soon ordained. The ordination sermon was delivered by the Rev. Prof. 

52 Congregational Churches and 

Rood. Mr. Holmes married Sarah Preston of Dorchester, Ms., by whom 
he has five children. 

Tamworth. — The following history of the Rev. Mr. Hidden is found 
written on the marble slab over his tomb: 

"Rev. Samuel Hidden died Feb. 13, 1837, aged 77 years, and in the 
46th year of his ministry. 

He was born at Rowley, Mass., Feb. 22, 1760. Graduated at Dart- 
month College in August, and licensed to preach in October, 1791. 
Ordained upon a rock, Pastor of the Congregational church in Tam- 
worth, to which were added, during his ministry, 503. 

As a Christian, he was meek and humble, active, faithful, and devoted, 
with a heart and hand of expansive benevolence and hospitality. 

He was a patron of literature, the friend and instructor of youth, and 
through life a distinguished lover of sacred music. 

In preaching the gospel, his promptness, zeal, plainness, happy illus- 
tration, and meltings of heart for immortal souls, rendered him beloved 
and respected by all. 

His long clay was literally and cheerfully spent in the service of his 
Lord and Master, and the hope of being soon with his Saviour, God, 
inspired his triumphant exclamation in death, "Just draw back the veil, 
and I am there," and tuned his enchanting lyre for the last song, 
"Angels, roll the rock away ! 
Death yield up the mighty prey !" 

Blessed and holy is he that hath part in the first resurrection." 
Mr. Hidden's remains lie interred near the meeting house in which he 
had preached almost half a century, and which has undergone but very 
little change in its inward structure since it was first erected. Near his 
grave also is the remarkable rock on which he was ordained, just before 
the meeting house was built, around which, at his ordination, were seated 
the former inhabitants of the town of Tamworth and vicinity. 

Rev. Mr. Hidden studied divinity with Rev. Isaac Smith of Gilman 
ton, who also preached his ordination sermon. When he came to Tam- 
worth the country was new, the roads extremely bad, the inhabitants 
few, scattered, and poor. He was the first minister of any denomina- 
tion that settled in the town, and almost the first that preached there. It 
was not until many years after he settled in Tamworth, that a chaise or 
any other carriage was seen in which people rode to meeting or jour- 
neyed. When, at length, the first cliaise passed through the town, it 
was published in the newspapers. 

Mr. Hidden was married Nov. 29th, 1792, to Betsey Price, daughter 
of William Price of Gilmanton. The children of Mr. Hidden were five ; 
only one of whom is now living, viz; Dea. William P. Hidden of Tam- 
worth, now an officer of the church to which his father preached. Here 
it may be noticed, that in three of the Congregational churches in this 
small County, there are three officiating deacons, all sons of the 
ministers who preached in these towns about half a century each, viz: 
Dea. Piper of Wakefield, Dea. Shaw of Moultonboro', and Dea. Hidden 
of Tamworth. This may be one evidence that God establishes his cove- 
nant with parents and their seed after them — that he is a covenant- 
keeping God. 

The labors of Mr. Hidden were abundant. During the first years of 

Ministers in Carroll County. • 53 

his ministry, his field was almost unbounded. There were but four 
Congregational ministers beside himself in all this part of the then Straf- 
ford County, nbw the County of Carroll, viz: Rev. Mr. Shaw of Moul- 
tenboro', Rev. Mr. Allen of Wolf boro', Rev. Mr. Piper of Wakefield, and 
Rev. Dr. Porter of Conway. There were but two Congregational minis- 
ters also at this time on this part of Maine, adjoining New Hampshire, 
viz: Rev. Mr. Rolfe of Parsonsfield, and Rev. Mr. Fessenden of Frye- 
burg. There were but few ministers of any denomination besides these, 
in all the region in New Hampshire between lake Winnipisiogee and the 
White Mountains, and in the Western border of Me. Most of the other 
ministers in those days around Mr. Hidden were men of retirement and 
study, and did not wish to travel much from their own towns; but Mr. 
Hidden's benevolent heart could not rest while he saw the inhabitants 
of the surrounding country, scattered "as sheep upon the mountains, 
having no shepherd." At this sight, "his soul was stirred within him ;" 
and as Paul declared, that as far as was in him, he determined " to 
preach the gospel to them that were at Rome also ;" so with Mr. Hidden, 
"his spirit had no rest" until he had proclaimed salvation, not only to 
those perishing around him in New Hampshire, but in Maine also. Mr. 
Hidden was undoubtedly the most popular, efficient, and successful min- 
ister of his day in all the region of country which is now included in 
Carroll County. 

The Rev. William Lewis Buffett was born in Greenwich, Ct., April 22nd, 
1799. He studied Theology at Andover, where he graduated, Jan., 
1823. October 7th, 1833, he was married to the widow Maiy Maria 
Pratt. His father is the Rev. Piatt Buffett, who was 35 years Pastor 
of the Congregational church in Greenwich, Stanwich Parish, Ct, where, 
in advanced life, having resigned his pastoral charge, lie now resides. 

His grand-father, on his father's side, was Isaac Buffett, a military 
officer in the Revolutionary Army. He was killed at Smithtown, Long- 
Island, when at the head of his troops under his command ; he attacked 
a numerous body of torjes, (soldiers fighting against their country,) on 
their retreat from a predatory excursion, in which his own dwelling, 
amongst others, had been robbed. His ancestors, on his father's side, 
came originally from France. They were Huguenots, who, being driven 
from that country by Catholic persecution, settled on Long Island. His 
grand-father, on his mother's side, was the late Rev. Isaac Lewis, D. D., 
who, a few years since, deceased at his residence in West Greenwich, 
Ct. He was chaplain in the Revolutionary Army, and was extensively 
known, respected, and beloved by the clergymen of our country in his 
day. He died at an advanced age. 

Mrs.JBuffett's father was Jacob Latimer of Hartford, Ct. Her mother's 
maiden name was Mary Mather. She was a descendant of the venera- 
ble Cotton Mather, and is also a cousin of the Rev. Dr. Cooley of Gran- 
ville, Ms. 

After leaving the Seminary at Andover, Mr. Buffett labored as a stated 
supply at Farmington, Me., and in Aurora, Cayuga Co., N. Y. Jn 1825, 
he was settled Pastor of the church in Atwater, Ohio, and was dismissed 
in 1833 ; after this, for some time he preached in Stowe and Ruggles, in 
in the same State. He is now laboring in Sylvania and La Sale, Ohio, 
where the Lord has recently poured out his Spirit and greatly blessed 
his labors. 

54 Congregational Churches and 

The Rev. Mr. Blake was born in PittsfielcL N. H., April 17th, 1800. 
His father's name was Enoch Blake ; bom in Hampton Falls. He was 
the son of Jeremiah Blake, who was the son of Joshua Blake, who was 
born in the township of Hampton, then embracing the present towns of 
North Hampton, Hampton, Hampton Falls, Seabrook, South Hampton, 
and Kensington. 

His father, in his youth, attended the ministry of the Rev. Dr. Samuel 
'Langdon, who had been previously President of Cambridge College. 
His mother was Hannah Eastman of Kensington. 

In the spring of 1822, the Rev. Mr. Blake commenced study prepara- 
tory to admission to College ; but his health failing him, he entered on 
the study of Medicine, in 1823, with William Prescott, M. D., of Gil- 
tnanton. He attended Medical Lectures at Brunswick, Me. and Hanover, 
and received the degree of M. D., at Dartmouth College, in 1826. Soon 
after, he commenced the practice of Medicine in his native town, and 
after a practice of ten years, left his profession, and entered the Gilman- 
ton Theological Seminary, where he graduated in 1838. He was li- 
censed to preach the gospel, by the Deerfield Association, in January 
of the same year. 

After laboring several months as a stated supply at Gilmanton Iron 
Works, he was settled as Pastor over the church at Wolf borough. He 
commenced his labors in Tamworth in September, 1842. Mr. Blake 
<married a daughter of the late John Carroll, Esq. of Pittsfield. 

Wakefield. The Rev. Mr. Piper was the sou of Josiah Piper of Ac- 
ton, Ms., fitted for college with the Rev. Mr. Swift of that place, studied 
theology with the Rev. Mr. Adams, his father's minister, and preached a 
few years at Wellfleet, and in other places, in Massachusetts. He was 
settled by the town of Wakefield, but in consequence of opposition in 
various ways, the contract was broken in the course of a few years, and 
he was deprived of his regular support. He, nevertheless, retained his 
pastoral relation to the church, and supplied the pulpit a part of the time. 
For several years, he ^performed more or less Missionary service under 
the patronage of the New Hampshire Missionary Society, in Maine 
and New Hampshire. He was greatly afflicted with the asthma during 
the latter part of his life, and not able to preach much. 

Mr. Piper was married to Mary Cutts, daughter of Hon. Edward Cutts 
of Kittery, Me., by whom he had eight children, three only survive. Ed- 
ward C, the only son living, is a Deacon of the Congregational church. 
He married in the year 1802, for a second wife, Sarah Little, daughter of 
the Rev. Daniel Little of Kenebunk, Me., who deceased in the year 

Mr* Piper was very much respected as a minister and a citizen, and 
was instrumental in promoting the cause of education, morals and gen- 
eral prosperity in the place. He died suddenly of a disease of the 
heart, May 17th, 1835, in the 79th year of his age. 

The Rev. Mr. Nichols was the son of Samuel Nichols of Boston, after- 
wards of South Reading, Ms. He pursued his preparatory studies at 
Phillips Academy, Andover, and graduated at the Theological Seminary, 
Bangor, in 1826. He was licensed by the Hancock and Penobscot As- 
sociation in 1825, and was ordained as an Evangelist at South Reading, 
by the Andover Association, June 5th, 1827. After his dismission at 
Wakefield, he preached as a stated supply more than three years at 

Ministers in Carroll County. 55< 

Franklin, and was installed at Barrington, Sept. 20th, 1837, and dismiss- 
ed, Dec. 1st, 1842. He died suddenly of an erysipelas affection, January- 
5th, 1844. 

Mr. Nichols married Mary Burdett, daughter of Michael Burden of 
South Reading. They had eight children, live of whom are living, viz. 
Samuel Hopkins, James, Daniel Furber, Martha Hale, and John Hayes. 
Mrs. Nichols still survives. 

The Rev. Nathaniel Barker was the son of Samuel Barker, whose fath- 
er's name also was Samuel. Mr. Barker's mother's name before mar- 
riage was Betsey Rogers, daughter of Maj. Rogers, an officer in the Rev- 
olutionary Army, and a lineal descendant of John Rogers the Martyr. 
Mr. Barker prepared for college at the Academies in Hebron and Bridg- 
ton in Maine. Immediately after graduating at college, he went to the 
Theological Seminary, Andover, and graduated there in 1825. He was 
licensed by the Hopkinton Association of Ministers, and was ordained in 
1826, as Pastor of the church in Mendon, South Parish, which is now 
incorporated into a town by the name of Blackstone, and remained there 
five years. He was then dismissed, and hired as a stated supply, April, 
1835, at Wakefield, where he still continues. 

Mr. Barker married Catharine Knight, who was daughter of Caleb 
Knight, Esq., of Boscawen. He was born at Newburyport, and his 
mother's name was Sarah Coffin, whose father was Maj. Joshua Coffin of 
Newbury, and whose mother was a Bartlett, aunt to Hon. William Bart- 
lett. Rev. Charles Coffin, D. D., President of Greenville College, Term., 
was connected with this branch of the Coffin family. The children of 
Mr. Barker are four, three sons and one daughter. 

Wolfborough. — The Rev. Mr. Allen was licensed to preach the 
gospel, June 11th, 1792, and the License w r as written on parchment, and 
is still preserved by his friends in Wolfboro'. He died suddenly, of 
apoplexy, July 27th, 1806, after a ministry of nearly fourteen years. He 
preached on the day of his death, which was the Sabbath. Having re- 
tired to bed, Sabbath evening, he soon complained of being unwell, and 
desired his wife to arise and get him some water ; but on returning to the 
bed, she found him dead. His age was 60. His wife died Jan. 25th, 1819. 

In the year 1796, he was married to Betsey Furnald, daughter of Dea. 
James Fernald of Elliot, Me. They were the parents of six children, 
and their names were Lois, Sarah, Betsey Ann, Ebenezer, David Tappan, 
and Alpheus Spring. Mr. Allen was a good scholar and a respectable 
preacher. After receiving his degree of Arts, lie spent some years in 

After Mr. Allen's death, the church became almost extinct. There 
was but little Congregational preaching for many years, and most of its 
members removed to other places or died. Ten or twelve years since, 
a small Congregational church was organized at Wolfboro' Bridge, and 
the Instructors in the Academy and others preached to the people till 
1838, when the Rev. Jeremiah Blake was settled as the successor of Mr. 
Allen after a lapse of thirty-two years. His ordination sermon was de- 
livered by the Rev. Prof. Warner. A revival of religion occurred 
the winter and spring following, not only in Wolfboro', but also in al- 
most all the neighboring towns. As the fruits of this revival, a Congre- 
gational church was organized at North Wolfboro', and another at Tuf- 

56 How Scholars are Made. 

The Rev. Air. Hall is the eon of Timothy Ware Hall, now of Windsor, 
,Vt., 7(> years of age. He fitted for College at Kimball Union Academy, 
and Aniberst Academy, Ms. He studied divinity at the Theological 
Seminary, Andover, and graduated there in 1832. After supply- 
ing the desk in the Seminary Chapel during one vacation, he went to 
Hopkinton, Ms., and preached till June, 1833, when he was ordained as 
colleague with the Rev. Nathaniel Howe. He was dismissed in May, 
1838 ; and took charge of the High School in Hopkinton one year. After 
this he resided in Andover till April, 1843, when he was invited to take 
charge of the Academy at Wolfboro' Bridge. This connection he sus- 
tained for two years, preaching to the people at the same time on the 
Sabbath. In the spring of 1845, he devoted himself exclusively to the 
duties of the Pastoral office with the church in Wolfboro', and encour- 
aged the society to build a meeting house. This was deemed essential 
to their existence and prosperity. Mr. Hall obtained for this object, by 
solicitation in Boston, nearly $250. With this encouragement, the house 
was erected and finished outside. In this state it continued a year, for 
want of means to finish it. But by some accumulation of strength at 
home, and the hope of some farther aid from abroad, the work was re- 
sumed in August, 184(3, under contract of being completed the present 
month, October. The accomplishment of this enterprise will be of vast 
importance to the cause of religion in this place, and to the indefatigable 
exertions of Mr. Hall in this work, are the church and society greatly 

June 19th, 1833, Mr. Hall was married to Sarah Frances Swift, daugh- 
ter of Dr. Swift of Andover, Ms. They are the parents of four children, 
two sons and two daughters. 

Wolfboro', North. Rev. James Doldt was the son of Frederick 
Doldt of Groton, Ms. He was licensed by the Hollis Association, and, 
on leaving the Seminary at Gilmanton, supplied one year at Ossipee and 
Effingham. He married Eliza, daughter of Edmund Stevens of Canter- 
bury. , 


The Hon Daniel Webster makes the following pithy remark in relation to 
scholars : 

" Costly apparatus and splendid cabinets have no magical power to make 
scholars. In all circumstances, as a man is, under God, the master of his own 
fortune, so is he the maker of his own mind. The Creator has so constituted 
the human intellect, that it can grow only by its own action, and by its own 
actiorr it most certainly and necessarily grows. Every man must, therefore, 
in an important sense, educate himself. His books and teachers are but helps; 
the work is his. A man is not educated until he has the ability to summon, in 
case of emergency, all his mental power in vigorous exercise to effect his pro- 
posed object. It is not the man who has seen most, or who has read most, who 
can do this ; such an one is in danger of being borne down like a beast of bur- 
den, by an overloaded mass of other men's thoughts. Nor is it the man who 
ean boast merely of native vigor and capacity. The greatest of all warriors 
that went to the seige of Troy, had the pre-eminence not because nature had 
given him the most strength, and he carried the largest bow, but because self- 
discipline taught him how to bend it." 

Statistics of the New Hampshire Senate. 









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Notice of the Northern Academy of 



An account of the origin of the Academy, and the reasons for its es- 
tablishment, are given in the " First Annual Report of the Curators " 
of the Institution. They are as follows : 

"For some time, it had been the opinion of those who had reflected 
on the subject, that an Institution of the kind was needed in this part 
of the country, to aid in increasing in the community, a taste for Litera- 
ture and Science. As the means of knowledge in our large cities, and 
at our old literary establishments cannot be enjoyed here, something as 
a substitute should be provided. To supply this want in part, it was 
thought, that a Literary and Scientific Association, answering, in some 
measure, the purposes of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 
the Massachusetts Historical Society, and the Boston Society of Natural 
History, might be formed in this vicinity, whose radiating influence 
would be favorable and salutary. It would bring learned men in contact 
with each other, furnish an opportunity for exchanging views on great 
and important subjects, and operate as a stimulus to exertion in the 
pursuits of science. It would also become a bond of union and fellow- 
ship, and enable those thus associated to publish the results of their in- 
quiries and investigations, for the benefit of others. 

Accordingly, alter consultation and correspondence, a number of gen- 
tlemen from Vermont, Massachusetts and this State, assembled in Hano- 
ver, at the study of President Lord, June 24th, 1841, for the purpose of 
forming, if it should be deemed expedient, a Society of the above de- 
scription. The Meeting was organized by choosing Professor Adams, 
of Dartmouth College, Chairman, and Professor Aipheus Crosby, Scribe, 
After suitable deliberation on the subject, and the opinion of all present 
had been expressed, a vote was passed to form such a Society as had 
been contemplated. A constitution was then prepared and adopted, 
officers were elected, and the Academy immediately went into operation. 
A number of individuals, at that time, were elected as Fellows, Corres- 
ponding or Honorary Members, and others since, from time to time, have 
been elected as such. 

In accepting their appointment, the members have uniformly expressed 
their cordial approbation of the establishment of the Academy, and 
pledged their co-operation in promoting the interests of the Institution. 
We here present the views and feelings of five of them, who have de- 
ceased since the formation of the Academy, viz., the Hon. Samuel C, 
Allen of Northfield, Ms., the Hon. Elijah Paine, LL. D. of Williamstown, 
Vt., Daniel Oliver, M. D., LL. 1). of Cambridge, Ms., the Hon. Joshua 
Darling of Henniker, and Luke Howe, M. D. of JafTrey. In Mr. Allen's 
communication, he remarks, " I am glad to learn, that an Institution of 
this character has been established in the interior of the country, and 1 
am particularly pleased with its location at Hanover, where it can receive 
the best facilities and aids for promoting its objects." 

Arts and Sciences. 59 

" There is a natural bond of union mid sympathy between those who 
<:ultfvtLte the sciences, and associations among them have done much to 
quicken the spirit qf inquiry and encourage individual effort, and have 
been of great public benefit by preserving not only the new inventions 
and discoveries, which from time to time, are made in the different 
branches of Science, but important facts essential to their ulterior im- 

"It is important, too, as I apprehend, that the men of study and 
thought should bring out the results of their inquiries, touching the great 
economical and social interests of the people, with the demonstrations 
on which they rest, and an association most connected with agriculture, 
and farthest removed from the bias of artificial interests would be most 
likely to reach the truths essential to the general welfare and happiness." 

"I am much obliged by the honor conferred on me by the Academy, 
and shall bo happy, as far as may be in my power, to co-operate with 
them in the furtherance of the high objects of its institution. I only 
add assurances of my earnest wishes for its success." 

Judge Paine says, " It gave me great pleasure to learn, that such a 
society was organized, and I doubt not, that it will do much good. My 
advanced age will be an excuse, should I fhil to make contributions to 
the doings of the Society." 

Dr. Oliver, after mentioning his illness as an apology for not replying 
to the notice of his appointment at an earlier date, adds, " Permit me to 
say that I accept the proffered honor with sincere pleasure and gratitude, 
though" (alluding to the anticipated termination of life) "without the 
slightest expectation that I shall ever be of any service to it, in accom- 
plishing the important ends of its formation." 

Judge Darling writes, "I duly appreciate the honor conferred in elect- 
ing me an Honorary Member of the Northern Academy of Arts and 
Sciences. The nature and object of said Academy as defined by its 
Constitution which accompanies the notice, meets my approval and shall 
receive my hearty co-operation." 

Dr. Howe, in his communication, after speaking upon the importance 
of making all possible advances in the Arts and Sciences, adds, "I like 
your movement in instituting the Northern Academy of Arts and Sci- 
ences. It will undoubtedly reflect good on the College, as well as pro- 
mote the declared object of the Academy. I hope to be able to be pres- 
ent at its meeting, a year from next week, and, in the meantime, will do 
what in me lies to promote its interests." 

Such is the testimony of these men, distinguished for talents, attain- 
ments, and virtues, in respect to the importance of the Academy, and 
the propriety of its being established at Hanover. 

Immediately after the Society w r as organized, the Curators prepared 
and adopted a code of By-Laws, which was read at the Annual Meeting 
of the Academy and approved. Since then, meetings of the Curators 
have been held, at which important subjects have been considered, and 
the usual business devolving upon them, transacted. The Academy, too, 
has had several meetings, at which essays or dissertations have been 
read and criticised. Conversation and discussions, also, on literary and 
scientific subjects have been held, and found profitable." 

"The object of the Academy," as it is expressed in the second article of 

60 Notice of the Northern Academy of 

the Constitution, "shall be the cultivation of the Arts and Sciences, 
' with a view to the interest and happiness of mankind." 

In the B^-Laws it is declared, " The Curators shall hold a stated 

meeting on the first Monday of every month;" "The Academy shall 

meet for business on the first and third Mondays of every month during 
the term time of Dartmouth College, at the place and hour notified by 
the Recording Secretary." 

The remaining part of the First Report is occupied in giving a further 
account of the doings of the Academy, and a brief notice of some of 
the Learned Societies in Europe, and of all the Learned Societies in the 
United States, to the time the Report was written. 

The Second Report, besides giving a detailed account of the transac- 
tions of the Academy for the year,' discusses the manner in which the 
object of the Institution may be accomplished. Four methods are pro- 
posed. 1. The establishment of a Library. 2. The establishment of a 
Museum. 3. The prosecution of literary and scientific researches. And 
4. The publication of the results of literary and scientific inquiries. 
The report closes as follows: 

"The United States has become a nation which ranks among the fore- 
most in power, wisdom, industry and enterprise. Would we maintain 
this high elevation, we must attend to all that will enlighten, improve, 
and embellish human society. Every true patriot, as well as every lover 
of mankind, should, therefore, feel deeply interested in whatever pro- 
motes religion and morals, literature, the sciences and the arts. 

Let us in our individual, and in our associated, capacity do what is in 
our power for the good of Society and the world, and thus make it 
manifest that we are alive to all that can purify, ennoble, adorn and 
benefit the great family of man." ] 

The Third Report gives merely an account of the operations of the 
Academy for the year, and a statement of its pecuniary condition. The 
Fourth Report, besides presenting a narrative of what the Academy has 
done since the previous Anniversary, gives a brief Biographical Sketch 
of the Hon. Samuel Smith of Peterborough, whose highly valuable col- 
lection of Newspapers is now deposited in the Library of the Academy 
as its own property. This may be considered principally as a gift of the 
children of Mr. Smith, though a partial compensation was paid for it. 
To Albert Smith M. D., especially is the Academy indebted for the bene- 

By a vote of the Academy at its last annual meeting, the Editor'of the 
New Hampshire Repository was requested to publish in the work an ab- 
stract of the Sketch of Mr. Smith, and of the schedule of the papers, 
which we here with pleasure insert. 

The Hon. Samuel Smith was born at Peterborough, N. 11., November 
14th, 17G5, and was the youngest of eight children, the late Judge Jere- 
miah Smith of Exeter, being one of them. His advantages of early 
education were very limited, as there was little opportunity of attending 
school; yet he and alibis brothers were greatly benefitted, and probably 
owed a good share of their reputation in Society to the exertions of their 
brother, the Judge, who commenced the practice of law in Peterboro' 
in 1786, and resided there till 1797. Mr. Smith, the particular subject 
of this notice, commenced mercantile pursuits in Peterboro' in 1789, 
and befng very successful, in three or four years, with an enterprising 

Arts aiul Sciences. 


spirit unexampled in those times, lie engaged in almost every kind of 
business in the manufacturing line. In carrying out his plans, he erected 
a building then*accounted of Babel dimensions. Referring to this, it is 
said, in the Centennial Address, delivered in Peterboro', October 24th, 
1839, " In 1793, on the spot now occupied by tho Phoenix factory, a 
wooden building, two hundred feet long and two stories high, was 
erected by Samuel Smith, and was the wonder of the country. Mr. 
Smith had in this building a paper-mill, a saw-mill, an oil-mill, a cloth- 
ier's shop, a trip-hammer shop, a wool-carding machine, and a dwelling 
house. This bold step gave the first decided impulse to the manufac- 
turing enterprise of the place." Mr. Smith was among the earliest 
pioneers in the manufacture of Cotton in Peterboro', and in the State of 
New Hampshire, He was largely concerned in tke first Factory which 
was established in the town in 1810. 

The village, in which are these manufacturing establishments, owes 
its existence and prosperity very much to Mr. Smith. He is represented 
as its founder, in the sentiment which was given from respect to him, 
at the time of the Centennial Celebration of the town. It is as follows: 
" Hon. Samuel Smith, — whose activity, energy and enterprise, put the 
first wheels in motion, that have rolled this Village on to its present 
flourishing condition." 

Mr. Smith continued in active business till 1829, when, by a great 
loss which he suffered in the burning of the Phoenix factory, of which 
he was a large proprietor, and by the unfavorable times, he was 
obliged to suspend business, and from that time he was principally oc- 
cupied in accomplishing tho favorite object of the last part of his life, 
the collection of newspapers. He devoted eight or ten years at different 
intervals to this employment. His "fits, of working," as he used to call 
them, were often of three or four months duration, in which he labored 
as though no higher object on earth could engage him. He went all 
over the country — he was indefatigable in his research, always begging 
if possible, but paying rather than relinquish any rare collections of pa- 

The object Mr. Smith had in view in making this collection, was to 
furnish himself with materials for a political history of his times, say 
from 1789 to 1820. This intention, however, was not seriously enter- 
tained till after his failure in 1829. But age crept upon him — his days 
were finished, and he has left nothing prepared for publication from his 
extensive knowledge and experience on these subjects. 

It must be gratifying to the descendants of Mr. Smith to have this 
collection of papers deposited permanently in this State, where it ought 
to be, and where, too, it may be preserved, and be the means of doing 
much good; so that should any persons be disposed to carry out his plans 
and designs in writing a history of the early times and political state 
of our country, they might be benefitted peculiarly by his labors. The 
collection is most valuable, and perhaps the most so of any in the country, 
as will appear by the schedule below, except the one of the American 
Antiquarian Society. 

Mr. Smith possessed a strong and vigorous mind, well cultivated, and 
very uncommon colloquial powers. In politics, he was a Federalist of 
the old school, and as such he was elected one of the Representatives 
of the State in the 13th Congress of the United States. Mr. Smith's re- 


Notice of the. Northern Accdtmy of 

mains me deposited in the village lie founded, under a plain granite 
monument with the following inscription : 

Hon. Samuel Smith, 

Died April 25, 1842, 

Aged 76 ; 

The Founder of this Village. 

The following is a List of the News-papers, together with the Num- 
ber of Volumes of each paper, collected by Mr. Smith, and now belong- 
ing to the Northern Academy. Some of the Volumes have not a com- 
plete file or set ; but they are all filed, and the numbers wanting are 
specified. A very few volumes are duplicates. An account of them is 
here* presented in two divisions. The first contains 722 volumes, un- 
bound ; the second contains 328 volumes, bound — making in the whole 
1,050 volumes. It should be observed, that some of the bound volumes 
contain, each, the numbers of the papers for several years. 


Papers. - No. Vols. 

National vEgis, 33 

Exeter Watchman, 3 

Concord Observer, (a part of the time 
• it was under a different name,) 18 
New Hampshire Statesman and State 

Journal, 9 

Boston Recorder, 15 

Farmer's Museum, Keene, 7 

Boston Courier, semi-weekly, 21 

Independent Chronicle, 62 

New Hampshire Sentinel, 5 

New Hampshire Patriot & State Ga- 
zette, 6 
Massachusetts Spy, (was for a time 

called Worcester Magazine,) 52 

Farmer's Cabinet, Amherst, 5 

National Intelligencer, 31 

Portsmouth Journal, 17 

Boston Weekly Messenger, (a part 

of the time in a pamphlet form,) 30 
New Hampshire Gazette, 
Portsmouth Oracle, 
Oracle of the Day, 
JNiles' Register, 

National Gazette & Literary Register, 6 

American Traveller, 12 

United States Telegraph, Extra, 4 

Connecticut Courant, 12 

Rockingham Gazette, 4 

Globe, Extra, 4 

Congressional Globe, 1 

Boston Patriot, 6 

Portland Gazette, 3 

Farmer's Museum, Walpole, 1 

Lay Preacher, 2 

Papers. No. Vols. 
Weekly Messenger, Leominster, 1 
Telescope, Leominster, 1 
Political Observatory, Walpole, 6 
New York Examiner, pamphlet form, 5 
Unitarian Monitor, 5 
Columbian Centinel, 02 
Christian Register, 14 
New England Galaxy, 12 
New York Herald, 5 
Washingtonian, 4 
Weekly Courier and New York In- 
quirer, 3 
Morning Courier for the Country, 5 
New York Inquiror for the Country, 4 
Statesman, New York, 
National Journal, Washington, 5 
New York Standard & Statesman, 2 
Massachusetts Journal, 4 
Tribune, 3 
Balance, Hudson, 3 
53j Repertory, 16 
29 Boston Gazette, 6 
New York Spectator, 3 
National Advocate, 2 
Hillsboro' Telegraph, Amherst, 3 
New England Palladium, 32 

Constitutional Telegraph, semi-weekly7 

Wasp, 1 

Columbian Informer, Keene, 3 

Worcester Magazine, 3 

New England Farmer, 8 

Portland Advertiser, 5 
Boston Intelligencer and Evening 

Gazette, 2 

Monitor, 4 

Arts and Sciences. 

Gb v 

Christian Monitor, 

2|Oracle, Pos\ 

1. Boston Weekly Magazine, 

Making in the whole, 


The following are bound Volumes of Newspapers 

Papers. No. Vols. 

Farmer's* Cabinet, commenced Nov. 

11th, 1802, 28 

Village Messenger, 7 

Amherst Herald, I 

Christian Register, 11 

New Hampshire Patriot, 22 

New Hampshire Stalesman&Kegiater, 5 
New Hampshire Journal, 5 

Concord Register 1 

New Hampshire Sentinel, 33 

Independent Chronicle, 34 

Boston Commercial Gazettee, G 

Aurora or General Advertiser, Phila- 
delphia, 5 
Washingtonian, Windsor, Vt. 3 
Vermont Intelligencer & Bellows 
Falls Advertiser, 5 



jYo. Vols. 


Vermont Mirror, Middlebury, 

Vergennes Gazette, ) . 
Vermont &. New York Advertiser, $ 

United States Gazette., 1 

Boston Patriot, I 

National iEgis, I 

Political Observatory, Walpole, 2 

The American, New York, 1 
United States Oracle of tho Day, 

Portsmouth, 1 

Repertory, 6 
Massachusetts Spy, 27 

New York Spectator, 12 

Balance, ft 

Boston Gazette, 4 

Evening Post & General Advertiser, 1 

Massachusetts Gazette, 3 

Making in the whole, 


Besides the above papers, there are in the Library about 1100 bound 
volumes, a large number of filesof newspapers bound and unbound — some 
of them quite ancient — more than 4000 pamphlets unbound — many of 
them sermons, orations, speeches, eulogies, histories, discourses or essays 
on scientific subjects, and a large variety of matter in manuscript, bound 
or unbound. Here are to be found a copy of nearly all the publications 
of the different Learned Societies in this country; and also of the pub- 
lications of the various Benevolent Societies, comprising their Annual 
Reports and other publications. A Mnseuni has been commenced and 
a few boxes of shells, minerals, coins, and various kinds of curiosities 
have been presented to the Academy. 

The officers of the Academy for the present year are as follows : 
Hon. Joel Parker, LL. D., President, Rev. Nathan Lord, D. D., Vice- 
President ; Rev. Roswell Shurtleff, D. D., Rev. Charles B. Haddock, 
D. D„ Rev. Phinehas Cook, Prof. Ira Young, Dixi Crosby, M. D., Rev. 
John Richards, D. D., Edmund R. Peaslee, M. D., Prof. Alpheus Crosby, 
Hon. David Peirce, William H. Duncan, Esq*, Rev. William Cogswell, 
D. D., Ebenezer C. Tracy, M. A., Curators ; Prof. E. D. Sanborn, Corres- 
ponding Secretary and Librarian, Prof. Samuel G. Brown, Recording 
Secretary, Daniel Blaisdell, Esq., Treasurer; Profs. Haddock, Young, and 
A. Crosby, Publishing Committee. 

64 Sketches of Alumni of 


Matthew Harvey was born at Sutton, N. H., June 21st, 1781. His 
father, whose name was Mattheiv, was born at Amesbury, Ms., in the 
year 1750, where his ancestors had resided since their immigration to 
this country. Governor Harvey's great-grand-father, whose name was 
John, lived and died in Amesbury, Ms.; and his grand-father, whose name 
was Jonathan, removed with his family from Amesbury to Nottingham, 
in this State, where lie died about the year 1760. In 1772, his father 
commenced making a farm in Sutton ; and, by persevering industry and 
a judicious management of his aifairs, he soon found himself in inde- 
pendent circumstances. He was a magistrate, and a devoted Christian; 
a strict and an uncompromising observer of every religious duty and 
moral obligation. Although firmly established in his own religious faith, 
as a member of the Baptist denomination, he was no bigot. His house 
was always open, and his hospitality extended to all preachers of the 
gospel. His maxim was, "Prove all things, and hold fast that which is 
good." In his intercourse with men, he shared liberally in their confi- 
dence. Under the present constitution of the State, he was elected the 
first representative from the town to the Legislature, and was annually 
re-elected to the same office, during his life. He died in February, 1799, 
aged 49 years. 

The principal subject of this sketch, was the second son, in a family 
of five sons and two daughters. In consequence of a protracted illness of 
his father, which terminated in his death, he was prevented from making 
the usual preparation for an education at College ; but after this event, 
he placed himself under the instruction of that pious and good man, the 
Rev. Samuel Wood, D. D., of Boscawen, who, during his life, did proba- 
bly more according to his means, to promote the education of young 
men, than almost any other man. Here he remained till he was prepared 
to enter Dartmouth College. He graduated in 1806, and immediately af- 
terwards, commenced the study of law in the office of the Hon. John 
Harris, of Hopkinton. lie was admitted to practice at the Hillsborough 
bar, in September, 1809, and commenced business in Hopkinton, where 
he continued to practice till 1830. 

In 1814, he was elected a representative to the Legislature, and was 
annually re-elected to the same office, for seven years, successively, 
the last three of which, he was Speaker of the House of Representa- 
tives.' Next after this, he was four years a representative in Congress. 
In 1825, he was elected a member of the Senate, in the State Legisla- 
ture, and was re-elected the two following years. During these three 
years, he was President of the Senate. The next two years, he was 
a member of the Executive Council ; and in 1830, he was elected Gov- 
ernor of the State. From 1814, to 1830, exclusive, and without inter- 
ruption, he held some public office, to which he was annually elected, 
by the voluntary suffrages of the people, except the four years he was 
in Congress, when each election was for two years. And although his 
election was sometimes contested with that untiring zeal, which so often 

Dartmouth College. •• (55 

cliaracterizes popular elections, but which so suddenly subsides, when 
tl;e election is made, it is believed his friends were never defeated, as 
he was always* the successful candidate. In 1830, and while he was 
Governor, he was appointed District Judge of the United States, for the 
District of New Hampshire, which office he now holds. 

Judge Harvey was the first Governor of this State, who recommended, 
in his message to the Legislature, the abolishment of imprisonment for 
debt; and although public opinion at that time, was not prepared for so 
important a change ; yet in 1840, an act was passed to take effect in 
March, 1841, to abolish imprisonment for debt on all contracts made 
after that time. 

In September, 1811, he was married to Margarette Rowe, of Newbury- 
port, Ms., by whom he had two children. Frederick Rowe was born, 
August, 1812; graduated at Union College in 1834; studied medicine 
with Dr. Brinsmade of Troy, N. Y.; attended medical lectures at Hano- 
ver, Albany, and at Philadelphia where he received the degree of Doc- 
tor of Medicine; and he is now settled, and in practice, as a physician, 
at Clinton, in the Parish of East Feliciana, in the State of Louisiana. 
Margarette Elizabeth was born, Jan., 1815, and died, September, 1836. 

He is a member, and has been President, of the New Hampshire His- 
torical Society ; an honorary member of the Northern Academy of Arts 
and Sciences ; and a member of the Association of American Geologists 
and Naturalists. 


Parker Noyes was born in South Hampton, Nov. 18th, 1776. His 
father was the Rev. Nathaniel Noyes, who was nearly 38 years minister 
of that town, born, Aug. 12th, 1735, graduated at the College of New 
Jersey, 1759, ordained, Feb. 23rd, 1763, dismissed, Dec. 8th, 1801, and 
died at Newbury, 1810, aged 75 years. His paternal grand-father was 
Dea. Parker Noyes of Newbury port, who was the son of Dea. William 
Noyes of Newburyport," who was the son of Rev. James Noyes, first 
minister of Newbury, Ms. His mother's name was Sarah, daughter of 
Joshua Noyes, of Byfield Parish, in Newbury, Ms. 

Mr. Noyes prepared for College at Dummer Academy, Byfield. He 
commenced preparation in the year 1789, under the tuition of the cele- 
brated Samuel Moody, and continued under his instruction until he, by 
reason of age, left the school. Mr. Moody was an excellent preceptor, 
had a remarkable talent for governing a school, and could speak Latin 
as readily, and more accurately, than English. After Mr. Moody left 
the school, it was suspended for a time. Soon after, the Rev. Isaac 
Smith took charge of it, Mr. Noyes attended it again, and remained 
there until September, 1792, when he went to Dartmouth College, and 
entered the Freshmen class. He was a member of College until August, 
J 796, when he with his class graduated. In 1797, he became an assist- 
ant to the Rev. Isaac Smith, in Duinmcr Academy, and was in that situa- 
tion about a year. In November, 1798, he commenced the study of law 
in the office of Thomas W.Thompson, Esq., in Salisbury, N. II., and was 
admitted to the bar, September, 1801. In December, 1801, he began the 
practice of law in Warner, then in the County of Hillsborough, and 
remained there till May, 1803, when he removed to Salisbury, and went 


66 Sketches of Alumni of 

into partnership, in the practice of law, with the Hon. Thomas VV- 
Thompson. The partnership continued until Mr. Thompson went to* 
Congress, and* withdrew from the practice of law. He continued the 
business in the same office that Mr. Thompson had before occupied, 
until the year 1825, when his health and strength foiled so entirely, that 
be was obliged to relinquish the practice of law and every other em- 
ployment that required much exercise of mind. Since that time he has 
been somewhat employed in agricultural pursuits. 

Mr. Noyes has never, like many, been an office-seeker. He was once 
appointed a Judge of the Supreme Court of Judicature, but declined 
the appointment. He represented the town of Franklin in the Legisla- 
ture in 1829, and was Solictor for the County from 18J2 to 1817. 

In June, 1805, Mr. Noyes married Ellen, daughter of Dea. Thompson 
of Newburyport, by whom he had two children — Horace, who now 
resides in Franklin, and Isabella, who died at the age of five years. 
Mrs. Noyes deceased, March, 1827. January, 1828, he married Anne r 
daughter of Capt. Greenleaf Clark of Newburyport, by whom he had 
one child, a daughter, who died when about two years of age, 


Samuel Fessenden was born at Fryeburg, in Maine, July 16th, 1784. 
His father was William Fessenden, who was born at Cambridge, Ms., Nov. 
23rd, 1748, graduated at Harvard University in the class of 1768, taught a 
public school at Topsfield, Ms., one year, and then studied divinity, and 
went, in the summer of 1774, to Fryeburg to preach as a candidate, and 
was there settled as a Congregational minister in Oct., 1774. He was an 
Orthodox minister, as that term is understood by New England divines. 
He continued in the ministry, and to be pastor of the church over which 
he was settled, and to preach till within one month of his death, which 
took place May 5th, 1805, in the thirty-first year of his ministry. He 
was distinguished for his philanthropy and hospitality. He was twice 
united in wedlock. For his first wife, he married Sarah Reed of Cam- 
bridge, with whom he lived about eighteen months, when she died. He 
married for his second wife, Sarah Clement, who was born in Haverhill, 
Ms., April 17th, 1753. Her parents removed to New Hampshire, when 
she was a child, and where Mr. Fessenden became acquainted with her,, 
and married her. She died in Portland, at the house of her son, the 
principal subject of this notice, at the good old age of 83, having sur- 
vived her husband more than thirty years. 

The paternal grand-father of Samuel Fessenden, was William Fessen- 
den, born at Cambridge, on the family seat, near Harvard University. 
He graduated at that University in 1737, and was educated for the minis- 
try, but was never settled, though a licensed preacher. He instructed a 
public school at Cambridge, and died of apoplexy at the age of thirty- 
six, leaving a widow and three children, two sons and a daughter, of 
whom Rev. William Fessenden was the eldest. 

Mr. Fessenden's great-grand-father was also named William, and was 
born at Cambridge ; owned a farm, and was also a tanner by trade. 
This William, it is supposed, had a brother Nicholas, who graduated at 
Harvard College in 1701, married Sarah Coolidge, Aug. 8th, 1706, and was 

Dartmouth College. 


for some time teacher of the grammar school in that town. To his mem- 
ory' is erected a monument with the following- inscription: 
Mandantur huic pulveri Reliquiae 
Nicholai Fkssenden Arrium Magistti, 
Gymnasii Cautabrigiensis Praeiecti 
Vigilantissimi et Diligentissimi, 
Expectantis Spe Beata? Resurre= 
ctionis; Qui diem clausit extrem- 
um Die 5to. Octobris, Anno Domi. 1719 
.Etatis suae XXXVIII, Vivit post Funera Virtus. 

His father was Nicholas, who was a native of the County of Kent, 
and came to this country when a small boy, to Jive with an uncle, (as it is 
supposed,) John, who came over as early as 1630, and settled at Cam- 
bridge, was admitted freeman, 1641, was married, but died Dec. 21st, 
1666, leaving no issue. His wife, Jane, died Jan. 13th, 1682, aged 80 
years. The name of Nicholas' wife was Margaret, and she died Dec. 
10th, 1717, in the (52nd year of her age. 

Samuel Fesscnden's maternal grand-father, was Samuel Clement, 
whose Christian name he bears. lie was a native of Haverhill, Ms. 
His ancestor was an early emigrant to this country. Mr. Fessenden's 
father's mother was Mary Palmer. She had sisters and brothers. One 
brother was a clergyman, and two of her sisters married clergymen — 
one a Mr. Backus of Connecticut, and one a Mr. Ellis of Rehoboth, Ms. 
His mother's mother, was Elizabeth Carlton. 

Samuel Fessenden was the fifth of nine children, six sons and three 
daughters, of the same mother. Three of them, brothers, survive — two 
educated at Dartmouth College, both at the bar ; and the other at Bow- 
doin, a minister at Bridgeton in Maine. Mr. Fessenden prepared 
for College at Fryeburg Academy, under the instruction of Amos 
J. Cook, a graduate of Dartmouth College, who was many years the 
Preceptor of that Institution. He commenced the study of the law im- 
mediately after closing his College course in 180G, in his native town, 
under the direction of Hon. Judah Dana, and was admitted to practice 
in 1809, and has pursued his profession, that of a Counsellor at Law, to 
the present time. 

Mr. Fessenden represented the town of New Gloucester in the Legis- 
lature of Massachusetts, before the separation of Maine from that Com- 
monwealth, for a number of years, and was one year, (1818,) in the Senate. 
He has also represented Portland in the Legislature of Maine, and held 
the military office of Major General in Massachusetts and Maine, twelve 

Mr. 'Fessenden married Deborah Chandler, Dec. 16th, 1813, and has 
had eleven children — nine sons and two daughters. Eight sons and one 
daughter survive. His third son was lost at sea, twelve years since. 
His name was Philip Chandler Fessenden, named for his maternal 
grand-father. His oldest daughter died at the age of two years, named 
Deborah. Mrs. Fessenden was from New Gloucester, and is a direct 
descendant, through her grand-mother, from Governor VVinslow. The 
children of Mr. Fessenden that survive are, William Pitt, who is a law- 
yer in Portland, and who has represented that district in the Congress 
of the United States: Samuel Clement, settled in the ministry at East 


(58 Sketches of Alumni oj' 

Thomaston, over an Orthodox Congregational church ami society; 
Oliver Griswold, (named tor the husband of his oldest sister,) a lawyer, 
settled in Portland ; Hewett Chandler, a physician settled at baco ; Dan- 
iel Webster, a lawyer in Portland ; and Thomas Amory Deblois, reading 
law. The foregoing six sons have been educated at College — William 
P., Samuel C, and Thomas A. D., at Bowdoin College ; Oliver G., Hewett 
C.,and Daniel VV., at Dartmouth College. Charles Stuart Davis, (named 
for a friend,) is now at Bowdoin College, a member of the Junior 
class; Joseph Palmer, at North Yarmouth Academy, aged 14, preparing 
for College; and Ellen Elizabeth Longfellow, his only surviving daugh- 
ter. His tour oldest sons are married, and have children. 

General Fessenden is the author of two Orations, delivered when a 
young man. He is now engaged in preparing a treatise on the institu- 
tion, duties and importance of Juries. The Trustees of Bowdoin Col- 
lege, at their last commencement conferred on him the degree of Doctor 
of Laws. He is a warm friend of the immediate emancipation of the 
slaves in this country and throughout the world, and has been the regu- 
lar candidate tor Governor on the Abolition Ticket. 


William Jackson was born in Cornwall, Ct., Dec. 14th, 17(38. In 
early childhood, he removed with his father and family to Wallingford, 
Vt. At the age of sixteen, he became hopefully a subject of renewing 
grace, and about the same time commenced a course of study prepara- 
tory to entering Dartmouth College, where he graduated in 17i>0, at the 
age of twenty-one. After leaving college, he engaged for a time in the 
business of teaching, and had charge of an Academy in Wcthersfield, 
Ct. lie studied divinity with the Rev. Drs. Spring of Newburyport, ami 
Emmons of Franklin. After being licensed, he preached as a candi- 
date in Vermont, and New Jersey, in both of which States, he received 
a call to settle, but did not accept either. He finally accepted the pastor- 
al charge of the church of Dorset and East Rupert, Vt., and was ordain- 
ed, Sept. 27th, 171X1. He lived and died the esteemed minister of his 
church and people. His funeral occurred Oct. 18th, 1842, and the ser- 
mon on the occasion was preached by the Rev. Joseph D. Wickham, 
Principal of Burr Seminary, to which we are indebted for many of the 
facts here recorded. 

Dr. Jackson's ministry, which embraced a period of forty-six years, 
was happy and successful. Though his bodily constitution was natural- 
ly frail, yet his mind was habitually engrossed with the appropriate du- 
ties of a Christian minister. His theological views were sound, consis- 
tent and scriptural ; and his preaching was biblical, instructive, and 
practical. As a preacher, he was modest and humble, and always " se- 
rious iu a serious cause." 

During Dr. Jackson's ministry, there were nine special seasons of re- 
vival, in which about 500 were added to the church, though the Society 
was never large. He was instrumental of inducing fourteen young men 
from his church to prepare to preach the gospel, and was the principal 
agent in forming a Society, March 4th, 1804, tor the education of pious 
young men for the ministry, lie was also a friend to education gener- 

Dartmouth College. 


ally, and did much for the interests of Burr Seminary, Middlebury Col- 
lege, and his own Alma Mater. He was a Trustee of the two former, 
and receivedYrom Middlebury College, the degree of Doctor in Divini- 

Soon after his settlement in the ministry, Dr. Jackson married, and he 
had seven children, — two sons and live daughters. A son and daughter 
died in early life. Five survive, namely, Rev. Samuel C. Jackson, An- 

dover, Ms., Margaret Graves, wife of Rev. John Maltby, 13c 


Susan, unmarried who resides with her mother in Dorset, Elizabeth Rog- 
ers, wife of Rev. Nathaniel Beach, Milbury, Ms., and Henrietta Anna Lo- 
rain, wife of Rev. Cyrus Hamlin, Missionary at Constantinople. 


The common ancestor of all those in North America, bearing the 
name of Chipman, was John Chipman, born in Barnstable, England, 
in the year 1611. He emigrated to America in the year 1630, at the age 
of sixteen, and married a daughter of John Howland, one of the Pil 
grims, who, in the year 1620, landed from the Mayflower upon the 
Plymouth rock. He settled on a farm in Barnstable, Massachusetts, 
on which his descendants have ever since resided. He was made a free- 
man, by vote of the town, in December, 1662. His second son Samuel 
Chipman, was born in Barnstable, Aug. 15th, 166*1. He married Sarah 
Cobb, and had ten children, one of whom was John Chipman, born in 
1691, graduated at Harvard College in 1711, ordained minister in Bev- 
erly, Ms., in 1715, and died in 1775, aged 84. He had fifteen children. 
Their descendants are very numerous jn Nova Scotia and New Bruns- 
wick ; among whom is Ward Chipman, one of the Commissioners un- 
der the Treaty of Ghent for settling the Northeastern boundary. 

The eldest of the ten children of Samuel Chipman was Thomas, 
born Nov. 17th, 1687. He settled in Groton, Ct. and had five sons, 
Thomas, John, Amos', Samuel and Jonathan. In the year 1740, he re- 
moved, with his five sons, to Salisbury, Ct. In the year 1741, the town 
of Salisbury was organized, and he was the first representative. When 
the County of Litchfield was organized, he was appointed Judge of the 
County Court, but died before the first term. He was also a Deacon of 
the Congregational church in Salisbury. His son Samuel married Han- 
nah Austin of Sufiield, Ct., who was a relative of Benjamin Austin of 
Boston, commonly called " Honestus," or " Old South." They had six 
sons, Nathaniel, Lemuel, Darius, Cyrus, Samuel, and Daniel, the subject 
of this sketch, who was born October 22nd, 1765. The five eldest 
brothers died at the following ages, viz. Nathaniel, a Lawyer, 90, Lemu- 
el, a Physician, 76, Darius, a Lawyer, 76, Cyrus, a Physician, 77, and 
Samuel, a Lawyer, 76, Their father Samuel Chipman and his two 
brothers, Thomas and Jonathan, all died in the 91st year of their age. 
Daniel Chipman, the subject of this sketch, still survives, aged 81. Ill 
the year 1775, his father removed to Timnouth, in what was then called 
the New Hampshire Grants, in the present County of Rutland, Vt. The 
son labored on the farm until November, 1783, when he commenced his 
preparatory studies for entering College, with his brother, the late Judge 
Chipman, who was then in the practice of law, residing with his father 

70 Sketches of Alumni of 

in Tinmouth. He entered Dartmouth College in 1784, and graduated 
in 1788, a\\\ immediately commenced the study of law in the office ol' 
Jiis brother. In September, 1790, he was admitted to the Mar, opened 
an office in Rutland, and soon had an extensive practice. In the year 
1793, he represented the town of Rutland in the Convention, held at 
Windsor, for amending the Constitution. In the year 1794, he removed 
to Middlebury. In 1796, he married Eleutheria Hedge, daughter of 
the Rev. Lemuel Hedge, minister of Warwick, Ms., and sister of the 
late Levi Hedge, Professor in Harvard College. Her mother was Sarah 
White, daughter of the Rev. David White of Hardwick, Ms. Mr. Chip- 
man's wife is still living, by whom he has had two sons, Austin, and 
George, who graduated at Harvard College, and is a Lawyer, and five 
daughters, Sarah White, who married Charles Linsley, a Lawyer of 
Middlebury, Susan Hedge, Eleutheria, Mary, and Eliza, who married 
Rev. Matthew F. Maury of Danville, Ky.; George, Susan and Eliza are 
the only survivors. He represented the town of Middlebury in the Le- 
gislature in the year 1798, and subsequently until the year 1808, when 
he was elected a member of the Council, under the former Constitution, 
in place of which the Senate has since been constituted. He was elect- 
ed a Professor of Law in Middlebury College in 180(J, and continued in 
that office until 1810*. In the year 1812, he was elected a fellow of the 
American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He represented Middlebury 
in the Legislature, most of the time from 1808 to the year 1813, when 
he was elected Speaker, as also the following year. In the year 1814, 
he was elected a Representative to Congress. He attended the next 
Session of Congress, but, by reason of ill health, was unable to attend 
the House a great portion of the time, and during the subsequent ses- 
sion was confined at home by sickness. The following year, his health 
was so far restored, that he again resumed the practice of law ; and in 
the years 1818 and 1821, represented the town of Middlebury in the Le- 

In the year 1822, he published an essay on the law of Contracts for 
the payment of specific articles ; which has been highly commended by 
Judge Story, Chancellor Kent, and other eminent Jurists, lu the pre- 
face to this work, he urged the importance of having the decisions of the 
Supreme Court reported, and at the next Session of the Legislature, in 
the year 1823, an act was passed, providing for the appointment of a 
Reporter, and he was appointed to that office, but, after having publish- 
ed one volume of Reports, ill health compelled him to resign the office. 

In the work also, he urged the importance of dividing the Legisla- 
ture, by constituting a Senate, and in the year 1830, an amendment of 
the "Constitution was proposed, constituting a Senate, and a convention 
called to consider it. In the mean time, the subject of this sketch, had 
retired from public life, taking up his residence in Ripton ; but such 
was his anxiety to have the amendment adopted, that he yielded to the 
solicitations of his friends, and consented to represent the town of Rip- 
ton in the convention, in which he delivered a speech, which was after- 
wards published in a pamphlet. The convention was composed of 234 
members, and after a debate of three or four days, the amendment was 
adopted by a majority of three. 

It was believed that, if he had not been a member of the convention, 

Dartmouth College. 71 


this amendment would have been rejected. Since the death of his 
brother, the late Judge Chipman in the year 1843, he has written his bi- 
ography, entitled *the " Life of Nathaniel Chipman, LL. D., formerly a 
member of the United States Senate, and Chief Justice of the State of 


Josiah P. Cooke was born at New Ipswich, N. II., Feb. 15th, 1787- 
His father was Noah Cooke, Esq., late of Keene, N. II., who was son of 
Noah Cooke aud Keziah Parsons of Hadley, Ms. He was a lineal de- 
scendant, in the sixth degree, from that distinguished English puritan and 
patriot, Major Aaron Cooke, who, with the company of the Rev. Mr, 
Warham, May 30th, 1630, (a few months earlier than the settlement,) 
landed from the "Ship Mary and John" at Nantasket, (now Hull,) in 
Massachusetts Bay, and began the settlement of Dorchester. He was 
made freeman of the Colony, May 6th, .1635 — removed with a portion 
of the company in October, 1635, through the wilderness to Connecti- 
cut river, and there laid the foundation of the settlement of Windsor, 
Ct. Thence in 1661, he removed higher up the river, and became one 
of the first settlers of Northampton, where, "besides his military com- 
mand, which, in those jdays, was a real, not a nominal service, he was 
the deputy or representative of Northampton, an Associate Judge of the 
County Court, at the first organization of the County of Hampshire, and 
where he closed his highly honorable and useful life, Sept. 5th, 1690, at 
the advanced age of 80 years. 

And it is a fact, somewhat remarkable, that all the paternal ancestors 
of Mr. Cooke, the more particular subject of this sketch, including the 
first settler, Major Aaron Cooke, above named, have died testate, each 
leaving on record, a last Will and Testament, disclosing something 
respecting them, by which the descent is easily traced ; besides which, 
there are existing monuments, pointing with unerring certainty, to the 
exact spot where their ashes now repose. 

Noah Cooke, Esq., the father of Josiah P., was the oldest of a family 
of eleven children, ten sons and a daughter. He was born at Hadley, 
Ms., Oct. 8th, 1749, old style; fitted for College at the Crammer School 
in that place ; entered Harvard College, 1765, and graduated with the 
class of 1769. lie afterwards became a resident graduate at Cambridge 
as a student in Divinity ; was approbated and licensed as a preacher by 
" the association in and about Cambridge," at Medford, Oct. 8th, 1771, 
{on his birth day,) at the age of twenty-two years. October 15th, 1775, 
he joined the American forces, stationed at Winter Hill, in the service 
of his country, and received his first commission as Chaplain, from the 
Continental Congress, under the signature of John Hancock, President, 
bearing date Jan. 1st, 1776, — embracing "the fifth Regiment of foot, 
"commanded by Col. John Stark, and the eight Regiment, commanded 
" by Col. Enoch Poor, in the Army of the United States, raised for the 
" defence of American liberty." His second commission was under a 
resolve of Congress, passed Sept. 18th, 1777, appointing him Chaplain 
to the Hospital, in the Eastern Department. These appointments gave 

1-2 Sketches of Alumni of 

him the rank and pay of a Colonel. In this service he continued until 
Oct. 3rd, 178Q, when he retired from the Army. 

The poverty of the country at the close of the war, the scanty support 
the people were able to afford the Clergy, which imposed upon most of 
them the necessity of manual labor, and a physical infirmity, which 
disabled Mr. Cooke from such labor, — these, rather than any personal 
disinclination to the ministry, were the reasons that induced him about 
this lime, and at so late a period in life, to change his pofession. 

After some previous preparation and study, principally at Keene, in 
the office of the late Judge Newcomb of that place, Mr. Cooke was in 
the month of January, 1784, admitted to practice at the bar at a Court 
of Common Pleas, held at Charlestown, N. II. During the same month, 
he was married to Mary Rockwood, and opened his office in the town 
of New Ipswich, N. II., where he resided until Jan. 6th, 179.1, when he 
removed to Keene, N. H., where he devoted himself to his new profes- 
sion until his decease, which occurred at Keene, Oct. 15th, 1829, at the 
age of eighty years. 

Mary Rockwood, already named, was the youngest daughter of Na- 
thaniel Rockwood of Winchester, N. II., born September 3rd, 1747. 
She died of a consumption at Keene, N. II., October 21st, 1801. This 
Mr. Rockwood was one of the first proprietors of the town of Keene, 
and one of those who " met at Concord, Ms., June 26th, 1734," and "ad- 
journed to meet on the township, the same being then a wilderness ; and 
they did actually meet there the following September, 1734, this being 
the first exploration of the township, the nearest settlement being at 

Mr. Rockwood was a native of the town of Wrentham, Ms., born Dec. 
, 7th,1700,where he married Margaret Phipps, Dec. 19th, 1727, and removed 
to Winchester, N. II., about 1735, and was one of the first settlers and 
proprietors of that town, and died there about 1779. He was a descend- 
ant of Richard Rockwood, called Richard Rocket in Dr. Harris' list of 
early settlers in Dorchester, and belonged, as it is supposed, to the same 
company with Aaron Cooke and others named above. This company, 
as described at the time, by one of their number, Roger Clap, who was 
brother in law to Aaron Cooke, as consisting "of many Godly families," 
" many in number," besides seamen "of good rank." He also describes 
their social state after landing, in a simple sentence, which one at this 
day can hardly read without feeling how severe a reproof it is upon the 
selfish and heartless character of modern society. 

" In those days," says he, "great was the tranquility of this poor coun- 
try ; and there was love one to another ; — very ready to help each oth- 
er ; not one seeking their own, but every one another's •wealth." 

Josiah P. Cooke, first above named, was prepared for college at the 
Academy in Chesterfield, N. H., under the tuition of that celebrated in- 
structor, Hon. Levi Jackson, a graduate of Dartmouth College of the 
year 1799, entered College at Hanover, August, 1803, and graduated 
August 26th, 1807. He pursued his course of professional studies in the 
office of his father at Keene, N. H., removed to Boston ; was admitted 
to practice in the County of Suffolk, in October, 1810, and, during the 
same month, opened his office and commenced practice. 

Mr. Cooke has continued for a long course of years to devote himself 


Dartmouth College. 13 

exclusively to his profession, and is among those who have "not been 
slothful in business ;" and, as a necessary consequence, has been favored 
from an early period in his professional career, with more than an ordi- 
nary share of lucrative and highly respectable practice. 

December 7th, 182G, Mr. Cooke married Mary Piatt, daughter of John 
Pratt, a merchant of Boston. She died of a consumption at the Island 
of St. Croix, March 7th, 1833, where she went for the benefit of her 
health. She left two children, Josiah Parsons, born Oct. 12th, 1827, 
and Mary Pratt, born August 31st, 1831. 


Mr. Metcalf's father, who is now living in Charlestown, was born 
in Oakham, Ms., where his father lived and died. His grand-father, 
Samuel Metcalf, was an officer in the Revolution, and died soon after 
the close of the war, leaving seven sons and five daughters, who were 
soon, scattered over our then, comparatively contracted country. 
His paternal grand-mother was born in Ireland, of a highly respectable 
family by the name of Montague. In 1792, his father, John Metcalf, 
then about twenty years of age, wandered, in seeking his fortune, to No. 
4, Charlestown, in N. II., without money, without friends, and without 
acquaintance; and not long after purchased the farm in Charlestown 
where he now lives. He married the only daughter of John Converse 
and Kezia Nichols, his wife, who originated in Rhode Island, and came 
to Charlestown some time previous to his marriage, where they lived 
till their death, about thirty years since. 

The subject of this sketch was born in Charlestown in this State, 
Nov. 21st, 1798. He lived with his father, laboring upon the farm, till 
August, 1818, when, owing to a lameness in one of his limbs, he decided 
to engage in some profession. He fitted for College at Chester Acade- 
my, Vt., under the charge of Joel Manning, Esq., and a Mr. Holton. 
August, 1819, he entered Dartmouth College, and continued his studies 
till the fall of 1821, when he was invited by Capt. Alden Partridge to 
become a " Professor," as he termed his Instructors, in his "Literary, 
Scientific, and Military Academy," at Norwich, Vermont, which invi- 
tation he accepted, much to his regret afterwards, and accordingly took 
up his connection with the College, contrary to the kind and sound 
advice of Professors Haddock and Chamberlain. The next year, how- 
ever, at Commencement, he was re-admitted into his class, and gradu- 
ated with them in 1823. He then entered the office of Gov. Hubbard, 
in Charlestown, as a student at Law, where he continued two years, 
with the' exception of about three months, when he was in the 
office of Richard Bartlett, Esq;, of Concord. In the summer of 1825, 
he went into the office of Hon. George B. Upliam of Claremont, where 
he remained till he was admitted to the Bar in September, 1826. 

Mr. Metcalf then opened an office in Newport, N. II., and remained 
there till the spring of 1828, when desirous of seeing something new, he 
went into the State of New York, and not long after, entered into a 
partnership in professional business with a gentleman in Binghamton, 
Broome County. Though their business was as good as he had reason 
to expect, he did not feel much at home there; and in January, 1830, 


74 Biographical Notices of 

he returned to New Hampshire, and opened an office in Claremon*, 
where he resided till June, 1831, when he was elected Secretary of State, 
and necessarily removed to Concord. While Secretary, he was ap- 
pointed by Gov. Badger and the Council, to the office of Attorney Gen- 
eral, which office he declined accepting. He held the office of Secre- 
tary till 1838, seven years. Soon after this, Judge Woodbury, then 
Secretary of the Treasury, offered him a Clerkship in his department 
at Washington, which he accepted, and held till the spring of 1840, 
when not much pleased with " life at the Capitol," he resigned, — re- 
turned to New Hampshire and opened an office in Plymouth, but re- 
mained there less than a year, when he returned to Newport, where he 
began his professional career, and where he now resides. In October, 
1845, he was appointed Register of Probate for the County of Sullivan, 
which office he now holds. 

In January, 1835, he was married to Lucretia Ann, daughter of Nathan 
Bingham, Esq., of Claremont. She deceased, April 1st, 1836, leaving 
an infant three weeks old, which died in August following. November 
10th, 1843, he was married to Martha Ann, daughter of Capt. John 
Cilmore, late of. Newport, deceased. They have two children, — a sou 
named Ralph, and a daugher named Martha Jane. 


For the following account of Physicians, we are principally indebted 
to the Rev. E. C. Cogswell of Northwood. 

Dr. Joseph Boyden was born in Medfield, Ms., 1770. When about seven 
years old, his parents moved to Sturbridge, in the same State. He stud- 
ied medicine with Dr. Corey of that place, and in 1791, commenced the 
practice of medicine in Gardner, Ms., where he practiced about four 
years. He moved to Tamworth, N. H., in the autumn of 1795, having 
married in 1791, Mary lleywood of Gardner, daughter of Seth Hey- 
wood, by whom he had eight children, four sons and four daughters. 
Fie died, Aug. 15th, 1832, aged 63, in consequence of his being thrown 
off a bridge by his horse, having practiced medicine in Tamworth, 36 
years. As a citizen, Dr. Boyden was enterprising and active ; and as a 
physician, humane, judicious, and successful. He was elected a mem- 
ber of the medical Society, in 1816. 

Dr. Joseph Cogswell was a son of Nathaniel Cogswell, a merchant of 
Haverhill, Ms., and brother of Dr. William Cogswell of Atkinson, an 
account of whom is given in Vol. I. of the Repository, p. 136, which see 
in reference to the genealogy of Dr. J. Cogswell. He was born, April 
36th, 1764, and studied medicine with his brother, who, at that time, had 
charge of the Military Hospital of the United States, established at West 
Point during the Revolutionary War. While pursuing his studies, he act- 
ed in the capacity of a surgeon's mate. He settled as a Physician, first 


Physicians in Tamworth. ■ 75 

in Warner, in 1787, and continued there till August 25th, 1790, when he 
removed to New Durham, where he remained seven years. From that 
place, he went to ^Tamworth, where he now resides, enjoying the use of 
his mental and corporeal powers in a remarkable degree, for a person in 
the 83rd year of his age. Though he was very respectable as a physi- 
cian, and though he performed some remarkable cities, yet he never 
succeeded in obtaining an extensive practice, and, soon after going to Tam- 
worth, he retired from medical business. He professed religion, and 
united with the Congregational church in Warner, in 1789. He married 
Judith Colby of Warner, Dec. 27th, 1788. She Avas born at Amesbury, 
Sept. 25th, 1771, and is now living in the 76th year of her age. They 
have had 12 children, — Judith, Joseph Badger, Hannah, Ebenezer, Ruth 
Badger, Thomas, Ruth, Hannah, Mary, Joseph, Emily, and Elliot Colby 
who is settled as the Congregational minister of Northwood. 

Dr. Wyalt Clark Boyden, son of the above named Dr. Boyden, was 
born at Gardner, Ms., Dec. 5th, 1794. He received his preparatory edu- 
cation with Rev. Samuel Hidden of Tamworth, and at Fryebnrg Acade- 
my, Me., and graduated at Dartmouth College, 1819. He studied medi- 
cine with his lather, and Drs. Mussey and Parsons,commenced practice in 
company with his father, and received his medical degree at Dartmouth 
College in 1826. In 1825, he removed to Beverly, Ms., where he suc- 
ceeded the late lamented Dr. Luke Howe, and resides in that place still. 
Ho married Elizabeth Woodbury, daughter of James Woodbury of Bev- 
erly, Ms., by whom he had five sons, one of whom, James, graduated at 
Harvard College in 1843. His first wife died in 1833, and he was mar- 
ried to his present wife, Lydia L., daughter of the late Hawks Lincoln 
of Boston, by whom he has one son and two daughters. 

Dr. John L. Sargent, son of Abraham and Lydia Sargent, was born 
in Chester, N. H., Jan. 6th, 1793, where he received his preparatory 
education principally with Dr. Kittredge. He studied medicine with Dr. 
Zadock Howe of Concord, N. H., who, meantime, entered into copartner- 
ship with Dr. Miller of Franklin, Ms., where they opened a hospital for 
patients ; and there, with them, Dr. Sargent completed his studies. 

Dr. Sargent commenced the practice of medicine at Loudon, N. II., 
about 1814, where he remained four years, when he was appointed 
Deputy Warden and Surgeon of the New Hampshire State Prison. This 
office he resigned in about six months, to accompany a transport of 
United States troops to New Orleans, as their Surgeon. On his return 
to New Hampshire he located himself at Sandwich, 1819, where 
he remained until 1826, when he removed to Tamworth, and there re- 
mained until 1834. On leaving Tamworth, he spent a short time at 
Wolf borough, then at Alton Bay, and finally took up his residence in 
Meredith Village, and died at Moultonborough Falls, May 19th, 1840, 
while on a visit to that place. November 7th, 1816, he married Sally 
Wilkins of Concord, daughter ofDea. Jonathan and Sarah Wilkins, by 
whom he had six children. 

Dr. Ebenezer G. Moore was born in Dorchester, N. H., 1797, studied 
medicine with Dr. Wyatt C. Boyden of Tamworth, received his medical 
degree at Dartmouth College in 1829, and commenced practice imme- 
diately after in Tamworth. He removed to Wells, Me., not long after, 
and in 1844, to Concord, N. H., where he now resides. He married 

7t) Biographical Notices of 


Elizabeth S. Hidden, daughter of Rev. Samuel Hidden of Turn worth, 
Nov. 9th, 1826, by whom he had seven children. She died, Oct. 16th, 
1843, and he subsequently married Harriet Story. 

Dr. Ebenezer Boyden, son of Dr. Joseph Boyden, was born March, 
1802, received his preparatory education with Rev. Samuel Hidden of 
Tamworth, studied medicine with his father and brother, Wyatt C. Boy- 
den, received his medical degree at Dartmouth College, and commenced 
the practice of medicine with his lather in Tamworth. In 1830, he re- 
moved to Ossipee, and subsequently to Exeter, Me., where he now prac- 
tices. Dec. 21st, 1826, he married Hannah Ames of Ossipee, by whom 
he has five children. 

Dr. Lowell Marston, son of Mr. Shubael Marston of Tamworth, was 
born Feb. 15th, 1808, received his preparatory education with Rev. Sam- 
uel Hidden of Tamworth, and at New Hampton Academy ; studied 
medicine with Dr. Joseph Boyden, and his son Wyatt C, of Tamworth, 
and attended medical lectures at Bowdoin College, Me. He commenced 
the practice of medicine in Wells, Me., and went to Tamworth, about a 
year after. He soon abandoned the profession on account of ill health, 
and applied himself to tanning. Ho subsequently removed to Glen- 
burn, Me., where he now resides. 

Dr. Carr L. Drake was the son of Dea. John Drake of Effingham, N. 
H., where he commenced the practice of medicine. He subsequently 
removed to Ossipee, and then to Tamworth, where he practiced until 
about 1840, when he returned to Effingham, where he now practices, 
much respected. 

Dr. Ebenezer Wilkinson was born July 26th, 1798, was son of Ebene- 
zer Wilkinson, Esq., of New Durham, N. H. He received his prepara- 
tory education at Fryeburg and Limerick Academies, Me.; studied med- 
icine with Drs. Moses Sweat of Parsonsfield, Me., and Alexander Ram- 
sey; and attended medical lectures at Brunswick, Me. He commenced 
the practice of medicine in Effingham, N. H., where he remained eight 
years. He went to Tamworth in September, 1832, where he now re- 
sides, highly esteemed. His wife was Sarah Lougee, daughter of Dea. 
John Lougee of Parsonsfield, Me. 

Dr. Joseph Huntress was born in Parsonsfield, Me., in the year 1819, 
was son of Samuel Huntress, then of Parsonsfield, now of Effingham. 
He received his preparatory education principally at Parsonsfield and 
Effingham Academies, studied medicine with Drs. Aaron B.Smith of Ef- 
fingham, Tibbetts of Ossipee, and Topliff of Freedom, and received his 
medical degree at Dartmouth College, 1844. He commenced the prac- 
tice, of medicine in Tamworth, where he still resides under encouraging 
circumstances. Oct. 9th, 1845, he married Orra Ann Sargent, daughter 
of Joel Sargent of Tamworth. 

Besides the above, there have been with short residences in the town, 
Drs. Jewett, Wood, York, and Gibson, the ibrmer of whom is remem- 
bered only by the oldest inhabitants now living. 

Physicians in Charhsiown. . 77 

Prepared by Samuel Webber, M. D. 

The first physician settled in Charlestown, was Dr. David Taylor. 
He was a native of Lunenburg, Ms., a son of Daniel Taylor, a fanner 
of that place, and was born Aug. 5th, 1742. It is not known with whom 
he read medicine. In 1700, when not fully eighteen years of age, he 
received a commission as surgeon in a regiment of militia, then called 
into service in the difficulties at that time pending between the provin- 
ces and the French inhabitants of the Canadas. The. ensuing year, at 
the age of nineteen, he wfent to Charlestown, then more familiarly called 
No. 4, and settled as a physician. With the exception of another cam- 
paign at Ticonderoga in the year 1770, when he again served as regi- 
mental surgeon, he resided in Charlestown till his death, which took 
place in the Autumn of 1822, at the advanced age of eighty. 

For many years before his death, Dr. Taylor withdrew, in a great 
measure, from the more general practice of a physician and surgeon, 
and devoted himself chiefly to the obstetric branch, in which he had a 
high reputation, and enjoyed the confidence of the people. Dr. Taylor 
was not a literary man, nor even one of much professional reading, but 
he possessed a good share of practical knowledge, — sound judgment, 
and kind feelings. His leisure was given to agriculture, and especially 
the cultivation of fruit trees. 

Dr. Jfilliam Page was born in New Fairfield, Ct., in 1749. His father 
was John Page, a farmer of that place. . His early advantages for an 
education were small. According to an account given by one of his 
sons, he learned to write by the chilling process of tracing letters with 
his finger in the snow. He prosecuted his studies in medicine with 
Dr. Porter of Connecticut. Having completed these, he commenced 
practice in WilliamstoWn, Ms., but soon removed to Northfield, and 
about the close of the Revolutionary War settled in Charlestown, N. H. 
Here he obtained considerable reputation and practice, but his disposi- 
tion was restless and active, and his mind looked for objects beyond the 
routine of professional duty. He engaged warmly in politics and vari- 
ous matters of public business then going on. He became a Colonel 
in the militia, represented the town in the State Legislature for several 
years, and was afterwards a Senator for the district in which Charles- 
town was situated. In the time of the controversy with Vermont, he was 
Sheriff under the authority of that State. About 1798 or 9, he under- 
took the' building of the canal at Bellows Falls on the Connecticut river, 
as agent for Mr. John Atkinson of the city of New York, and soon after 
removed to the village at that place and relinquished entirely his medical 
profession. The result of his undertaking was not, in a pecuniary view, 
fortunate for himself or his employers. He removed to Rutland, where 
he died at the house of his son, William Page, Esq., in the year 1810, 
of palsy, with which he had been afflicted for several years. Dr. Page 
appears to have been a man of good natural abilities, and of considera- 
ble extent of information. He was one of the original corporators of 
the New Hampshire Medical Society. 


78 Biographical Noticus of 

Dr. Oliver Hastings was born in Charlestown in 1762. He studied 
•medicine with Dr. William Page of his native place, and Dr. Frink of 
Rutland, Ms.,*a practioner of much repute. From Rutland he went to 
Montreal, to attend the lectures and receive the finishing instructions, 
of Dr. Blake, a distinguished physician and medical teacher of that 
<;ity. He commenced the practice of his profession in Charlestown, 
with his former instructor, Dr. Page, and in a few years obtained an 
extended practice. He displayed much zesd for the military service, 
and rose successively from the rank of a subaltern in the militia to that 
of Major General, and he also represented the town in several sessions 
of the Legislature. He died of dropsy, Sept. 3rd, 1823. 

Dr. Joseph Roby has left in Charlestown no memorial of his birth or 
education. He came thither from East Sudbury, Ms., which, it is be- 
lieved, was his native place, in company with his brother in law, a 
Air. Curtis, a merchant. With him he was at first in partnership, having 
however, the intention of practising in his profession if opportunities 
should offer. Meeting with encouragement and recommendation from 
Dr. Hastings, these were soon found, and he obtained a considerable 
amount of business, and a good professional name, which he retained 
for a number of years. He died Aug. 24th, 1818, at the age of forty- 
nine years. 

Dr. Edward Pclouze came to this country from the Island of St. Lucia, 
at the time when the doctrines of the French Revolution raised such 
fearful commotions in the AVest Indian possessions of that nation. He 
first established himself in New London or its neighborhood, and sub- 
sequently in 1804 or 5 removed to North Charlestown. He was a man 
of eccentric manners and character, and his practice was looked upon 
as rather wanting in energy, so that it never became extensive. He 
died in 1845, at his son's in Philadelphia, at an advanced age. 

Dr. John P. Batchelder was born in Amherst, N. H., about 1784. By 
strenuous industry and perseverance, he has overcome obstacles, and 
attained to distinction.. He studied his profession, it is believed, with 
Dr. Spaulding of Amherst, and received his medical degree from Har- 
vard University. Sometime in the year 1809, he settled in Charlestown, 
and gradually obtained extensive practice, more particularly as a sur- 
geon, as in this department he much excelled any practioner in the town 
or its immediate vicinity. When the Vermont Medical School at Cas- 
tleton was established, Dr. Batchelder took the chair of anatomy and 
surgery, which he filled with credit. In the year 1822, he was chosen 
to the same office in the Berkshire Medical School in Massachusetts, 
and then removed to Pittsfield, Ms., where he entered into partnership 
with Pr. Childs of that place. After three or four years, he relinquished 
his Professorship, and removed to Utica, N. Y., where he has since re- 

Dr. Putnam Barron was born, it is believed, at Queechy in Vermont, 
about 1790. He studied his profession with Dr. Jenneson of Hartlaiid, 
Vt., and attended the Medical Lectures at Dartmouth College. Alter 
graduating, he came to Charlestown in 1818, and settled in the north 
parish. Here he remained till 1838. He then removed to Rochester 
in Ohio, and has since removed to some other part of that State. 

Dr. Samuel Webber is a native of Cambridge, Ms., the second son of 

Physicians in Charhstown, 


the Rev. Samuel Webber, D. D., President of Harvard University. He 
was born, Sept. 15tli, 1797. Mis early education was received partly at 
private schools and partly at the public Grammar School of his native 
place. He graduated at Harvard University in the year 1815. He was 
employed in teaching' for four years subsequent to his graduation, during 
a portion of which time he pursued professional studies, first with Dr. 
William Page, Jr., of llallowell, Me., and afterwards with Dr. Thomas 
Foster of Cambridge, Ms. At the expiration of that time, he devoted 
himself more exclusively to professional study, though for one year he 
held the place of private instructor in Mathematics at the University, 
and for a year and a half that of assistant to the Professor in Chemistry. 
He received his medical degree in February, 1822, and in May following 
removed to Charlestown, where he has since resided. He lias been 
honored with the membership of two or three literary and scientific so- 
cieties in this country, and of the Royal Society of Northern Antiqua- 
ries of Denmark. 

Dr. Barron's place was soon filled by Dr. Horace Saunders, a native 
of Weathersfield, Vt., who received his medical diploma from the Ver- 
mont Medical School at Castleton. He still remains in Charlestown. 

Physicians temporarily established in Charlestoion, 

Dr. Bliss came to Charlestown about 1797 or 8. He was, it is- 
believed, a native of Springfield Ms., or its vicinity. He remained about 
three years, and then removed to Long Meadow, Ms., where he has 
permanently established himself. 

Dr. Safford came in 1818. He remained two years, and then 

removed to Westminster, Vt., where he now resides. 

Dr. Jacob Mams came in 1822, at the same time with Dr. Webber. 
He was a native of Windsor, Vt.; studied with Dr. Trask of that place, 
and received his medical degree from Dartmouth College. After a resi- 
dence of two and a half years, he removed to Utica, N. Y., but soon af- 
terwards died of consumption. 

Dr. John Duncan commenced practice in Charlestown at the same 
time with Drs. Webber and Adams. He had for some years been a 
resident in the town in the family of Dr. Hastings, with whom he studied,, 
and whose daughter he had married. He attended lectures first at Cas- 
tleton, and then at Rowdoin College, where he took his degree of M. D. 
He soon after fell into a decline, and died Oct. 3rd, 1825, aged 39. 

Dr. Alexander Campbell, a somewhat aged man, removed to Charles- 
town in 1827, from Rockingham, Vt., where he had been in practice 
many years. He staid about five years, and then returned to Rocking- 
ham, where he died a few years since. 

Dr. Hiram Hoyt, a native of St. Johnsbury, Vt., and a graduate of the 
Medical School of Dartmouth, came to Charlestown in 1828, from Mere- 
dith, where he had been in practice about two years, and after staying 
four or five years, he removed to Syracuse, N. Y., where he now re- 

Dr. John W. Furber removed to Charlestown in 1835, from Weath- 
ersfield, Vt., where he had practised for a year or two. He was a native 
of Dublin, N. H.; had studied in Queechy, Vt., and attended lectures at 

80 Biograjrfu'cal Notices of Physicians. 


For information respecting most of the following medical Gentle- 
men, we are indebted to Drs. Chadbourne and Prescott, particularly Dr. 

Dr. — — Rolfe was the first Physician, and the first who commenced 
a settlement in the town of Concord. He was the father of Benjamin 
Rolfe, Esq., who took so conspicuous a part as a magistrate among the 
first settlers, and from whom, the present numerous families of Rolfes 
in the West Parish, are descendants. All that is now known of Dr. 
Rolfe is that "he went to Pennacook," (now Concord,) " in the summer 
or autumn of 1726," taking with him one Richard Uran, and that " they 
built a block house" near the place, where the late Capt. Benjamin Em- 
ery afterwards resided, " in which they dwelt during the winter, and that 
their provisions falling short they subsisted on the fruits of the wilder- 
ness, and charities of the Indians, the snow being uncommonly dnep 
and the cold very severe." It is supposed he went back to Haverhill in 
the spring, and there is no evidence that he ever returned. 

Dr. Ezra Carter was a native of South Hampton, and studied medi- 
cine with Dr. Ordway of Salisbury, and settled in Concord about 1740, 
where he was many years Town Clerk and one of the principal men, 

Hanover. After about two years, he removed to Queechy in Vermont, 
and subsequently to Bridgewater. 

Dr. S. Hale, a native of St. Johnsbury, Vt., came to Charlestown in 
1840, from Lowell, Ms., where he had been pursuing his studies with 
Dr. Kimball, a distinguished physician of that city. He remained but 
one year, and then went to Arlington, Vt. 

Dr. Otis Russell D-eeman was born at Hanover, N. H., December, 1809. 
His father is Dea. Jonathan Freeman, 2nd, of that place, and his moth- 
er was Mary Russell of Conway. He read medicine with the Medical 
Professors at Dartmouth College, and received his degree of M. D. at 
that Institution. Previously to his reading medicine, he was a store 
keeper and an apothecary at Hanover. He commenced practice in 
Charlestown in the Autumn of 1843, remained there until January, 
1846, and then removed to Springfield, Vt. He married Abigail Willard, 
only child of Dr. Samuel Alden of Hanover. 

Dr. D. H. Marden, a native of New Boston, came to Charlestown in 
the spring of 1846, from Unity, where he commenced practice in 1843. 
He studied with Dr. James Danforth of New Boston, and attended lec- 
tures at Dartmouth College. His previous education was obtained at 
Gilmanton Academy. 

Besides these, there were three or four, who, since 1822, located them- 
selves in Charlestown ; but, after trials of various lengths, from one to 
three or four months, removed to some more favorable place, leaving 
hardly a remembrance of their names behind them. Of these, were 
Dr. Frink, Dr. Leech, Dr. Pollard, and Dr. Hall. 

History of School Books. 


and where he died, Sept. 17th, 1767, aged 48. He was a good scholar, 
though not liberally educated ; a skilful Physician, and a man universal- 
ly beloved* Though frequently menaced by the Indians, he never suf- 
fered from their attacks. In his charges, he was remarkably charitable 
to the indigent. Many anecdotes and one of the best acts of his life il- 
lustrate this fact. Just before his decease, he looked over his accounts, 
tilled out receipts for all poor persons, who were indebted to him, 
with directions that his executors should deliver them to those concern- 
ed, immediately after his death. 

Dr. Emery is so little known, that his Christian name is not 

known. We have not been able to ascertain where he was born, with 
whom he studied medicine, nor how long he lived in Concord ; — only that 
he did live there, and that he removed to Fryoburg, Me., where he died. 

Dr. Ebenezer H. Goss was the son of the Rev. Thomas Goss of Bolton, 
Ms., who was born 1717, graduated at H. C. 1737, settled in the ministry 
Nov. 4th, 1741, and died Jan. 17th, 1780, aged 63, Dr. Goss settled in 
Concord, in 1769 or 70, and married a daughter of Rev. Timothy Walker, 
by whom he had four children, Sally now living at Paris, Me., Polly who 
died young, Abigail who married Dr. Jonathan Page of Brunswick, and 
Gustavus. The Doctor held a commission as v Surgeon under Gen. John 
Stark for a short period during the Revolutionary War, but on account of 
disagreement between him and his commander, in relation to the manage- 
ment of the small pox, which appeared among the troops, he resigned his 
commission and returned to Concord. Ue finally removed to Maine, 
where alter the death of his wife, he spent the remainder of his days with 
his children alternately, and died at Paris, Me., at a very advanced 
age. For a short period, he received a pension from government. The 
Doctor was execntric, social, and full of anecdote and story, which he 
related with such zest and humor, as always to render himself a 
welcome visiter. He was a person of great height. In consequence of 
accidentally taking some oil of vitriol, he was afflicted with an impedi- 
ment in his speech, from which he never recovered. 
To be continued. 


[Continued from Vol. 7, page 287.] 

The Spelling Book of Thomas Dilworth, a school master of Wapping 
in England, followed the Youth's Instructor. It was published in 1740, 
and introduced into this country between 1750 and 1760, and continued 
in general use until some years after the American Revolution. It was 
entitled " A New Guide to the English Tongue." An edition of it was 
published in 1768, which was well executed, and was sold for a pistareen 
a copy. The 3rd Portsmouth edition was published in 1795. The work 
was considered, judging from recommendations, us far surpassing all for- 
mer elementary books of the kind. This appears to have been also the 

82 Notices of Neiv Publications. 

opinion of the Author himself, for he says in his preface : " In the several 
praxes or lassons of monosyllables hitherto published in our mother 
tongue, instead of rising step by step, children are taught to jump before 
they can go ; and if they prove uncapable to take such long strides, as 
reach sometimes from monosyllables of two, to others of seven or eight 
letters before they are informed of those that come between ; they must 
be thumpp'd and lugg'd forward without being once instructed in the 
right knowledge of the most common and useful parts of our tongue." 
This Spelling Book was a very good one for its day. Some editions of 
it had in them the " Elements of the English Grammar." Dilworth's 
Book-Keeper's Assistant, School Master's Assistant, Miscellaneous 
Arithmetic, and other works on education were useful mid popular. — 
Master Dil worth died in 1781. 

The Spelling Book of William Perry, entitled " The Only Sure Guide 
to the English Tongue," published first in Scotland, as early, probably, 
as 1760, was introduced into this country soon after, and was used to a 
considerable extent until fifty years ago — more in New Hampshire and 
Massachusetts, than in any other part of the country. 

About seventy or eighty years ago, Daniel Fenning's Spelling Book 
was used, but not extensively. It was called "The Universal Spelling 

To be continued. 


A Universal and Critical Dictionary of the English Language ; to which 
are added Walker's Key to the Pronunciation of Classical and Scripture 
proper Names, much enlarged and improved ; and a Pronouncing Vocabu- 
lary of Modern Geographical Names. By Joseph E. Worcester. 
Mulla renascentur qua, jam cecidere, cadentque 
QwfE nunc sunt in honore vocabula, si volet usus ; 
Quempenes arbitrium est, et jus, et norma loquendi. — Horace. 
Boston : Wilkins, Carter & Company, 184G. 

This is a work of 956 pages, Royal Octavo, and is one of the best specimens 
of the art of typography, which has appeared from the American press. The 
paper, the printing, and the binding are in a finished style. The work itself 
must have been prepared with great toil and expense of time, and seems to bo 
well adapted to the wants and circumstances of Americans. 

The Author says, In the Introduction to this Dictionary, may be found ro- 
rnarks on orthoepy or pronunciation, orthography, etymology or the derivation 
of words, grammar, archaisms, provincialisms, Americanisms, and on various 
other points of philology and lexicography, and also explanations of the prin- 
ciples adopted in the preparations of the work. Prefatory observations are 
also prefixed to the enlarged edition of Walker's "Key," inserted in this vol- 
ume, and likewise to the Pronouncing Vocabulary of Modern Geographical 

About twenty years since, the Compiler edited "Johnson's Dictionary, as 
improved by Todd, and abridged by Chalmers, with Walker's Pronouncing 

Notices of New Publications. . 83 

'Dictionary combined ;" and while executing that task, he formed the plan of 
his small "work, entitled u A Comprehensive Pronouncing and Explanatory 
Dictionary of thenEnglish Language;" but before completing this latter work, 
he was induced to undertake the labor of making the octavo abridgement of 
Dr. Webster's "American Dictionary of the English Language." This delayed 
the execution of his own work. 

After beginning the preparation of his " Comprehensive Dictionary," the 
Compiler adopted the practice of recording all the English words which he 
met with, used by respectable authors and not found in Todd's edition of John- 
son's Dictionary. The practice was continued with a view to provide the 
means of improving the Comprehensive Dictionary. But he found the words 
which were not registered in any dictionary, more numerous than he antici- 
pated, and, his collection having accumulated beyond his expectation, he at 
length formed the design of preparing a new and large dictionary, which 
should contain as complete a vocabulary of the language as he should be able 
to make. 

The Dictionary of Johnson, as corrected and enlarged by Todd, and Walk- 
er's Critical Pronouncing Dictionary, have been made, in some degree, the 
basis of the present work; but the words found in those dictionaries have been 
revised with much labor and care, in relation to their orthography, pronuncia- 
tion, etymology and definition; and a great part of them, especially such as 
relate to the arts and sciences, have been defined entirely anew. 

The Rev. Dr. William Allen, late President of Bowdoin College, having in 
the course of his reading, collected several thousand words not found in any 
dictionary, favored the Compiler with the use of his manuscript, who, on com- 
paring it with his own collection, obtained between fourteen and fifteen hun- 
.dred additional words, which have been inserted. 

Much care has been taken to note such words as are technical, foreign, ob- 
solete or antiquated, local or provincial, low or exceptionable. The grammati- 
cal forms and inflections of words have been given more fully than ever before 
in any English dictionary ; and brief critical notes on the orthography, the 
pronunciation, the grammatical form and construction, and the peculiar, techni- 
cal, local, provincial, and American uses of words, are scattered through the 

The peculiar excellencies of the work are — 1. It contains a greater number 
•of words in good use than any other Dictionary. This would naturally be ex- 
pected from the known taste, discrimination and accuracy of Mr. Worcester, 
and from the factthat it is the last Dictionary issued, and that he had access to 
all works of this nature previously published. We wholly object to the idea 
of putting into a Dictionary every word that is used by every man. To do it 
is an insult upon the educated part of the community. It is an easy thing to 
coin words, and many are inclined to be prolific in such service. 

2. Its orthography is preferable to any other. It is in conformity with the 
best usage of the present day. Mr. Worcester has no adopted theory, now 
obsolete, to maintain. 

3. Its pronunciation is better than any other. As pronunciation, in many 
respects,' is arbitrary ; so Mr. Worcester, while he has adhered generally to the 
best rules of pronouncing, has varied from these as the best modern practice 
geems to sanction. And in all these cases, he has given his authority for 
doing it. 

4. It has a Pronouncing Vocabulary of Modern Geographical Names. This 
has long been a desideratum. Every man called to pronounce these terms 
has felt the want of such a guide. And no man in the country is better quali- 
fied for the task of preparing one, than Mr. Worcester. His great labors in 
historical and geographical works have furnished him with the best information 
on this subject. 

84 Notices of New Publications. 

The work is properly denominated "A Universal and Critical Dictionary 
of the English Language," and is worthy a place in the Library of every lit- 
erary man. * 

Lectures on Swedenborgianism. Delivered in the Theological Seminary, 
Andover, February, 184G. By Leonard Woods, D. D., Professor of The- 
ology. Boston : Published by Crocker & Brewster, 47 Washington street. 

"These Lectures," says Dr. Woods, "were written and delivered from a 
desire to expose error and defend the truth and they are now published, because 
it is thought, by many judicious men, that such a publication is called for by the 
circumstances of the present time." The contents of the Lectures are as 
follows: — I. Preliminary remarks. — All the truths taught by Swedenborg to be 
received. — All his errors to bo rejected. — The test, laid down by Professor 
Bush.— How are we to apply it ? — Swedenborg rejects a part of the Scriptures. 
— Pretences of his advocates on this point considered. — Predicted effects of 
Swedenborg's disclosures. II. Swedenborg's allegorical or spiritual sense of 
Scripture. — Mis claim to a divine commission. — The whole world before him 
ignorant of the true meaning of Scripture. — Paul's visit to Heaven compared with 
Swedenborg's. — Examples of his manner of explaining the word of God, lien., 
ch. l,and 2, and 5 — 13- — Apocalypse. — Appeal all the way to reason and con- 
sciousness. III. Hints as to Swedenborg's visionary state. — His revela- 
tions. — His visits to the Planets, &c. — Letters of a man in an Insane Hospital. 
IV. Swedenborg's doctrines, 1 God is very man. 2. He rejects the common 
doctrine of the Trinity. 3. The atonement. 4. The doctrine of justification 
by faith. 5. The common doctrine of depravity. G. Predestination. 7 The 
resurrection of the dead. 8. The rejected part of the Scriptures. 9. His ex- 
clusiveness. 10. Purgatory. 11. His views of the future state — marriage re- 
lation — Heaven and Hell. 12. Rejects miracles. — Alleged miracles of Swe- 
denborg in behalf of the Queen of Sweden, &c. V. Moral code of Sweden- 
borg as to the intercourse of the sexes. — Scripture precepts in contrast. — What 
we must do to become followers of Swedenborg. 

Under this last topic, Dr. Woods, remarks that in order to become the disci- 
ples of SwedenLorg, we must exclude from the word of God, one sixth part of 
the Old Testament, and half of the Ncio ; hold him as superior to all the in- 
spired teachers who were raised up before him ; rcceice all his interpretations of 
the word of God as infallible ; follow him in regard to the doctrines of religion ; 
deny the resurrection of the body; and finally adopt his code of morals. In 
canvassing the subject of Swedenborgianism, Dr. Woods adopts as his principle 
the direction of the Apostle : Prove all things ; hold, fast that which is good r 
and, as a consequence, reject that which is bad. These Lectures are written with 
that perspicuty, judgment, fairness, candor, and conclusive reasoning, which so 
strikingly characterize the controversial productions of Dr. Woods. No theo- 
logian in the country surpasses him in these respects. He is a model to contro- 
versialists. The servico he has rendered in this work is important and timely. 
All 'who read it will understand tho religious system of Swedenborg, without 
having recourse to his books on tho New Jerusalem, — on Heaven and Hell, — 
Spiritual Influx, — and The White Horse of the Revelations. We commend 
it to all whose minds are not settled on this subject, for their attontive po- 



Vol. II. 

JANUARY, 1847. 

No. 2. 


By the Rev. Daniel Dana, D. D. of Newburyport. 

( Concluded from page 34.J 

In the preceding number's, some view has been taken of the 
most important characteristics of the eloquence of the pulpit; 
in the present, which will close the discussion, some sugges- 
tions will be offered, indicating its principal sources. 

Without implicitly acquiescing in the truth of the ancient 
maxim, that while the poet is born, the orator is made, we must 
still admit, that to the acquisition of eloquence, much study, 
much labor, much ardor and perseverance are needful. And 
if the standard selected be high, the demand for lofty exertions 
must be proportionate. Nature, indeed, must contribute her 
quota of aid. But the wonderful efforts and the equally won- 
derful success of the great Orator of Greece, have significantly 
told us, that even the niggardliness of nature affords no cause 
of despondence. If this prince of orators expended such toil 
and ardor in the pursuit of an earthly crown, should not the 
Christian youth, who, in proposing for his great object, the sal- 
vation of men, and the smiles of the final Judge, seeks a heav- 
enly crown, be content to expend much greater? The mechani- 

86 Thoughts on 

cal part of the preparation, however, will now be left undis- 
cussed, afid our remarks confined to some other topics. 

If the opinion of Cicero be just, that an orator must Jcnow 
every thing, this is rather a disheartening circumstance ; espe- 
cially as, since the time when this sentiment was uttered, the 
boundaries of the region of science have been vastly enlarged. 
The rule must be admitted to have a juster application to the 
secular, than the Christian orator. Yet even here, it cannot be 
doubted, that an ample accumulation of general science is highly 
desirable. We live in an age in which, though the estimates 
of its learning may sometimes soar above the reality, there are 
found in the literary professions, and in almost every department 
of life, men of various and extensive, and sometimes of pro- 
found science. And as religion is seen and estimated by the 
great mass of mankind, chiefly through the medium of its min- 
isters, it is not, surely, desirable that they should fall materially 
below the standard of men generally deemed literary. It is, 
likewise, a fact, that almost no species of knowledge can be 
named, the acquisition of which does not at once enrich and 
discipline the mind, and prepare it for its most splendid and 
vigorous action.. The zealous and enlightened minister will, so 
far as opportunity permits, be making inroads into every region 
of science, not for the mere splendor of an empty victory, but 
that he may bring new tribute to his religion,, and his Savior. 
He should not be ignorant either of logic, or geography, or his- 
tory, or natural philosophy, or polite literature. And if he 
needs not enough of metaphysics to put together a fine-spun 
system of theology according to its rules, he certainly needs 
enough to disentangle the web of sophistry, which may some- 
times be thrown around the doctrines of the gospel by the wis- 
dom or the folly, the ingenuity or perverseness of others. 

While there are many branches of knowledge which are 
highly desirable for the Christian minister, there are some which 
are absolutely essential. And we say, emphatically, that every 

Pulpit Eloquence. . 87 

man who aspires to the character of an able and eloquent Chris- 
tian preacher, must acquire a thorough knowledge of the Sacred 
Scriptures, and of whatever is necessary to their illustration ; 
a thorough knowledge of all the branches of Theology, with 
whatever is connected with it. He may, indeed, possess knowl- 
edge, even of this extent, and yet be greatly defective in other 
important constituents of eloquence. He may want some of 
the essential attributes of good composition, or good delivery. 
He may want splendor of imagination, or warmth of feeling. 
But possessing the knowledge indicated, and with it, a respec- 
table portion of other necessary qualifications, he can hardly 
fail to be an instructive and interesting, if not, in the highest 
sense, an eloquent preacher. 

A knowledge, deep and discriminating, of the specific nature, 
evidences and fruits of genuine practical religion, is, likewise, 
of special importance. Here, we must confess, our Fathers, 
the puritan and noncomformist divines of England, with many 
excellent churchmen, have greatly exceeded us. Our sermons 
are, perhaps, too much occupied in stating the arguments which 
enforce religion ; while theirs continually tell us what religion 
is; and paint, in distinct and vivid colors, its native and heaven- 
ly charms. This is an inestimable characteristic of their writ- 
ings. It has given them a deep interest in the hearts of the pi- 
ous of every succeeding age. Even at this distant day, when 
we wish to circulate among our common people, luminous exhi- 
bitions of Christianity, distinct views of the nature and constitu- 
ents of experimental and practical religion, we are wise enough 
to know 'the aid of these excellent men. True; their style is 
not polished, nor their expression nicely select. The drapery 
of the piece is often somewhat cumbrous. But its features are 
distinctly marked ; the aspect is full of life, and the soul looks 
out at the eyes. Had Shakspeare been a Christian ; had he dis- 
sected Christianity as he has dissected man ; had that unrivalled 
pencil, which has given us the beauties and deformities of hu- 

88 Thoughts on 

man nature, painted to us in colors as vivid and distinct, the di- 
vine features of Christianity, the production would have been 
without a parallel. The youthful preacher would have perused 
a manual, leaving nothing untold, nothing unexplained, of the 
nature and characteristics of vital and practical religion. But 
what need to feed our fancies with such a dream ? This great 
desideratum is furnished us by a hand absolutely infallible. The 
divine Author of this religion has, in his word, exhibited to us 
its form and features in full relief, and in a thousand ever-varying 
and instructive attitudes. 

Another source of sacred eloquence will, doubtless, be found in 
a familiar study of its most distinguished models. No art is more 
difficultly attained than this, through the medium of mere rules 
and precepts. In this pursuit, we must resort to those who have 
exemplified, rather than to those who have taught it. Indeed, 
some who have succeeded as instructors, have signally failed as 
examples. Who, after perusing the Lectures of Blair, can read 
his Sermons, without a sensation of disappointment ? Such 
stateliness and constraint, such elegance of style, and barrenness 
of. evangelic sentiment, are calculated rather to freeze a warm 
heart, than warm and animate a cold one. But how de- 
lightful the transition to the less pretending colleague 1 Who 
would not rather, with the simple-hearted hearers of Walker, be 
instructed and fed, than admire and starve, with the titled and 
equipaged auditory of Blair? 

In perusing the thousands of sermons which have been pub- 
lished on this and the other side of the Atlantic, we are surpris- 
ed-, not to say mortified, to perceive how few of them bear the 
stamp of eloquence ; especially of eloquence such as a young 
preacher can with advantage imitate. Nor is it less a peculiari- 
ty, that some of the most admired preachers are the most dan- 
gerous objects of imitation. Of Chalmers, for instance, it is im- 
possible not to admire the evangelical views, the ardent piety 
and benevolence, the rich, and frequently original veins of 

Pulpit Eloquence. • 8£> 

thought, and sometimes, the pure and glowing, and lofty strains 
of eloquence. But who would wish our young preachers to 
copy the style of Chalmers ? Many things in him, which we 
either admire as beauties, or readily pardon as faults, would seem, 
in an imitator, like unsufferable affectation. Many of his pecu- 
liarities, the excusable results of his ardor, or inadvertence, 
would, when coolly copied by another, seem like a kind of mal- 
ice prepense, scarcely admitting of any forgiveness. 

It follows that those sermonizers alone, can be safely regarded 
as models, who are free from peculiarities and mannerisms, and 
whose defects are, at least, less prominent than their excellen- 
cies. Of writers of this character, both in Europe and Ameri- 
ca, though the comparative proportion is not great, the absolute 
number is very considerable. 

Among the distinguished preachers of our own country, Pres- 
ident Davies must be allowed to stand conspicuous. Doubtless 
he has faults ; but in excellencies of a high order, he was far in 
advance of his age. His masculine vigor and genuine elegance 
of style, his luminous statements of gospel truths, his faithful ad- 
dresses to the conscience, his melting and awful appeals to saints 
and sinners, have secured to his sermons an extensive and en- 
during popularity. It would be a blessing to our churches, and 
our country, were such preachers multiplied a thousand fold. 

We remark again — A most important aid in the acquisition of 
the eloquence of the pulpit, is the diligent and intense study of 
the Scriptures. The style and manner of the Sacred Volume, 
are scarcely less pre-eminent than its matter. Even in this view, 
it is far above the most celebrated productions of Greece and 
Rome, as those productions are above the ordinary writings of 
the day. Let any person, for instance, select one of the most la- 
bored passages of Homer, and give it as literal a translation as 
that of the Bible, and he will perceive its style, compared with 
that of a thousand passages of the Sacred Volume, to be spirit- 
less and poor. As to dignity of sentiment, it is saying very lit- 

90 • Thoughts on 

tie to affirm, that the very gods of Greece and Rome, exhibit a 
thousand times less dignity of sentiment, than the plain, unlet- 
tered husbandmen, and fishermen, and tent-makers of the Bible. 
fn elevation and richness of style, the writings of Isaiah leave 
all other writings far behind. His figures, bold yet delicately 
just ; abrupt often, yet finished, place the writer alone in the 
world. And throughout the Bible are found scattered, number- 
less and nameless beauties of every kind, from the loftiest sub- 
lime to the most exquisitely pathetic and tender. To taste these 
beauties, then, and to familiarize the imagination to these sublim- 
ities, it is evident, must be a ready way to the attainment of the 
best style of eloquence. 

But it is more than time to advert to the principal source of 
sacred eloquence ; 1 mean piety ; sublime and ardent piety. 
Who may hope to raise the pious passions of others, while his 
own heart is dead to the ^sensibilities of religion ? The very 
attempt would be absurd ; not to say, impious. Generally, too, 
it will prove altogether abortive. But piety, especially when 
ardent, is a living spring of sublime and tender thoughts, and 
of powerful emotions. It often originates the most finely and 
impressive imagery. t And these things are the very essence and 
soul of genuine eloquence. It is he whose lips have been touch- 
ed with a coal from the altar of God, who is prepared to preach ; 
and to preach with energy and success. The good minister, 
coming forth to the people from the presence chamber of the 
King of kings, brings with him something of the air of heaven. 
His very face shines with a serene and holy light. His air and 
aspect'and attitude all proclaim that he is not acting a part ; 
but is " serious in a serious cause." He will speak with gravity ; 
for he feels that God is present. He will deliver his message 
with simplicity and faithfulness ; for he expects to meet his 
hearers at the bar of heaven, and he wishes to be pure from 
their blood. He will speak with a tender and impassioned earn- 
estness ; for he feels that souls are precious, that time is on the 

Pulpit Eloquence. .. 91 

wing, and that eternal, unutterable joys or woes are at the door 
of every human being. 

How impressive is this spirit of piety on y an audience, who has 
not witnessed ? It is more than talents. It is more than learn- 
ing. It is more, a thousand times, than the noise and tinsel, and 
parade of artificial, unhallowed eloquence. These things may 
attract for a moment ; but if these are all, indifference awJ 
disgust will soon succeed. 

It is this spirit of piety and holy zeal, which breathed through 
the writings, xloubtless breathed through the public discourses, of 
Baxter ; and thousands of souls were given him as his reward. 
It was this spirit which animated our own Davies, and which 
explains the fact, that he never preached a sermon without pro- 
ducing, in some part of it, a visible effect upon the audience, 
even to tears ; and rarely, if ever, preached a sermon without 
gaining a soul. It was this spirit which, under God, gave such 
efficacy to the preaching of Whitefteld on both sides of the 
Atlantic, and enabled him to strike a blow in the church and 
world, which resounds to this day. And happy will it be for the 
church and world, when preaching of this celestial temper shall 
be revived ; when the eloquence of piety, the eloquence of the 
heart shall send forth its influence through all our Christian as- 

The preachers of the present day come on the stage in a 
most momentous and eventful period ; what conflicts await the 
church, what temporary defeats, what triumphs, is known only 
to her great Redeemer and Head. One thing, however, is cer~ 
tain. Never did she more imperatively claim all the powers, all 
the zeal, all the efforts of her friends. Let then her ministers' 
come forth with the courage of Christian heroes ; with the elo- 
quence of Christian orators. Still, let them remember, that r 
could they speak with the tongues of angels, and act with the 
energy of angels, no victory would be gained, no soul would be 
saved, but by the almighty power and Spirit of Christ. Let 

l)'2 History of tht Methodist Episcopal ■. 

them remember, that to be ministers of Christ, implies that they 
simply and humbly lay all they have and are, at his feet, content 
to be nothing, that He may be all in all. Let them remember, 
that to be eloquent ministers, is not to go into the pulpit deter- 
mined to be eloquent, (a determination often fatal to success,) 
but to go wholly absorbed in their subject ; and losing themselves 
— losing every ambition, and every aim, in the sublime ambition 
to glorify our Savior. In a word ; let them ponder well the 
counsel once given by an aged servant of Christ, to a young 
minister at his ordination. " Let me remind you, sir," said the 
speaker, " that when you come into this place, and address this 
people, you are not to bring yourself with you. No ; when 
you stand in this sacred place, it is your duty to hold up to your 
people, your Great Master, in his character, in his offices, in 
his precepts, in his promises, and in his glory. This picture you 
are to hold up to your hearers, while you stand behind it, and 
let not so much as your little finger be seen." 


By the Rev. Eleazer Smith of Concord. 

la 1794, John Hill was appointed by the New England Conference, 
to labor in New Hampshire ; but there is no record of his having enter- 
ed upon his appointed field. 

In 1797, we find the first return of members, — Chesterfield, 92 mem- 
bers. At that Conference, Smith Weeks was stationed on the Chester- 
field Circuit, and in 1798, Elijah Bachelder. Other Societies were form- 
ed in the following order, viz. 

LandarTand Hawke in 1800, Hanover, 1801, Bridgewater and Kingston, 
1802, Poplin, 1803, Grantham, 1804, Pembroke, Loudon and Tuftonboro', 
1805, Northfield and Centre Harbor, 1806, Portsmouth, 1807, Canaan and 
Rochester, 1809, and Greenland, 1810. From that time to the present* 
societies have multiplied more rapidly. 

Church in New Hampshire. 93 

Number of Church Members, in 1800, 171, Travelling Preachers 3 

" 1810, 2003, " " 14 

1820, 2777, " " 17 

" 1830, 5G8G, " " 53 

1840, 8918, " « 88 

" « 1845, 10892, " " 97 

Number of Chapels. Rockingham County, 17; Strafford County, 7 ; 
Hillsborough County, 11; Belknap County, 5; Carroll County, 4; Ches- 
hire County, 9 ; Grafton County, 21 ; Sullivan County, 7; Merrimack 
County, 10 ; and Coos County, 9 ; — making in the State, 100. 

Education. The New Hampshire Conference has been united with 
several others, in establishing and patronizing the Wesieyan University 
in Middletown, Ct. A considerable number of the junior preachers in 
this State, graduated at that flourishing Institution. An Academy was 
established in the infancy of the church at Newmarket, which was for 
several years a great blessing to the Connection. Its funds were, in 
1824, transferred to the Institution located at Wilbraham, Ms., which has 
greatly prospered. In 1834, a Seminary was established in Newbury,Vt., 
by the Conference, then one body, which has to this 
time continued in a flourishing condition. Each of these Seminaries 
employ on an average, five or six teachers, and have had ever since their 
erection an average of 200 students, Fall term ; 150, Spring term ; 75, 
or 100, Winter and Summer terms. 

In 1845, the New Hampshire Conference opened a Seminary at San- 
bornton Bridge. Its prospects are good. Rev. R. S. Rust, M. A., Prin- 
cipal, and D.H.Sanborn, M. A., Assistant Principal. Number of students 
first year as follows: Fall term 140, Winter 70, Spring 150^ There is also 
an Academy at Marlow, under the patronage of the New Hampshire 
Conference, in a tolerably flourishing state. 

Theological Education. Candidates for the ministry are required 
to pass an annual examination for four years, previous to ordination as 
elders, according to the following plan, viz. 

First Year. The Bible, as to Doctrines, with reference to Wesley's 
Notes ; the Bible Dictionaries, and Commentaries, of our own publica- 
tion ; Concordance, and Gaston's Collection of Sacred Scriptures ; 
Wesley's Sermons ; Fletcher's Appeal, and Christian Perfection. Eng- 
lish Grammar and Composition. 

Second Year. The Bible, as to Ordinances or Sacraments ; reference 
books the same as the first year ; Watson's Life of Wesley ; Bishop 
Watson's Apology ; Fletcher's Christian Perfection ; Methodist Disci- 
pline ; Geography; and Composition. 

Third Yed)\ The Bible, as to History and Chronology ; reference books 
as before ; the First and Second Parts of Watson's Institutes; Gregory's 
Church History ; Rhetoric ; Written Essay, or Sermon. 

Fourth Year. The Bible, generally ; reference books the same; the 
Third and Fourth Parts of Watson's institutes ; Powell on Apostolical 
Succession ; Old Christianity contrasted with the Novelties of Popery, 
by Gideon Ousley ; Logic ; Written Essay, or Sermon. 

For several years past, the Methodists in New England, have sustain- 
ed a Theological School in Newbury, Vt. Measures have been taken of 
late, to enlarge its Faculty and to increase its funds. The following gen- 


94 History of the Methodist Episcopal • 

tlemen are appointed its Faculty : Rev. Bishop Elijah Hedding, D. D., 
President ; Rev. John Dempster, D. D., Rev. W. W. Willett, M. A., Rev, 
Abel Stevens, M. A., Professors. 

Ministers of the Methodist Episcopal Church in New Hamp- 

Dover District. Osmon C. Baker, Presiding Elder. Samuel Kelly, 
Dover ; Elisha Adams, Great Falls ; Henry Drew, Rochester ; Joseph 
C. Emerson, Milton ; C. B. M. Woodward, Wakefield and Tuftonbo- 
rough ; Lorenzo D. Barrows, Newmarket ; To be supplied, South New- 
market ; Horatio N. Taplin, Epping and Poplin, one to be supplied ; 
Caleb Dustin, Sandown ; John F. Adams, Auburn Mission ; Charles C. 
Burr, Kingston ; Daniel M. Rogers, Portsmouth j James Adams, Green- 
land and Newington ; Daniel W. Barber, Rye ; Charles H. Chase, Hamp- 
ton ; Joseph Palmer, Seabrook ; Samuel S. Matthews, East Salisbury. 

Concord District. Elihu Scott, Presiding Elder. Ebenezer Peas- 
lee, Concord ; Stephen Eastman, liopkhiton ; Warren F. Evans, Pem- 
broke ; Frederick A, Hewes, Josiah C. Allen, Chichester and Loudon ; 
John Jones, Manchester ; Charles H. Eastman, Manchester Centre ; 
James Pike, Nashville Mission ; Jacob Bbyce, Nashua ; Albert C. Man- 
son, Salem ; Benjamin D. Brewster, North Salem ; Ezekiel Adams, Per- 
ry and Windham ; Matthew Newhall, Hudson ; Silas Green, Methuen ; 
James L. Slason, Essex Mission ; Richard Newhall, Henuiker ; Amos 
Kidder, Warner and Boscawen ; Reuben Dearborn, Andover and VVil- 
mot ; Jacob Stevens, Northfield ; William D. Cass, who is also Resident 
Agent for the N. H. Conference Seminary, East Sanbornton and Meredith; 
Alexander II. Fullerton, Goffstown and Amherst, one to be supplied ; 
Calvin Holman, Hooksett and Bow ; Samuel Prescott, Gihnanton ; H. 
W. Adams, Agent of American Bible Society ; J. Dempster, Agent of 
the Biblical Institute ; R. S. Rust, Principal of N. H. C. Seminary; Elea- 
zer Smith, Chaplain of the State Prison. 

Claremont District. Benjamin R. Ho\ft, Presiding Elder. Justin 
Spaulding, Claremont; John English, Cornish ; Kimball HadTey, Lenip- 
ster and Goshen ; Jared Perkins, Acworth ; Daniel Lee, Unity ; To be 
supplied, North Charlestown and Charlestown ; Abel Heath, Grantham ; 
George W. T. Rogers, Enfield ; Silas Quimby, Canaan ; Anion S. Ten- 
ney, Walpole Mission ; Nathaniel L. Chase, Chesterfield ; Moses A. 
Howe, one to be supplied, Winchester and Hinsdale ; Rums Tilton, 
Rindge ; Joseph W. Guernsey, New Ipswich ; Franklin Furber, Peter- 
borough and Marlborough ; Henry Nutter, Deering and Hillsborough ; 
Abram Folsom, Marlow ; Isaac W, Huntley, Alstead and Gilsum. 

Haverhill District. Russell H. Spaulding, Presiding Elder. Wil- 
liam Hewes, George S. Dearborn, Haverhill, Piermontand Orford ; Con- 
verse L. McCurdy, East Haverhill ; Newell Culver, North Haverhill ; 
Jesse Boyden, Landaff; Charles Cowing, Sup., Lisbon ; James F. Ea- 
ton, Lyman ; George W. H. Clarke, Bath ; Silas Wiggins, Littleton and 
Bethlehem ; Andes T. Bullard, Whitefield and Dal ton ; Henry If. Hart- 
well, Lancaster ; Pickens Boynton, Columbia and Strafford ; Sullivan 
Holman, Warren and Wentworth ; Jonathan G. Johnson, West Thorn- 
ton ; Josiah A. Scarritt, West Plymouth ; John Gould, Alexandria and 
Hill ; James G. Smith, Plymouth ; Henry Hill, Jr., Holderness Mission ; 
Nathaniel W. Aspenwall, Sandwich ; John Smith, 2nd, Tamworth and 

Church in New Hampshire. 


Moultonborough ; Lewis Howard, Bristol ; Francis S. Hoit, Hanover ; 
Elijah Mason, Lebanon. 

Superannuated Preachers. Nathaniel Ladd, Epping ; Samuel 
Norris, South Newmarket ; Orlando Hinds, Chichester ; Leonard Ben- 
nett, M. P. Marshall, Warren Wilbur, Charles Olin ; John Smith, Nash- 
ua ; A. H. Worthing, Bristol ; I. A. Sweatland, Nashua ; G. F. Wells, 
Newbury, Vt.; L. D. Blodgett, J. M. Young ; J. C. Cromack, Manches- 
ter ; Elisha Brown, Newbury, Vt. 

Local Preachers. James Ashton, Dover ; R. Humphrey, Great 
Falls ; James Warren, Rochester ; James Nutter, Newington ; A. Plum- 
mer, Gosport ; L. II. Gordon, East Kingston ; W. Locke, Auburn ; John 
Adams, Durham ; A. M. Osgood, Newmarket ; N. O. Way, Claremont ; 
Moses Ladd, Unity ; Lorenzo Draper, Claremont ; William Nelson, 
Plymouth ; S. C. Burnham, Goshen. 

The writer has not the means of ascertaining the names and residences 
of all the Local Ministers. There are in the State 53, about one half of 
whom are ordained. Many of them perform efficient service. Whole 
number of Preachers, Travelling, Superannuated, and Local, is 156. 

Itinerant Ministers of the Methodist Episcopal Church, who 
have died in New Hampshire. 

John Daniels died in Unity, in 1798. His age was about 21. He was 
a young man of good talents and extraordinary zeal in his work. A 
great revival attended his labors, but he early fell a victim of consump- 
tion. He was the first Methodist minister, who died in New England. 
A monument was erected over his ashes, with appropriate religious ser- 
vices, in 1843. 

Damon Young died in Lisbon, March 12th, 1826, aged 33. He pos- 
sessed a mind formed for study and close investigation. His reasoning 
on subjects of theology was methodical, clear and well directed. His 
sermons were marked with correctness of system, purity of language, 
sincerity of heart, and gravity in expression. The solemnity of his 
manner, both of preaching and of living, made useful impressions on 
the minds of those who saw and heard him. His communion with God 
was intimate, and he enjoyed largely those blessings consequent on gen- 
uine faith and well founded hope. As a pulpit orator few excelled 

Between the death of Mr. Daniels and Mr. Young, is a space of 28 
years, during which no death occurred in the Itinerant Ministry, though 
438 years of labor were performed in that time. 

Joseph Kellum died in Tuftonborough, Dec. 31st, 1830, aged 35. He 
was for ten years a minister of Christ, and was honored of Him as the 
instrument of good. 

Joseph Dearborn died in Rumney, his native town, March 6th, 1835, 
aged 29. He gave bright promise of great and lasting good. He pos- 
sessed a clear understanding. His preaching was perspicuous and point- 
ed, his manner dignified and graceful, and his piety deep and uniform. 
But just when the highest hopes were entertained, that he might shine 
as a star in the moral heavens, it pleased God to remove him to a higher 
sphere. His death was triumphant. 

Alfred Metcalf died in Greenland, June 4th, 1837, in the 60th year of 
ins age, and 36th of his ministry. His labors were mostly confined to 

96 History of the Methodist Episcopal • 

the vicinity of his home, and were very successful, He was universally 
respected as a, man, a Christian, and a minister. For several years, he 
represented* Greenland in the State Legislature. When informed, he 
was dying, he pleasantly exclaimed, " All is well, Christ is my hope, 
God is with me," and he fell asleep. 

John Broadhead was a native of Pennsylvania, and died in Newmar- 
ket, April 7th, 1838. For several years, he travelled extensively as a 
preacher and presiding Elder, but his health declining, his labors were 
confined to the vicinity of Newmarket, at which place his family resid- 
ed until his death. He was for several years a member of both branch- 
es of the Legislature ; and for four years he represented this State in 
the Congress of the United States. 

Mr. Broadhead was emphatically a good man, doing honor to his pro- 
fession in all places, a faithful and affectionate friend, and highly esteem- 
ed by those who knew him. 

Michael Quimby, born in Unity, died in Henniker, July 17th, 1843. His 
talents were of the useful kind ; deeply pious, well instructed in all that 
appertains to the useful minister, faithful and affectionate, he became 
the instrument of salvation to many souls. 

Mel P. Brigham of Plymouth, died in Hanover, Sept. 29th, 1843, aged 
34. He was a good man and a good minister. His natural and acquir- 
ed abilities were respectable, and his labors were crowned with success. 
He suffered severely for years ; but found at last a most triumphant 
death. He died ere he had attained the meridian of his days ; but "that 
life is long, which answers life's great end." 

James Dow died in Deny, Dec. 21st, 1844, aged 42, and in the 12th 
year of his ministry. He Avas a pious and faithful minister, and died in 
much triumph. 

William Padman, by birth an Englishman, for ten years a deeply pi- 
ous minister, died in Dover, Feb. 28th, 1845, aged 45. 

Holman Drew, born at Gihnanton, died in Landaff, July 2nd, 1840, 
aged 47. He was for 18 years a most laborious and faithful servant of 
the Lord and of the church, and many are the seals of his ministry. 
His death was triumphant, and Jesus was the last word that trembled 
on his dying lips. 

Among the venerated dead, who have labored hi New Hampshire, but 
who died abroad, are Wilbur Fisk, D. D. He was a graduate of Brown 
University, and was for several years a presiding Elder in this State. 
He filled with much acceptance several important stations in the litera- 
ry and religious departments of our work. He was one of the best ex- 
temporaneous preachers in our country. At the time of his death, he 
was President of the AVesleyan University, and a Bishop elect of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church in America. His closing hours resembled 
those of the lamented Payson, and exhibited such proofs of the power 
of religion, as to result in the conversion of his attending physician. 

Martin Ruter, D. /)., was for several years a faithfiil laborer in New 
Hampshire. During a temporary suspension of his itinerant labors, lie 
represented the town of his residence in our Legislature. He was 
President of Augusta College, Ky., and also of Alleghany College, Pa. 
Having the cause of Missions at heart, lie cheerfully forsook the high 
station to which he had been invited, and where he was loved and hon- 
ored, for the arduous labors of a missionary pioneer. He was nearly 

Church in New Hampshire. 


the first Protestant minister who entered the wilds of Texas, where lie 
accomplished wonders in " preparing the way of the Lord." He died 
among strangers. *A town and a College in Texas, bear his honored 

Charles D. Cahoon, an adopted son of Hon. William Cahoon, Member 
of Congress from Vermont, was many years a presiding Elder in New 
Hampshire. He was remarkable, not so much for shining qualities, as 
lor deep piety and unremitted and successful labors. He died in llliuois, 
September, 1845. 

Of Ministers still living, who have been eminent for piety and useful- 
ness, a few may be named. 

Elijah Hedding, for several years, travelled over the rough mountains 
in the central part of this State, preaching the gospel to the poor. For 
more than 40 years, he has been known as an eloquent and faithful preach- 
er ; and is venerated by the thousands of the Methodist church, as well 
as by multitudes of other religious communions. By unremitting exer- 
tions, he has attained to a respectable standing in the literary communi- 
ty, and many years since received the honorary degree of D. D., from 
Vermont University. In 1824, he was elected Bishop, which office he 
has filled with great acceptance. 

Dan Young, a native of Landaff, was for many years, a highly valued 
minister in our State. He was for several years a member of the New 
Hampshire Senate, and, since his removal to Ohio, has filled the same 
office in that State. 

Joseph A. Merrill, also a native of Landaff, was for several years, a trav- 
elling preacher and presiding Elder in New Hampshire. He has long 
been a faithful ambassador of Jesus, and has the horror of having edu- 
cated five sons, all members of the M. E. Church, and three of them min- 

Ephraim Willexj was for several years stationed in New Hampshire, 
and was regarded as a talented and worthy minister. He has educated 
two sons at the Wesleyan University, who are ministers in the Methodist 
Episcopal Church. 

John F. Adams was for more than 30 years in the itinerant ministry, 
and chiefly in our State. He was for several years a presiding Elder, 
and was much beloved. His son, A. T. Adams, a graduate of Wesley- 
an University, is also an itinerant minister. 

John Adams, generally known among us as " Reformation John," is 
a man of some eccentricities and of many excellencies. During the first 
16 years of his ministry, he is said to have gathered 1600 persons into 
the church. He has two sons, students in Yale College. 

Benjamin R. Hoyt was a preacher for more than 30 years, a great part 
of which time, he filled the office of presiding Elder. Two of his sons 
were educated at Wesleyan University. 

Honorable mention might be made of George Pickering, J. Sanborn 
Elam Wells, O. Hinds and many others, whose records are on high, 
and who will undoubtedly receive from the chief Shepherd, a " crown 
of life that fadeth not away." 











































































































































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Ministers in Rockingham County. 



Brentwood. Before this town was legally separated from Exeter, of 
which it was originally a part, a meeting house was erected, within its 
present limits, at a location called Keen borough, about a mile east of 
the present meeting house. Brentwood was incorporated in 1742. To 
many of the inhabitants of the town, then including Poplin, the locality 
of the house was inconvenient. An act was passed at the time of the 
Incorporation, appointing three gentlemen of Portsmouth, a Committee,, 
to designate a site, for a meeting house for the town. That Committee, 
after due examination, in February, 1743, reported the spot at The Gul- 
ley, where the present Congregational house of worship stands. Ar- 
rangements were made for building ; but various difficulties, for several 
years, hindered the completion of the house. In 174(>, Poplin was taken' 
from Brentwood and incorporated. In Hampton church records is the 
following minute in 1747. " Hampton, Nov. 29th. The church voted 
that deacons Moulton and Philbrick should attend me to the ordination 
of Mr. Nathaniel Trask at Keenborough. Attest, W. Cotton, Pastor. 
N. B. This church did not see their way clear to act in the ordination- 
above mentioned, because the parish was not regularly set off. Attest^ 
W. Cotton Pastor." 

In 1748, Dec. 12th, according to Farmer's statistics of New Hamp- 
shire ministers, Rev. Nathaniel Trask was settled at Brentwood. Ac- 
cording to the New Hampshire Gazetteer, by Farmer & Moore, and the 
N. H. Register of 1822, the organization of the church, and ordination- 
of Mr, Trask, is dated in 1752. The fact is, that he was twice settled, 
in Brentwood. First, over the church, which worshipped at " The 
Borough," Dec. 12th, 1748. From that portion of the inhabitants, who-* 
worshipped in the New House, the house of the town, at " The Gulley," 
Mr. Daniel Little, June 28th, 1749, received, and, on account of existing 
difficulties in the place, declined an invitation to become minister of the 
town. Mr. Little was soon after settled in Kennebunk, Me., where he 
labored, with great fidelity and success, half a century. The following 
passages, in Hampton church records, preserve the Ecclesiastical Histo- 
ry of Brentwood, at the time to which they refer. 

" Jan. 20th, 1751, [Sabbath,] The church voted deacons Moulton and 
Philbrick to attend me to the gathering of a church at Brentwood. At- 
test, W. Cotton, Pastor. 

N. B. A church was not gathered, but a joint council advised to, 
which met on February 19th. I was moderator, and Mr. Coffin, clerk. 
The council consisted of 12 churches, and advised the people to hear 
Mr. Trask four months, and if then two thirds chose him, to receive 
him, and otherwise that he should be dismissed. Attest, W. Cotton, 

" July 7th, [Sabbath,] Read a letter from Brentwood to- this church- 
Voted to send deacons Moulton and Philbrick. 

N. B. Mr. Trask and his people fell from the result entirely." 

100 Congregational Churches and 

" July X lth, [Thursday,] Six churches being met there, they chose 
me their moderator, Mr. Coffin, clerk, and voted to gather a church, on 
Friday, [12th,*] in the meeting house. The Rev. Mr. Seccombe prayed. 
Mr. Bacheller preached, Ps. 85 : 9. I gathered the church, consisting 
of about 40 persons. Attest, W. Cotton." 

" Jan. 18th, [1756,] This church was sent for to install the Rev. Mr. 
Trask at Brentwood. They chose deacons Tuck and Lane, who went. 
And the affair was completed with love and peace, decency and good 
order. Mr. Odlin and Flagg prayed. I preached. Col. 4: 17. Mr. 
Whipple gave the charge. Attest, W. Cotton, Pastor." 

It appears, that from the time the new church was organized, in the 
meeting house ot' the town, at " The Gulley," in July, 1751, difficulties 
had increased ; a number of town meetings had been held ; and it was 
not until 1756, that divisions were so far healed, as to admit of the set- 
tlement of Mr. Trask, as minister of the town, and pastor of the church 
formed, by the union of his former church, at " The Borough," with the 
church more recently gathered at " The Gulley." Over the church, thus - 
organized, he was installed, as stated in the records of Rev. VV. Cotton, 
Jan. 21st, 1756, not in 1752. 

The town voted to pay Mr. Trask six hundred pounds, old tenor, and 
twenty cords of good tire wood. The salary to be paid semi-annually, 
in corn at 20 shillings per bushel, pork at half a crown per pound, and 
beef at 18 pence per pound. The salary to rise and fall with the prices 
of these articles. Ames' Almanac of 1759, says, " Spanish mill'd dol- 
lars pass for six shillings lawful money, and forty-five shillings old ten- 
or, in Massachusetts Bay." 

A document, but without date, has been preserved, which is believed 
to be a true copy of the Confession of Faith and Covenant first adopted 
in Brentwood. It is thoroughly Calvinistic. The names of 26 males, 
and 27 females are appended. 

Mr. Trask retained the pastoral office in Brentwood, 41 years ; though 
he ceased from his pulpit labors, about two years before his death, 
which occurred, Dec. 12th, 1789, at the age of 67. He married Parnel 
Thing, June 15th, 1749. Their children were, Elizabeth born, July 30th, 
1750, died in Brentwood. Parnel born, July 2nd, 1752, died, Sept. 8th, 
1756. Nathaniel born, Sept. 8th, 1754, died Sept. 5th, 1756 ; Mary born, 
Sept. 14th, 1756. Parnel born, Aug. 27th, 1759, died, July 21 st, 17(52. 
Samuel born, Sept. 10th, 1762, settled and died in Brentwood, where his 
son and daughter now live. Jonathan born, Dec. 12th, 1764, settled in 
Mont Vernon, Me. 

From the decease of Mr. Trask, the church was without a pastor 
eleven, years and a half. During that period, more than a hundred individ- 
uals were employed as candidates for settlement, or as supplies. Eight 
or ten, successively, received and declined invitations to settle. 

At the ordination of the Rev. Ebenezer Flint, the church had become 
reduced to six male, and thirteen female members. Although Mr. Flint's 
talents were not of a popular east, he was much respected and beloved 
by his people. His views and preaching were thoroughly Calvinistic. 
But it was a time of declension. Ten or twelve only were added to 
the church during his ministry, which continued a little more than ten 
years. He died suddenly, Oct. 12th, 1811, aged 42, leaving his widow 

Ministers in Rockingham County. 101 

and four small children in indigent circumstances. In view of the scanty 
provision left by Mr. Flint for the support of his family, and in considera- 
tion that similar instances had occurred, and probably would occur, one of 
the ministers* present at the funeral, after the services, requested Dr. 
Church, at that time Scribe of the General Association, to propose to 
that body, at their next meeting, a plan for the relief of the indigent 
widows and orphans of Presbyterian and Congregational Ministers in 
New Hampshire. This was the origin of The Widow's Charitable Fund 
Society, which was instituted the following year. Mrs. Flint was one of 
the first beneficiaries, and continued till her death, at the age of 72, to 
receive an annuity, which afforded essential relief to herself and chil- 

Mr. Flint studied theology with Dr. Emmons. He married Mary, 
daughter of deacon Kendall of Tewksbury, Ms. Their children were 
Mary K., who married Ebenezer Orne ; Abigail J., who married Jona- 
than Robinson, 3rd. The eldest son of Mr. Flint, married Louisa P. 
Haynes of Charlestown, Ms., and with his sisters, remains in Brent- 
wood. The youngest, Ebenezer, resides in Charlestown, Ms. 

From the time of Mr. Flint's death, the church was destitute of a pas- 
tor more than four years. Their prospects, like those of many other 
people in the County, at that time, were dark and discouraging. A 
spirit of disorganization, encouraged and abetted by the apathy of 
some, and by a spirit of proselytism in others, threatened to prostrate 
the Congregational churches. " The Massachusetts Society for Promot- 
ing Christian Knowledge," in consequence of a letter from five minis- 
ters of the Piscataqua Association, extended the benefits of their influ- 
ence and aid to this part of Zion. Under their patronage, the labors of 
the Rev. Thomas Holt, and subsequently, of the Rev. Chester Cotton, 
were enjoyed in Brentwood. 

Facts stated in the letter, which has been mentioned, and the results 
which followed, belong to our Ecclesiastical History, and should be pre- 
served. These facts are introduced here, because they will throw light 
on the history of several other churches to be noticed in this County, 
and also of a number of churches in Strafford County. The shortest 
method of presenting the subject correctly is, to select and condense a 
few passages from i( An Account of the JYIassachu setts Society for Pro- 
moting Christian Knowledge," which has never been published, but 
which was printed for the use of the members, in 1815. 

" Near the close of the year 1811, a letter was communicated to the 
Society, signed by five respectable clergymen in New Hampshire, who 
said," "Residing in the vicinity of Newington, Greenland, Stratham, 
Newmarkejt, and Durham, we feel much anxiety with respect to the mor- 
al and religious state of their inhabitants ; and are disposed to do all in 
our power to rescue them from the vortex of disorder, heresy, and infi- 
delity, toward which they are hastening. A few years since, they all had 
settled Congregational ministers. Now they are in a destitute and brok- 
en state." — " There yet remain a considerable number who are dispos- 
ed to maintain religious order ; and a few friends to evangelical truth, 

The Rev. Mr. French was that minister. — Editor. 


102 Congregational Churches and 

who are famishing for the sincere milk of the word. But a small por- 
.tiou of the people are disposed to raise money to support pious, regular, 
well instructed preachers." — "But, notwithstanding all this, it is our 
opinion, that if one or more able and evangelical missionaries were 
sent on to the ground and kept there, independently of the people, there 
might, by the blessing of God, be several Congregational Societies gath- 
ered from the ruins. Perhaps the question will v arise, ' why do not our 
Missionary Societies furnish these towns with missionaries ?' In reply 
we observe ; our Societies would succeed much better in collecting 
money for the support of missionaries in newly settled parts of our 
country, than in these old towns ; but thus circumstance would be but 
little noticed in Massachusetts. Besides, it is probable, that missionaries 
from Massachusetts, would be better received, than missionaries em- 
ployed by our Societies." — " Therefore we request, that one, or more 
missionaries may be sent on to the ground, and, if possible, be kept on 
the ground, till something effectual be done toward the re-settlement of 
regular, well instructed ministers of the gospel." In subsequent letters 
one of the applicants before mentioned, said, " There remain a few 
names, perhaps in all the towns, that sigh for the order and instruction 
they had'in years past ; but how to obtain it for them we have not 
known. Jt has been the opinion of ministers here, that if a missionary 
could be sent to them, coming from a source of which they were ignor- 
ant, it would afford the most hopeful prospect of their recovery to order, 
steadiness, and devotion." — " We hope you will not give up the object, 
for we have great need, that some anointed servant of the Lord come 
over to Macedonia and help us." — " Mr. and I have made some in- 
quiry in our neighboring churches, as to the reception, a missionary 
might have among them. Though we have not all the encouragement, 
we could wish, yet we have so much as to justify the conclusion, in our 
own minds, that it is very desirable to have the attempt made. Send us, 
if you can, a Barnabas, full of the Holy Chost and faith." 

A number of towns, besides those before mentioned, were also named 
to the Society. Among these was Brentwood, although in a more hope- 
ful state than some of them. In accordance with the views expressed 
above, appropriations were afterward made, by the Piscataqua Mission- 
ary Society to the Massachusetts Society for Promoting Christian 
Knowledge, to be expended in their missions, in New Hampshire. 

The Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge were, at first, in 
great doubt, as to the expediency of complying with a request, so novel 
and singular. The situation of the towns named was truly deplorable. 
But it would be a delicate and difficult undertaking to send Missionaries 
intothe oldest part of one of the oldest States in the Union. It appear- 
ed to be a measure of too much hazard to be adopted without more 

The President of the Society, Rev. Eliphalet Pearson, LI* D., one of 
the first Professors in the Andover Theological Seminary, and whose 
memory should ever be cherished with gratitude by these churches, un- 
dertook a tour of inquiry, personally, in the towns in Rockingham and 
Strafford Counties, which had been represented as needing aid, and 
made his report in February, 1813. From this report it appeared, that 
45 towns in these Counties, were destitute of the regular and stated 
means of grace. Some of these towns had been destitute ten, some, 

Ministers in Rockingham County. 


twenty, some, thirty, some, forty years ; and in some the gospel ministry 
had never been statedly enjoyed. A lamentable consequence was, that 
in -some towns a Christian church had never been formed ; and in some, 
where churches existed, the Lord's Supper had not for ten, twenty, or 
•thirty years, been once administered. Most of these churches were also 
much reduced in number ; one, from 62 members to only two who were 
females ; several, to but one male member. In one town, Nottingham, 
containing one thousand and sixty-three souls, the Congregational church, 
where there was formerly a stated .ministry of 28 years, had been a num- 
ber ofyears totally extinct. The benevolent enterprise which had been pro- 
posed to the Society was undertaken ; and Feb. 12th, 1813, Mr. Ephraim 
Abbot, a graduate of the Theological Seminary, Andover, commenced 
the mission. He took with him a sleigh load of the Society's books, 
with which he laid the foundation of several Congregational church li- 
braries. The character of the Society appears, from the books they dis- 
tributed. They were such as Burder's Sermons ; the works of Henry, 
Doddridge, Baxter, Buck, and Scott ; Leslie on Deism, Lathrop's Chal- 
lenge to Infidels, and Vincent on the Assembly's Catechism. Mr. Abbot 
was soon invited to preach at Greenland, as a candidate, where he was 
settled ; and thus terminated his useful mission. Mr. Abbot, beside his 
missionary labors in Greenland, had preached in Hawke,(now Danville,) 
Sandown, Raymond, Brentwood, Newington and Durham. 

Rev. Chester Colton entered the missionary field at Brentwood, July 
21st, 1813. He proved to be the Barnabas they needed. He preached 
•also in East Kingston, Raymond, and Allonstown. The fiiends of re- 
ligious order in Brentwood, being encouraged and strengthened, settled 
Mr. Colton. Rev. Mr. Rowland of Exeter, preached the ordination ser- 
mon, from ICor. 1 : 21, and Rev. Dr. Pearson gave the Charge. Refer- 
ring to Mr. Colton's settlement it is said, in the pamphlet of the Society 
for Promoting Christian Knowledge, " To the honor of the Congrega- 
tionalists in Brentwood, and as a stimulus to the destitute in other towns, 
it ought to be known, that between fifty and sixty families, within a year 
from the date of their incorporation, as a distinct Congregational Socie- 
ty, not only settled one of our Missionaries, Mr. Colton, as their minister, 
with a salary of four hundred dollars a year, and fifteen cords, of hard 
wood, brought to his door ; but also took down their old meeting house, 
and erected a new one, beside building a parsonage house." 

The people became ardently attached to Mr, Colton, and his labors 
were blessed. A revival, and, so far as is known, the first in that town, 
was enjoyed in the winter of 1818 — 1819. More than forty were added 
to the church in Mr. Colton's ministry. He was thorough, discriminat- 
ing, and interesting, in discussing the doctrines of grace : and enjoyed, 
in a very high degree, the confidence and affection of the ministers and 
churches in the vicinity, as well as of his own people. He was dismiss- 
ed on his own urgent request, on account of an infiamation of his eyes, 
which forbade application to study. It would have satisfied his people, 
to have received of the treasures, with which his mind was already fur- 
nished. But he decided to leave, on his own conviction that a minister 
without eyes would starve his own mind, and the minds of his people. 
Mr. Colton's vision was, in a few years, so far restored, by rest and med- 
ical treatment, that he resumed the labors of a pasto^ and was installed 

104 Congregational Churches and 

at Lyme, Ct., Feb. 12th, 1829. Recently he has labored under the di- 
rection of the Connecticut Missionary Society in North Goshen, Ct. 

Rev. Luke JHnsworth Spofford was installed in Brentwood, and after 
laboring about three years, and not finding his hopes of usefulness real- 
ized, he requested and received a dismission. The number of church 
members reported, June, 1828, was 53. Subsequently to his ministry at 
Brentwood, Mr. Spofford was installed at Lancaster, N. H., 1829; Atkin- 
son, N. H., 1832 ; Scituate, Ms., 1835 ; Chilmark, on Martha's Vineyard, 
Ms., 1842; from which place he removed to Newburg, N. Y., where 
his family resides. Mr. Spofford, before he came to Brentwood, had 
been ordained at Gilmanton, N. H., where he enjoyed a successful min- 
istry of six years; but, on account of the state of his health, and the ex- 
tent of the field, resigned June 9th, 1825. For more particular notices, 
see Rev. Mr. Lancaster's History of Gilmanton, and Notes, in the First 
Number of the Repository, Vol. I. 

After Mr. Spofford's resignation, the people in Brentwood, enjoyed 
the labors of Rev. Jonathan Ward about three and a half years. " Dur- 
ing this period," says one of his successors, " Mr. Ward labored accept- 
ably and faithfully in word and doctrine, to build up and establish the 
church in the faith ; and as the fruits of his labors, a considerable num- 
ber were gathered into the visible kingdom of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
by him and his immediate successors." 

Mr. Ward studied theology with Rev. Dr. Emmons, and was ordained 
in New Milfbrd, now Alna, Me., in 1796, and resigned in 1818. Al- 
though Mr. Ward has never been installed in New Hampshire, he has, 
in many respects, performed the services of a pastor to some of our 
churches. His name is so intimately associated with our ministers, and 
with our ecclesiastical affairs, that his ministrations should be registered 
with those of our settled pastors. About half of his long and laborous min- 
istry has been passed in New Hampshire, in whose institutions he has 
taken a deep interest, being a member of our ministerial, ecclesiastical, 
and benevolent associations, and frequently of our Ecclesiastical Coun- 
cils. Mr. Ward labored twelve years, most of the time statedly, in 
Plymouth, his native place, and the place of his father's ministry, for 
more than thirty-two years. Mr. Ward's labors have also been bestow- 
ed in many destitute places in Rockingham County, and other parts of 
the State, leaving every where the evidence of his disinterested desires 
and efforts to promote the glory of God, and the salvation of souls. 

Mr. Ward's father, Rev. Nathan Ward, was born at Newton, Ms., April 
11th, 1721, died, June 15th, 1804, aged 83. He married Tamasin Ire- 
land, who was born, Jan. 1st, 1722, O. S., and died, Aug. 16th, 1777. 
She was a devotedly pious woman. Her son Jonathan, though a child 
when she died, recollects hertakiug him into her closet to pray with 
him. Rev. Nathan Ward, who was hopefully converted under the 
preaching of Mr. Whitefield, had not a collegiate education, but receiv- 
ed an honorary degree of M. A. from Dartmouth College. His children, 
beside Jonathan the youngest, were Nathan born, Jan. 9th, 1748, O. S., 
died, Nov. 3rd, 1776; Enoch born, July 4th, 1749, died, July 31st, 1825 ; 
Abraham born, Feb. 9th, 1751, died, Dec. 6th, 1776 ; Mary born, Sept. 
18th, 1752, died, Dec. 6th, 1776 ; Abigail born, March 31st, 1755, N. S., 
died Sept. 16th, 1841 ; Samuel horn, Aug. 26th, 1756, died, Nov. 8th, 
1776 ; Isaac born, March 16th, 1758, died, Feb. 27th, 1816 ; Benjamin 

Ministers in Rockingham County. 


bom, September 21st, 1761, dredj ; Daniel borii, Jun. 30th, 1764 ; 

Esther born, Aug. 17th, 1767, died, Dec. 8th, 1776. The submission of 
the parents waa painfully tested, by the death of five of their children, 
with a putrid fever, within five weeks. Enoch, brother of Rev. N. 
Ward, entered the ministry, but died young. He, as well as the family 
generally, are said to have been decidedly pious. He graduated at Har- 
vard University, 1736. The grand-father of Rev. J. Ward was Joseph, 
whose father was John, who settled in Newton, Ms., and one of a large 
family, brought by their father, William Ward, from England, about 
1646, and who settled in Sudbury, Ms. Rev. Jonathan Ward married 
Philenia Gay Whitaker of Attleborough, Ms., who was born, April 6th, 
1776, and died, April 25th, 1825. Their children were Jonathan born, 
Nov. 30th, 1800, graduated at D.C., 1822, studied at Theological Seminary, 
Andover, ordained at Biddeford, Me., Oct. 26th, ] 825, died, Feb. 8th, 
1826, aged 25 ; James Wilson born, May 21st, 1803, graduated at D. C, 
1826, studied at Theological Seminary, Andover, and at New Haven, or- 
dained at Abington, Ms., May 31st, 1834 ; Philenia born, Oct. 16th, 1804, 
married Frederick Robinson of Brentwood ; Laura Elizabeth born, May 
7th, 1807, married Lucius M. Perdy of Sharon, Ct. 

Rev. Francis Welch was the fourth settled minister in Brentwood. Per- 
plexities in the management of some temporal affairs, which he thought 
demanded his attention, embarrassed his ministry, diminished his use- 
fulness, and led to his dismission. His moral character was not im- 
peached. A number were added to the church during his ministry. He 
labored subsequently in Ipswich, Linebrook Parish, Ms.; and, more re- 
cently, in Perry, Washington County, Me. 

Rev. John Gunnison, who had been previously ordained at Lyman, Me., 
May 12th, 1831 ; installed over the Union Society of Salisbury and 
Amesbury, Ms., Dec. 31st, 1835 ; and at Newmarket, Lamprey River, 
Feb. 22nd, 1837, was installed at Brentwood. During his ministry in 
Brentwood, there were two seasons of awakening, and about 40 were 
received to the church. He resigned, and was installed at West Fal- 
mouth, Me., in January, 1842, from which place he removed to Portland, 
where he now resides. He entered the ministry late in life, having been 
a silver-plater previously. He married for his first wife Joanna Dow of 
Gilmanton, and for his second a woman by the name of Starboard. 

Rev. James Boutwell graduated at the Theological Seminary, Andover 
in 1840. He was an Instructor at Dunkirk, N. Y., one year. Mr. Bout- 
well has seven brothers and one sister older, and two sisters younger, 
than himself His paternal grandfather was of Wilmington, Ms. His 
maternal grandfather was Dr. Benjamin Jones of Lyndeborough, a 
physician of some celebrity, whose native place was Ipswich, Ms. Mr. 
Boutwell's brother, William Thurston Boutwell, was several years a 
missionary among the Ojibwa Indians, in Wiskonsin. Mr. Boutwell 
married Mary P., daughter of Dea. Pascal Abbot of Andover, Ms. 
Their children are Mary Lucelia, born at Dunkirk, N. Y., March 8th, 
1838 ; James Pascal, born at Andover, Feb. 6th, 1840, died, Oct. 31st, 
1844 ; George Clark, born at Brentwood, Feb. 8th, 1842 ; Charles Haw- 
ley, born at Brentwood, Oct. 29th, 1843. There have been two seasons 
of considerable religious attention, during Mr. Boutwell's ministry, but, 
as yet, few have been received to the church. The number of church 
members in 1845, was 77. 

106 -Congregational Churches and 

Deerfield was a part of Nottingham, from which it was separated, 
•and incorporated, Jan. 8th, 1766. The Congregational Society was 
formed in December, 1772. , 

Rev. Timothy Upham was the first minister. His first wife, who was 
the mother of all his children, was Hannah, daughter of Rev. Nathan- 
iel Gookiu of North Hampton. Her twin sister, Elizabeth, married Dr. 
Edmund Chadwick of Deerfield, father of Peter Chadwick, Esq., of Ex- 
eter. The children of Rev. Mr. Upham were Hon. Nathaniel Upham of 
Rochester ; Gen. Timothy Upham of Portsmouth ; and Miss Hannah 
Upham, the celebrated Principal of the Female institute in Canandaigua, 
N. Y. Among the grand-childreu of Rev. Mr. Upham, were Rev. 
Thomas Cogswell Upham, D. D., Professor in Bowdoin College, who 
was previously pastor of the Congregational church in Rochester ; Hon. 
Nathaniel Gookin Upham, a Judge of the Superior Court of N. H.; Ma- 
ry, widow of Hon. David Barker, Jr., and wife of Ebenezer Coe, Esq.; 
Alfred, M. D., of New York ; Timothy, M. D., deceased ; JosephBadg- 
<er Upham, Merchant in Portsmouth ; Judith Alniira, married to James 
Bell, Esq.; Hannah Elizabeth deceased ; Ruth Cogswell, married to John 
Berry, M. D.; Francis William, a member of the Boston Bar ; and Al- 
bert Galatin, M. D., of Boston. 

The New England ancestry of the Rev. T. Upham is traced to John 
Uphain, born in England, in ]597, emigrated to Weymouth, New Eng- 
land, in 1635, and thence to Maiden. He was highly esteemed for his 
piety, intelligence, and energy of character ; filled various civil offices, 
and was deacon of the church many years. He performed the duties of 
moderator of a town meeting, a few months before his death, which took 
.place Feb. 25th, 1681, at the age of 84. 

Lieut. Phinehas Upham, son of John Upham, married Ruth Wood. 
He died in consequence of wounds received in the capture ol'Narragan- 
set Fort, in 1675. Phinehas, son of Lieut. Phinehas, married Mary 
Mellins. His son Phinehas married Tamzen Hill, whose sou Timo- 
thy, married Mary Cheever. These last were the parents of Rev. 
Timothy Upham, whose New England ancestors, from the first, were 
anen of influence in the church, and in the community, and were dis- 
tinguished for intelligence, firmness of character, and a spirit of enter- 
prise. The first wife of Rev. Timothy Upham died, Aug. 4th, 1797, 
-aged 44. The character of Mrs. Upham's exercises of mind is develop- 
ed in a single sentence, extracted from a letter, which she wrote to an 
intimate friend, a lew months before her death. " I was convinced of 
my wretched state, and that I had no power nor might against such a 
host of tempations as came against me ; but my eyes and heart were 
lifted up to Him, who undertook our salvation, and from whom all our 
mercies come, that he would enable me to take hold of his strength, 
and to feel that Jesus must save me, or I must perish. I have often had 
the most comfortable assurance that he had heard, and graciously an- 
swered my request." Mr. Upham died in the 63d year of* his age, and 
39th of his ministry. The sermon at his funeral, from Heb. 13 : 8, by 
Rev. Peter Holt, ascribes to Mr. Upham, " many gifts and excellent qual- 
ifications for a gospel minister." The autumn before his death, his 
friends feared, that in his state of health, it was hazardous for him to 
.continue his pastoral labors. In reply to a near relative, who wrote to 
him on that subject, he said, " The affectionate regard you have express- 

Ministers in Rockingham County. 


ed for my health is very grateful to me ; but my duties are as a minister, 
not as a man. God will preserve me, as long as he has work for me 
to do ; and as lon£ as strength sufficient shall be continued to me so- 
long, with humble submission, shall I continue to speak his word unto this 
people." Mr. Upham's second wife, who was Miss Hephzibah Neal of 
Stratham, died May 11th, 1811. See Family History, by Albert G. Up- 
ham, A. M., M. D., 18 45. 

Rev. Nathaniel Wells was engaged 16 years in mercantile business be- 
fore entering the ministry. He studied theology with Rev. Moses Hem- 
menway,D. D., of Wells, Me., whose daughter he married in 171)7. After 
a diligent and useful ministry of about 30 years, he resigned his pastoral 
charge, having uniformly enjoyed the full confidence and esteem of the 
churches and ministers of his acquaintance. Two of his sons are- set- 
tled in the ministry. Theodore, ordained in Barrington, June 12th, 1845 ; 
Moses Hemmenway, ordained in Pittsfield, Nov. 19th, 1845. Rev. Nathan- 
iel Wells was son of Dea. Nathaniel Wells, whose father was also Dea. 
Nathaniel Wells, who removed to Wells, Me., from Ipswich,- Ms., and 
who was a son of Dea. Thomas Wells of Ipswich, who died in that 
place, Oct. 26th, 1666. 

Rev. Ephraim Nelson Hidden was Preceptor of Gilmanton Academy 
three years ; graduated at Gilmanton Theological Seminary, 1840; was 
married, Aug. 28th, 1840, to Mary Elisabeth Parsons; He was son of 
Ephraim Hidden, and nephew of Rev. Samuel Hidden of Tamworth,. 
N. H., and grandson of Price Hidden of Rowley, Ms. His first New 
England ancestor was one of the 40 families, who emigrated from Eng- 
land and settled in Rowley. See History of Gilmanton. 

Epping was incorporated, Feb. 12th, 1741. It was previously apart of 
Exeter. It was in contemplation to embody a church in Epping, in 
1746, and to settle a Mr. Worster. lie was not settled. 

Rev. Robert Cutler was the first minister. In 1755, Mr. Cutler, being 
charged with immoral conduct, was dismissed by a Council. The church 
afterwards voted, that he had given them Christian satisfaction, and Sept. 
5th, 1756, voted him a dismission to Canterbury. The church in Hamp- 
ton, on the same day, in acting on a letter missive from Canterbury,, 
" voted not to assist in the ordination of Mr. Cutler there." Nov. 5th, 
1758, the church in Hampton received another request to assist in gath- 
ering a church and installing Mr. Cutler at Canterbury. They did 
not attend but wrote, " signifying their hearty concurrence with what 
any regular Council should see needful to do there in so important af- 
fairs." It does not appear that he settled in Canterbury. lie was in- 
stalled in Greenwich, Ms., Feb. 13th, 1760, where he died, Feb. 24th, 
1786, aged probably 68. 

Rev. Josiah Stearns closed his ministry and life, July 25th, 1788. He 
descended from Isaac Stearns, who came from England, with Gov. Win- 
throp, in 1630, and settled in Watertown. The line of descent is 1. 
Isaac and Sarah Stearns. 2. John Stearns who married Sarah Mixer of 
Watertown. He settled in Billerica. 3. John Stearns, who married Eliz- 
abeth . He was the first child born in Billerica on record. 4. John 

Stearns who married Esther Johnson. She was a great-grand dauglder 
of the celebrated Capt. Edward Johnson, author of the History of New 

108 Congregational Churches and 

England, entitled " Wonder-working Providence of Sion's Saviour in 
'New England." In several publications, she is incorrectly mentioned as 
the daughter of the historian. Her father was a second Capt. Edward 
Johnson, her grand-father was William Johnson, Esq. John and Esther 
Stearns were the parents of Rev. Josiah Stearns of Epping. The lim- 
its to which this article must he confined, will admit of but a small por- 
tion from the interesting materials, of which a biography of Mr. Stearns 
might be formed. The following short obituary notice appeared in a 
public print, Aug. 27th, J 788. It is attributed to the pen of the Rev. Dr. 
Tappan, then of Newbury, afterwards Professor of Divinity in Harvard 
University. Its intrinsic excellence, as well as the character both of the 
writer and the subject, claim for it a place in a publication of more per- 
manent form than that in which it was originally inserted. 

" For the Essex Journal and New Hampshire Packet. 

Mr. Hoyt, — The Rev. Mr. Stearns, whose death was announced in 
your last, sustained a character too great and too good to be passed over 
in silence. The God of nature endued him with singular abilities, 
which by the aid of erudition, fitted him for extensive usefulness. His 
assiduous application to the work of the ministry was truly worthy of 
imitation. In him shone an assemblage of virtues and graces which 
rarely meet in the same person. He had a lively fancy, a penetrating 
judgment, a correct taste, and a mind expanded as the heavens. I lis 
conversation was ever seasonable, grave pathetic and instructive. His t 

public discourses were replete with good sense, with important truths in 
a clear and instructive light, and received the approbation of the best 
judges. He despised pageantry, without the appearance of affectation. 
He trusted to nothing mortal ; pitied, but envied not, such as had their 
portion in this life. His advice in Council was often sought, and ever 
approved. He had a constitutional firmness, and was capable of the 
most dispassionate reasoning. He repudiated errors ancient and mod- 
ern, and rejoiced to the last in his faithful adherence to the doctrines of 
grace. Elevated by the purer sentiments, he ever possessed a mind 
calm and serene. God, who is allwise in council, was pleased to try his 
faith and patience in the furnace of affliction. After a lingering and 
painful sickness, he died of a cancer, in the 57th year of his age. In 
him died a friend to justice, liberty, and energetic government. A vig- 
orous watchman, a patient guide, an affectionate pastor, a prudent, kind 
husband, and an indulgent but truly faithful parent. 

More joyful than a conqueror with his spoils, he retired from the 
present scene of action. We trust he is gone to a state of immortal 
bliss, and will be an associate of those who have come out of great trib- 

Mr. Stearns was a close and thorough student. He studied the Scrip- 
tures in their original languages, with unremitting diligence. His lim- 
ited means would not allow him to possess much of a library, but he 
was favored with the use of books by friends, who were able to own 
them. He was accustomed to borrow one volume at a time, and when he 
had read it through, its contents were his own. The late Rev. Dr. Thayer 
of Kingston, mentioning this fact, added, " The Bible especially was 
his Library." So intimate was his knowledge of the Scriptures, that "he 
could readily cite chapter and verse, where almost any text was to be 


Ministers in Rockingham County. 


found." Mr. Stearns was an ardent friend of liberty. " Some of his 
sons Were in the field, during a greater part of the Revolutionary eon- 
test ; and he sacrificed most of his worldly interest in support of the 
American cause." [Alden's Epitaphs.] He was a member of a State 
Convention, in Exeter, in which he regarded himself as fully committed 
to the risque of his personal safety. Returning horn the Convention, 
he called his children around him, told them of the stand he had taken, 
and added, " If the cause shall prevail it will be a great blessing to the 
country, but if it should fail, your poor old father's head will soon be a 
button for a halter." 

Mr. Stearns was tall in person, and interesting in his pulpit perform- 
ances. He held the untiring attention of his audience, which, not un- 
frequently, filled the seats and isles of his meeting house, while, in pleas- 
ant weather, a number stood abroad around the doors and windows. 
The following anecdote of Mr. Stearns illustrates the dignity and influ- 
ence of his character. He happened to pass through a room, where a par- 
ty of military officers were engaged in very free and profane conversa- 
tion. The individual, who was speaking at the time, suddenly stopped, 
and seemed abashed. His comrades rallied him on his timidity, as soon 
as Mr. Stearns disappeared. " Parson Stearns would awe the devil," 
was the officer's immediate reply. 

Of Mr. Stearns' printed sermons, two were on 1 John 4: 8, " God is 
love." These were preached in Exeter, and printed after his death, at 
the request, made to him in his last sickness, of Hon. John Phillips, 
for the use of the members of the Academy. Another was on early pi- 
ety, with a brief memoir of Samuel Lawrence, preached, Sept. 19th, 
1779. Another was a fast sermon. 

Mr. Stearns married first, Sarah Abbot of Andover. They had three 
sons, and three daughters. One of the sons was John Stearns, Esq., of 
Deerfield, N. H. Mrs. Stearns died in November, 1706. In September, 
1767, he married Sarah Ruggles, daughter of Rev. Samuel Ruggles of 
Billerica, who was a grand-son of Rev. John Woodbridge of Andover, 
and great-grand-son of Gov. Thomas Dudley. By the second marriage 
also, Mr. Stearns had three sons, and three daughters. 

Rev. Samuel Stearns, son of Rev. Josiah Stearns, by his second mar- 
riage, was born in Epping, April 8th, 1770 ; graduated at H. U. 1794 ; 
studied theology with Rev. Jonathan French of Andover ; was ordained 
in Bedford, Ms., April 27th, 1795, where he died, Dec. 26th, 1834, aged 
65. He married Abigail, daughter of Rev. Mr. French of Andover. 
She was a descendant from John Alden, one of the first Pilgrims, who is 
said by some, to have been the first person, who leaped upon the rock at 
Plymouth* New England, in 1620. Rev. Mr. Stearns of Bedford, lived to 
see three of his sons settled in the ministry. Rev. Samuel Horatio Stearns, 
ordained Old South Church, in Boston, Ms., April Kith, 1834, died in 
Paris, France, July 15th, 1837. His remains were brought to his native 
country, and rest in Mount Auburn Cemetery. Rev. YVilliam Augustus 
Stearns, ordained at Cambridgeport, Dec. 14th, 1831, married Rebecca 
Alden Frazer of Duxbury. Rev. Jonathan French Stearns was ordained 
pastor of the first Presbyterian Church in Newburyport, Sept. 16th, 
1835. He married first, Joanna Chaplin, daughter of Dr. James Pres- 
cott Chaplin of Cambridgeport. He married second, Anna S. Pren- 


110 Cogregational Churches and Ministers,- 

tiss of Portland, Me,. Sarah Caroline, a daughter of Rev. Mr. Stearin* 
of Bedforc^ married Rev. Forest .Tefferds, who was ordained at Epping, 
and afterwards installed at Middleton, Ms. Charlotte Esther, a daugh- 
ter of Rev. Samuel Stearns, married Rev. Jonathan Leavitt. He was 
ordained at Bedford, and afterward installed at Providence, R. I. Rev. 
Josiah Howe Stearns, son of Dea. William Stearns, and grand-son of 
Rev. Josiah Stearns of Epping, was ordained at Dennysville, Me., Nov. 
6th, 1844, married Eliza Kilby, daughter of John Kilby, Esq., of that 
place. The mother of Rev. Josiah Howe Stearns, who was, before mar- 
riage, Abigail Richards Howe of Templeton, Ms., was a descendant of 
John Alden of Pilgrim memory. 

Rev. Peter Holt, third pastor at Epping, was son of Joshua Holt, Esq., 
whose brother, Rev. Nathan Holt, was pastor of the second Church in 
Danvers, Ms. j Rev. Peter Holt studied theology with Rev. Mr. French 
of Andover. He was installed over the Presbyterian church in Peter- 
borough, March 7th, 1827.; resigned, April, 18(35 ; preached in Deering 
from 1835 to 1841. See notices of Mr. Holt by Rev. Mr. Whiton, in 
the Repository, Vol. I. No. 3. Rev. Mr. Holt of Epping married Han- 
nah, daughter of Rev. Nathan Holt. They had seven children. Two 
survive, Sarah and Mary. The first of whom married Samuel Endicott 
of Beverly. Nathan died at Epping in his 12th year, of whom there is 
an obituary in the Piscataqua Evan. Mag. Vol. IV. p. 36. The family of 
Mr. Holt is traced to Nicholas Holt, who came from England to New- 
bury, in 1635, removed to Andover, and was one of the ten males, who 
founded the church there in 1645. [Coffin's Newbury ; Abbot's Ando- 
ver ; Farmer's Genealogical Register.] 

Rev. Forest Jefferds, who succeeded Mr. Holt, was son of Samuel, who 
was the son of Samuel, who was the son of Rev. Samuel JefFerds of 
Wells, Me., whose father emigated from England to Salem, Ms. Rev. 
Samuel Jefferds was favored with a revival of religion in Wells, in 
1741 — 2, and was one of the attestors by letter to " the happy revival of 
religion in many parts of the land." [Tracy's Hist. Great Avvak, p. 295.] 
Rev. Forest Jefferds received his classical and theological education at 
the Theological Seminary, Bangor, graduated, 1825, was installed at Mid- 
dleton, Ms., May 2nd, 1832, resigned May J 5th, 1844. Mr. Jefferds mar- 
ried Sarah Caroline, daughter of Rev. Samuel Stearns of Bedford. 

Rev. Calvin Chapman was next ordained in Epping. A new house of 
worship had been erected, which was dedicated in connection with the 
services of his ordination. He graduated at Andover Theological Sem- 
inary, 1842, married Lucy B. Emerson of Parsonsfield, Me. Mr. Chap- 
man is now settled at Sacarappa, Me. 

To be continued. 

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